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DATABASE DESIGN
USING MYSQL
Understanding Storage Engines
WHAT IS A STORAGE ENGINE?
A storage engine is what MySQL uses to store, handle
and retrieve data from a database table.
There are 10 storage engines in MySQL but all of them
may not be available in certain situations. The most
popular are MyISAM and InnoDB.
MyISAM was the default storage engine until MySQL
5.5.5 was released. Now InnoDB is the default.
mysql> show engines will show you a list of supported
engines
STANDARD STORAGE ENGINES
• MyISAM
• InnoDB
• MERGE
• MEMORY (HEAP)
• BDB (BerkeleyDB)
• EXAMPLE
• ARCHIVE
• CSV
• BLACKHOLE
• ISAM
STORAGE ENGINE BENEFITS
Some of the reasons that you may want to use a
certain storage engine
• Amount of data
• Speed & Performance
• Functionality
• Max number of rows
• Data Integrity
WHEN AND WHERE TO CHOOSE
You can select a specific storage engine for a database
as well as individual tables
CREATE TABLE table1 (i INT) ENGINE = INNODB;
CREATE TABLE table2 (i INT) ENGINE = CSV;
You can set the default storage engine to be used
during the current session by setting the
“default_storage_engine” variable:
SET default_storage_engine=MYISAM;
MYISAM STORAGE ENGINE
MyISAM is based on the older (and no longer available) ISAM storage
engine but has many useful extensions & features
MyISAM supports Full Text Search Indexes
Data Caches – No
Index Caches – Yes
Uses Table-Level Locking
MyISAM type is great for sites that have a very low INSERT/UPDATE rate
and a very high SELECT rate
INNODB STORAGE ENGINE
InnoDB offers a lot more features than MyISAM that increases
performance.
Uses row-Level Locking which has better performance than
table-level locking
InnoDB allows parallel INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE queries to be ran
on the same table, unlike MyISAM where each query has to wait
its turn to run.
InnoDB supports foreign key functionality which is a huge
advantage
OTHER STORAGE ENGINES
• MERGE - Enables users to have a collection of
identical MyISAM tables to be handled by a single
table.
• MEMORY(HEAP) – Provides in-memory tables. Not
great for long term usage
• BDB(Berkeley) - Handles transaction-safe tables and
uses a hash based storage system. There are many
downfalls to the BDB system, including the speed on
un-index rows, and this makes the BDB engine a less
than perfect engine choice
OTHER STORAGE ENGINES
• EXAMPLE - It is a "stub" engine that serves no real
purpose, except to programmers. EXAMPLE provides the
ability to create tables, but no information can be
inserted or retrieved.
• ARCHIVE – Used for very large amounts of data. Only
supports SELECT and INSERT. Great for logs.
• CSV - Stores data in text files using comma-separated
values. Great for transferring data to a spreadsheet for
later use.
• BLACKHOLE – Doesn’t store actual data. Good for
testing database structure, indexes and queries
THAT’S IT!

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Learn Database Design with MySQL - Chapter 3 - My sql storage engines

  • 2. WHAT IS A STORAGE ENGINE? A storage engine is what MySQL uses to store, handle and retrieve data from a database table. There are 10 storage engines in MySQL but all of them may not be available in certain situations. The most popular are MyISAM and InnoDB. MyISAM was the default storage engine until MySQL 5.5.5 was released. Now InnoDB is the default. mysql> show engines will show you a list of supported engines
  • 3. STANDARD STORAGE ENGINES • MyISAM • InnoDB • MERGE • MEMORY (HEAP) • BDB (BerkeleyDB) • EXAMPLE • ARCHIVE • CSV • BLACKHOLE • ISAM
  • 4. STORAGE ENGINE BENEFITS Some of the reasons that you may want to use a certain storage engine • Amount of data • Speed & Performance • Functionality • Max number of rows • Data Integrity
  • 5. WHEN AND WHERE TO CHOOSE You can select a specific storage engine for a database as well as individual tables CREATE TABLE table1 (i INT) ENGINE = INNODB; CREATE TABLE table2 (i INT) ENGINE = CSV; You can set the default storage engine to be used during the current session by setting the “default_storage_engine” variable: SET default_storage_engine=MYISAM;
  • 6. MYISAM STORAGE ENGINE MyISAM is based on the older (and no longer available) ISAM storage engine but has many useful extensions & features MyISAM supports Full Text Search Indexes Data Caches – No Index Caches – Yes Uses Table-Level Locking MyISAM type is great for sites that have a very low INSERT/UPDATE rate and a very high SELECT rate
  • 7. INNODB STORAGE ENGINE InnoDB offers a lot more features than MyISAM that increases performance. Uses row-Level Locking which has better performance than table-level locking InnoDB allows parallel INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE queries to be ran on the same table, unlike MyISAM where each query has to wait its turn to run. InnoDB supports foreign key functionality which is a huge advantage
  • 8. OTHER STORAGE ENGINES • MERGE - Enables users to have a collection of identical MyISAM tables to be handled by a single table. • MEMORY(HEAP) – Provides in-memory tables. Not great for long term usage • BDB(Berkeley) - Handles transaction-safe tables and uses a hash based storage system. There are many downfalls to the BDB system, including the speed on un-index rows, and this makes the BDB engine a less than perfect engine choice
  • 9. OTHER STORAGE ENGINES • EXAMPLE - It is a "stub" engine that serves no real purpose, except to programmers. EXAMPLE provides the ability to create tables, but no information can be inserted or retrieved. • ARCHIVE – Used for very large amounts of data. Only supports SELECT and INSERT. Great for logs. • CSV - Stores data in text files using comma-separated values. Great for transferring data to a spreadsheet for later use. • BLACKHOLE – Doesn’t store actual data. Good for testing database structure, indexes and queries