SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 58
Download to read offline
Data and the law
Dorothea Salo
C
opy!ght and
"e #gital humanities
http://www.flickr.com/photos/84299143@N00/2490004138/
Why do you care?
•Do you want to USE something that may
be under legal restrictions?
•Publishing a photo in a book or ebook
•Text-mining (“non-consumptive use”)
•Extensive quotation
•Classroom use
•Do you want to MAKE something?
•... and let other people legally use it?
•... and let other people legally use it, but only under certain conditions?
•... without them bugging you by email all the time?
•Then you NEED the basics of copyright.
DH and copyright
•DHers study and use a lot of copyrighted
objects, in ways that sometimes create risk of
infringement (or perceived infringement).
•Copyright creates barriers to accessing
materials that DHers would like to study.
• Librarians can sometimes help break down these barriers.
•DHers therefore need a base-level
understanding of copyright, and a willingness
to research beyond the base level.
• And sometimes a willingness to take risks!
Sound off!
•News or projects that have copyright
implications for DHers?
Stuff you can use
with relative ease
•Public domain stuff
•... if you can figure out what that is, cf. “Happy Birthday” lawsuit
•Federal-government stuff
•Openly-licensed stuff
•Creative Commons is your friend!
•Other licensed stuff
•... but you better follow the terms of the license!
•Other stuff, to an extent: “fair use”
H
ow
does
copy!ght work?
http://www.flickr.com/photos/84299143@N00/2490004138/
What is it (in the US)?
•A limited monopoly granted by federal law
•over “original works of authorship” that are “fixed in a tangible medium
of expression”*
•‘To promote the progress of science and the
useful arts’
•Is it still doing that? You decide. But I think not, on the whole.
•Not unlimited! Not forever! By design!
*yes, the Internet counts as “tangible” for copyright purposes
A copyrightable item
must minimally...
•Be original
• Feist v. Rural Telephone Service: “sweat of the brow” does not suffice to
make something copyrightable
• This is one reason you’ll hear “data can’t be copyrighted.”
•Be fixed in some “tangible” form
• yes, the Internet counts!!!!
•That’s it. But it wasn’t always.
• Registration used to be required, not optional.
• If you didn’t renew? You snooze, you lose.
• Didn’t put an explicit copyright notice on it? Oops.
Copyright does not cover...
•Ideas (only their fixed expression)
•Databases and other fact collections! (notably different overseas)
•Methods, processes, systems (patent!)
•Recipes are uncopyrightable. Bet you didn’t know that.
•Messy exception: software.
•Words. (trademark!) Titles. Recipes.
•Invented languages? Nobody’s sure.
•Natural languages? Nope.
•Works by the federal government
•Works already in the public domain
•no takebacks! ... except Golan v. Holder.
Copyright DOES cover...
•Unpublished material
• more straitly than published! and with different time rules!
•Images and photographs
• Are copyrighted! Just like text!
• It’s not “fair use” just because you found it on the Internet.
• It’s not “fair use” because you give credit; US copyright law says nothing
about credit!
•Sound (and fury)...
• Same idea.
• Except sound recordings do not fall under federal copyright at present!
Patchwork of state law; talk of “harmonization.”
• (Please don’t ask me about sampling. ARGH.)
Copyright lasts...
•For something created 1978 or later:
• Life of author plus 70 years
• For corporate-created works (often “works for hire,”) 120 years after
creation or 95 years after publication.
• Copyright Act of 1976
•For something created between 1923 and
1977:
• ... that’s a really good question, because of all the former copyright
formalities that don’t exist now.
•Pre-1923: probably public domain
•Once copyright expires, the item is in the
“public domain.”
What’s copyrightable?
Copyfraud
•Claiming a copyright that either doesn’t
exist, or is someone else’s.
• Bridgeman v. Corel: “slavish copying” of a physical item, as in a
photographic or digitized reproduction, fails copyright’s originality test.
•Not illegal, sadly.
•ENDEMIC. Don’t believe every copyright
notice you read!
• GLAM are not immune to copyfraud.
• Remember: we have the rights we USE and DEFEND. You may have to
intervene with your publishers!
•Recommended: Jason Mazzone
Doctrine of first sale
•Owning copyright in a work does not
confer control over legally-made
physical copies of that work.
•Buyers who buy legally can share, lend,
and resell their copies freely.
•They can’t make copies of their legally-obtained copies without
incurring copyright-litigation risk, however.
•Wiley v. Kirtsaeng: copies purchased legally overseas ARE subject
to first-sale, CAN be imported and resold legally.
•There is no right of first sale in digital
materials. Only physical ones.
Important note
•Everything I’ve told you is for US works.
•Copyright works differently elsewhere!
(Yes, despite Berne.)
•“Moral rights” of authors
•Copyright term length
•What is copyrightable
•This is a wretched headache.
•If you have an international-copyright question, SEE A LAWYER.
Really. I mean it!
W
hat good
%
copy!ght?
http://www.flickr.com/photos/84299143@N00/2490004138/
What can you do* with
your copyrighted work?
Copy
Perform
All rights sold separately!
Republish
Translate
Adapt
“derivative work”
Broadcast
Arrange
Use as part of
a new work
Allow or
restrict access
Write a sequel
* and prevent others from doing without permission
What can you do with
your copyright?
•Sell it, in whole or in part.
•Sign it away without payment.
•For the most part, this is what faculty do with their journal articles.
•License it (i.e. give others permission to use
some or all of your rights)
•for broad or narrow purposes
•temporarily or permanently
•“exclusive”ly or non-
•free or for pay.
•It’s just like any other license. You negotiate it! (With a lawyer around.)
A “copyright transfer agreement”
is what it sounds like!
Once you transfer your exclusive copyright over a work to someone else,
YOU NO LONGER OWN THE WORK.
You have no say whatever in what is done with or to it,
AND YOU CANNOT USE IT AS THOUGH YOU OWNED ITS COPYRIGHT.
Publishers ask you to sign these. KNOW WHAT YOU ARE SIGNING.
Libraries and licensing
•All those nifty ebooks and ejournals the
library gets you access to?
•The library pays ridiculous boatloads of
money to LICENSE (not own!) them.
•No first-sale! These are digital!
•And their use is subject to whatever terms the publisher/aggregator
and library signed.
•You can’t treat ‘em like print, sorry!
Working with licensed materials
•E.g. text mining, visualizations, etc.
• here’s that “non-consumptive use” “distant reading” thing again...
•Please don’t Just Do It!
• Licensors monitor use. If you download a whole bunch at once, they’ll notice,
and they’ll yank access for all of campus.
• The worst-case consequences for you could be severe. We learned this, sadly,
from what happened to Aaron Swartz.
•Talk to your librarians.
• A given aggregator may have a research program you can join.
• Or the library may be able to work out a deal.
• Or the licensor, when contacted through the library’s channels, may say “Oh.
Huh. Sure, why not?”
“Orphan work”
•Copyright can leave its original owner (via sale
or other transfer), in part or in whole.
• Authors die. So do publishers. Wills? Don’t make me laugh.
•Copyright registration has been optional for
many years.
• It’s not optional if you actually want to sue! But you can still register after an
infringement has taken place.
•Result: large body of copyrighted works whose
owners are unknown or unclear.
• Especially from the mid-to-late 20th century.
•What about digitization? DH work? Preservation?
D
igital
copy!ght
http://www.flickr.com/photos/84299143@N00/2490004138/
Copyright and the digital realm
•Suddenly it’s a lot easier to make perfect
copies!
•Some of the workings of the Internet require
copies!
•Your web browser makes a copy of every page you see
•Exception: “streaming media”
•Current media business model is founded upon
the difficulty of making perfect copies.
•Solution (?): DRM!
Digital rights management
•Technological jiggery-pokery that locks a
digital file into certain uses
• By device
• By time or number-of-use limits
• By software
• By user or geography
• Examples: various ebook schemes, DVD “zoning”
•Eschenfelder: “technological protection
measures”
• DRM (“hard” TPM) plus heightened annoyance factors (“soft” TPM)
DRM and the library
•DRMed files present a substantial digital
preservation risk
•E-journals and databases could use DRM
on their materials...
•... but mostly haven’t, preferring proxy servers and “annoyance
factor” tricks (obfuscation, omission, polyglot, frustration)
•And preservation practices for these are fairly well-established.
•Ebooks, however, are another story.
DRM and the law: DMCA
•Digital Millennium Copyright Act (1996)
•Illegal to circumvent DRM
•For us too! No exceptions for GLAM. Or fair use. Or research.
•No, not even for preservation.
•ISPs must take down allegedly copyright-
infringing content when notified
•Notable chilling effects
•Sklyarov case (2001), Felten case (cryptography), Sony rootkit case
•YouTube and other web properties are still struggling with how to manage
DMCA at scale. This has bitten some DHers!
CFAA
•Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
•Meant to go after black-hat hackers
•Loose enough wording for prosecutors
to attack any terms-of-service violation
•Used against Aaron Swartz, others
•“Aaron’s Law” just introduced in
Congress
Advocacy
•Librarians are political animals, especially
around intellectual-property and privacy law.
•We have to be!
•Faculty: please make common cause with us. We
need more voices!
•And humanists tend to be... less helpful than we’d like.
•In the hopper: US copyright “reform,”
international treaties, ebook access for the blind,
open access to federally-funded research
•Twitterers/Tumblarians: watch @ARLPolicy
Exceptions and workar&nds
to copy!ght
http://www.flickr.com/photos/84299143@N00/2490004138/
Copyright permits...
•Copying for certain socially-approved uses
•Library preservation and patron service (“section 108”)
•Classroom use (“the TEACH Act”)
•Limited copying for other reasons: “fair
use” (“section 107”)
•Scholarship
•Parody/satire
•Etc.
Fair use
•Possibly the least-understood concept in
copyright!
•An “affirmative defense” in a copyright
lawsuit.
•Though Kevin Smith notably disagrees with this analysis...
•Principles and guidelines, not hard-and-
fast rules.
How to know for sure
whether a use is fair,
in four simple steps
1.Copy a copyrighted work.
2.Get yourself sued by the work’s
legitimate copyright owner.
3.Assert fair use as your defense.
4.Win the case.
AFAIK, this is the only way.
I’m thinking you think this is
a loony way to proceed.
Good. I agree with you.
But that means that what we’re
doing is risk management.
Risk is never zero.
I wish it could be too.
I’m sorry.
(but if it makes you feel any better, many copyright
risks are overblown)
Four-factor fair use test
•Character of the use
•“Transformative use” finding favor with judges lately.
•Nature of the work
•Amount of the work copied
•often considered as a percentage of the whole
•also, “heart of the work” matters
•Effect on the market for that work, if
everybody did what you’re doing
•part of this is asking whether there IS a market for the work in
the first place!
Community fair-use principles
•Started with documentarists
•who couldn’t get insurance for their work because of perceived
copyright-infringement risk... which, given litigious idiots who sue
over background noise... was a rational stance.
•So they published a “how documentarists use fair use” document.
•Courts took notice. So more such
documents have been created.
•Academic libraries (ARL), journalism (Center for Social Media)
•There isn’t one for DH. There should be.
Talk to your professional organizations!
Creative Commons
•What if you WANT people to reuse your stuff?
• You could grant it to the public domain...
• ... but then anybody can do anything with it.
•Creative Commons is a middle ground.
• Boilerplate language and machine-readable techniques for licensing copyrighted
works to all comers!
• Under certain conditions...
•N.b.: CC is predicated on owning a copyright. If
you don’t, you can’t use a CC license!
• If there’s a copyright, but it’s not yours. (Jointly-held with others is okay.)
• If it’s not copyrightable to begin with
CC license provisions
•BY: Must attribute to creator.
• On all CC licenses except CC0 (public domain dedication)
•ND: No derivative works.
•NC: Non-commercial use only.
• Looks better than it is. Avoid!
•SA: Share-alike
• Release new work under the same or more liberal license.
•These can be combined!
•CC0: total rights waiver.
• Special resonance for data!
CC and the humanities
•So, that thing with the UK history editors...
•University-press editors are often not friends
of openness either.
•I really hope 2013 is the year we start
calling these people on their, um, errors and
misrepresentations.
•DH is in a good position to do that.
•It’s more open and public than much of the humanities.
•And slightly (only slightly!) less dependent on traditional book
publishing.
Okay, so?
•The point of keeping data is to reuse it!
•Okay, there are other points, such as reproducibility and fraud detection. Still.
The central reason we’re talking about data so intently is reuse value.
•Data with legal strings attached are harder to
reuse. So fewer people reuse them.
•Kinda defeats the purpose, no?
•This is why, as a digital humanist, YOU NEED
TO CARE about open access and the Creative
Commons.
•And advocate for them! Again, humanists have lagged here.
O
penness
and o"er policies
http://www.flickr.com/photos/84299143@N00/2490004138/
Open movements
•There are a lot of them. Don’t mix them up.
•I know, I know, everybody else does. Well, everybody else is stupid! Don’t
be stupid!
•Open source SOFTWARE
•Open access JOURNAL ARTICLES
•(and occasionally books, but mostly journal articles)
•Open (government) DATA
•Open (notebook) SCIENCE
•which is larger than open data! It opens the process of doing the science
as well.
Open access funder
mandate: NIH
•Congress: “Hi, NIH. We think taxpayers should
be able to read the research they fund!”
• NIH: “Cool. We’ll build a repository for it, then.”
•NIH, mid-2000s: “Hi, researchers. Please put
your final manuscripts in PubMed Central.”
• You can guess how well THAT worked. ~3% deposit rate.
•Congress: “Okay, NIH, voluntary didn’t work;
how about mandatory?”
• Current deposit rate: about 67%.
• But the NIH has only started cracking down on slackers. (Grant cycles are long.)
Keep in mind: universities
are also funders!
•DH centers, IT support, and libraries don’t
exactly come free!
•But it’s not easy (maybe not possible) for a
university to impose an open-access mandate
the way a funder can.
•Tradition of “faculty governance” forbids.
•Are there university OA mandates? Yes!
•But they’re by faculty (usually faculty senates, sometimes individual
schools/departments) for faculty. Always. Anything else, and faculty howl.
•Humanists are the loudest howlers. Make of that what you will.
NSF data-management plans
•As of January 2011, all NSF grant proposals
must include a two-page data-management plan.
• Got no data? Using someone else’s? Say so!
• Data sharing required? Not necessarily. Just data management.
• Best practices? Standards? Depends on the discipline/directorate, but for the
most part, not yet.
• Digital data only? Absolutely not! If you’re taking physical samples, you need
to talk about them too.
•Why am I talking about this here and now?
• Because the NEH’s Office of Digital Programs has a similar policy!
• Because the OSTP Memo bids fair to extend this to many more agencies!
Now: OSTP Memo
•Office of Science and Technology Policy
(part of the executive branch)
•Big federal funders have until the end of July
to explain how they’ll achieve open access
AND open data for research they fund.
•The NEH is not subject to the memo (budget too small), but they have
announced they plan to comply anyway.
•Pass the popcorn. This should be good.
How can your library help?
•Getting the word out
•Offering consultation services
• often in collaboration with other campus units, e.g. IT
• usually includes an informational website
•Offering institutional repositories as data home
• This is... problematic, but it’s something.
•Training
•In a very few cases: planning for and working
toward greater involvement
• e.g. Purdue, Penn State, California Digital Library, University of Prince Edward Island
Local data
policies
http://www.flickr.com/photos/84299143@N00/2490004138/
Who has policies?
Photo: “Who Am I?” Ahmad Hammoud
http://www.flickr.com/photos/ahmadhammoudphotography/5212868148/ CC-BY
•Non-profit grant funders, now
and then
•The federal government, more
and more often
•State governments, in limited
situations
•Your institution, sometimes
•Journals, sometimes
•(not usually in the humanities)
What might a data policy cover?
•Who “owns” data
•How long you need to keep data
•When and with whom you need to share
data (or are forbidden from doing so)
•What data you need to keep secure,
and (sometimes) standards for doing so
•What happens to “your” data when you
graduate or change jobs or institutions
•PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO THIS, graduate students! This can bite you!
Photo: “Martha” Ford Buchanan
http://www.flickr.com/photos/fordbuchanan/4022157306/ CC-BY
Institutional policies
•Not all institutions have them.
•Not all institutions enforce them.
•But if you get in trouble, the policy will be used to throw the book at you.
•FIND OUT. Wherever you go, whatever
you do, FIND OUT.
Photo: “Rowlandsway House, Wythenshawe” Gene Hunt
http://www.flickr.com/photos/raver_mikey/467480300/ CC-BY
O
pen data
e"ics challen(s
http://www.flickr.com/photos/84299143@N00/2490004138/
FERPA
•If you want student records for your research,
plan on getting student or parental consent
(depending on student’s age).
• Caveat: if you’re doing research FOR THE SCHOOL ITSELF, you’re probably
off the hook, but you can’t use the data for anything else.
•FERPA does not cover statistical data
compilations in which students are not
individually identifiable.
•Graded assignments are covered (because the
grade is protected). An assignment printout
with no grade? Not covered!
IRB data questions
•Institutional Review Board: ethics watchdog for
research
•Science has a pretty exploitative history. IRBs are designed to prevent harm to
study subjects.
•Still working to catch up, mentally, to the
realities of e.g. Web research, open data
•Consider referring ethics questions about data
sharing to the IRB. They’re the last word.
•Though realize you may have to educate them! IRBs are known to be...
overzealous, many places.
“Extra risk”
•Key variable for IRBs is “risk to participants.”
•What are the additional risks of data
retention and sharing?
• Is Big Brother coming to get your study subjects?
• Added deanonymization/reidentification risk? Cracking risk?
• “If it’s on the open Internet, it’s fair game.” Well...
•IRBs not entirely up on this just now. THEY
WILL LEARN.
•And more humanists, especially digital
humanists, are doing work that falls under
this kind of oversight.
Thanks!
•Copyright 2011 by Dorothea Salo.
•This lecture and slide deck are licensed
under a Creative Commons Attribution
3.0 United States License.

More Related Content

Viewers also liked

Manufacturing Serendipity
Manufacturing SerendipityManufacturing Serendipity
Manufacturing SerendipityDorothea Salo
 
RDF, RDA, and other TLAs
RDF, RDA, and other TLAsRDF, RDA, and other TLAs
RDF, RDA, and other TLAsDorothea Salo
 
22회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기)b형
22회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기)b형22회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기)b형
22회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기)b형Vantharith Oum
 
21회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)-최종
21회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)-최종21회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)-최종
21회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)-최종Vantharith Oum
 
18회 중급b형 1교시_정답표
18회 중급b형 1교시_정답표18회 중급b형 1교시_정답표
18회 중급b형 1교시_정답표Vantharith Oum
 
15회한국어중급1교시(b형 어휘문법,쓰기)
15회한국어중급1교시(b형 어휘문법,쓰기)15회한국어중급1교시(b형 어휘문법,쓰기)
15회한국어중급1교시(b형 어휘문법,쓰기)Vantharith Oum
 
16회한국어중급2교시(b형 듣기,읽기)
16회한국어중급2교시(b형 듣기,읽기)16회한국어중급2교시(b형 듣기,읽기)
16회한국어중급2교시(b형 듣기,읽기)Vantharith Oum
 
17회중급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)
17회중급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)17회중급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)
17회중급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)Vantharith Oum
 
@KhmerWikipedia's #WikiMeetup PP2 - PPT Deck 201100430
@KhmerWikipedia's #WikiMeetup PP2 - PPT Deck 201100430@KhmerWikipedia's #WikiMeetup PP2 - PPT Deck 201100430
@KhmerWikipedia's #WikiMeetup PP2 - PPT Deck 201100430Vantharith Oum
 
22회 중급 2교시(듣기-읽기b)
22회 중급 2교시(듣기-읽기b)22회 중급 2교시(듣기-읽기b)
22회 중급 2교시(듣기-읽기b)Vantharith Oum
 
캄보디아... 어서오세요! 20110927
캄보디아... 어서오세요! 20110927캄보디아... 어서오세요! 20110927
캄보디아... 어서오세요! 20110927Vantharith Oum
 
Save the Cows! Cyberinfrastructure for the Rest of Us
Save the Cows! Cyberinfrastructure for the Rest of UsSave the Cows! Cyberinfrastructure for the Rest of Us
Save the Cows! Cyberinfrastructure for the Rest of UsDorothea Salo
 
What's Driving Open Access?
What's Driving Open Access?What's Driving Open Access?
What's Driving Open Access?Dorothea Salo
 
DevInno 4min-pitch PPT Deck - isbnKH project idea 20140224
DevInno 4min-pitch PPT Deck - isbnKH project idea 20140224DevInno 4min-pitch PPT Deck - isbnKH project idea 20140224
DevInno 4min-pitch PPT Deck - isbnKH project idea 20140224Vantharith Oum
 
Open Data Day 2014, Phnom Penh - PPT Deck
Open Data Day 2014, Phnom Penh - PPT DeckOpen Data Day 2014, Phnom Penh - PPT Deck
Open Data Day 2014, Phnom Penh - PPT DeckVantharith Oum
 
What You're Up Against
What You're Up AgainstWhat You're Up Against
What You're Up AgainstDorothea Salo
 
So you think you know libraries
So you think you know librariesSo you think you know libraries
So you think you know librariesDorothea Salo
 
Institutional Repositories: Rebirth of the Phoenix
Institutional Repositories: Rebirth of the PhoenixInstitutional Repositories: Rebirth of the Phoenix
Institutional Repositories: Rebirth of the PhoenixDorothea Salo
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Manufacturing Serendipity
Manufacturing SerendipityManufacturing Serendipity
Manufacturing Serendipity
 
RDF, RDA, and other TLAs
RDF, RDA, and other TLAsRDF, RDA, and other TLAs
RDF, RDA, and other TLAs
 
22회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기)b형
22회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기)b형22회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기)b형
22회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기)b형
 
21회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)-최종
21회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)-최종21회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)-최종
21회+고급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)-최종
 
18회 중급b형 1교시_정답표
18회 중급b형 1교시_정답표18회 중급b형 1교시_정답표
18회 중급b형 1교시_정답표
 
15회한국어중급1교시(b형 어휘문법,쓰기)
15회한국어중급1교시(b형 어휘문법,쓰기)15회한국어중급1교시(b형 어휘문법,쓰기)
15회한국어중급1교시(b형 어휘문법,쓰기)
 
16회한국어중급2교시(b형 듣기,읽기)
16회한국어중급2교시(b형 듣기,읽기)16회한국어중급2교시(b형 듣기,읽기)
16회한국어중급2교시(b형 듣기,읽기)
 
17회중급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)
17회중급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)17회중급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)
17회중급 1교시(어휘-쓰기b)
 
@KhmerWikipedia's #WikiMeetup PP2 - PPT Deck 201100430
@KhmerWikipedia's #WikiMeetup PP2 - PPT Deck 201100430@KhmerWikipedia's #WikiMeetup PP2 - PPT Deck 201100430
@KhmerWikipedia's #WikiMeetup PP2 - PPT Deck 201100430
 
캄보디아 발표
캄보디아 발표캄보디아 발표
캄보디아 발표
 
22회 중급 2교시(듣기-읽기b)
22회 중급 2교시(듣기-읽기b)22회 중급 2교시(듣기-읽기b)
22회 중급 2교시(듣기-읽기b)
 
캄보디아... 어서오세요! 20110927
캄보디아... 어서오세요! 20110927캄보디아... 어서오세요! 20110927
캄보디아... 어서오세요! 20110927
 
slide
slideslide
slide
 
Save the Cows! Cyberinfrastructure for the Rest of Us
Save the Cows! Cyberinfrastructure for the Rest of UsSave the Cows! Cyberinfrastructure for the Rest of Us
Save the Cows! Cyberinfrastructure for the Rest of Us
 
What's Driving Open Access?
What's Driving Open Access?What's Driving Open Access?
What's Driving Open Access?
 
DevInno 4min-pitch PPT Deck - isbnKH project idea 20140224
DevInno 4min-pitch PPT Deck - isbnKH project idea 20140224DevInno 4min-pitch PPT Deck - isbnKH project idea 20140224
DevInno 4min-pitch PPT Deck - isbnKH project idea 20140224
 
Open Data Day 2014, Phnom Penh - PPT Deck
Open Data Day 2014, Phnom Penh - PPT DeckOpen Data Day 2014, Phnom Penh - PPT Deck
Open Data Day 2014, Phnom Penh - PPT Deck
 
What You're Up Against
What You're Up AgainstWhat You're Up Against
What You're Up Against
 
So you think you know libraries
So you think you know librariesSo you think you know libraries
So you think you know libraries
 
Institutional Repositories: Rebirth of the Phoenix
Institutional Repositories: Rebirth of the PhoenixInstitutional Repositories: Rebirth of the Phoenix
Institutional Repositories: Rebirth of the Phoenix
 

More from Dorothea Salo

Soylent SemanticWeb Is People!
Soylent SemanticWeb Is People!Soylent SemanticWeb Is People!
Soylent SemanticWeb Is People!Dorothea Salo
 
Privacy and libraries
Privacy and librariesPrivacy and libraries
Privacy and librariesDorothea Salo
 
Risk management and auditing
Risk management and auditingRisk management and auditing
Risk management and auditingDorothea Salo
 
The Canonically Bad (Digital) Humanities Proposal (and how to avoid it)
The Canonically Bad (Digital) Humanities Proposal (and how to avoid it)The Canonically Bad (Digital) Humanities Proposal (and how to avoid it)
The Canonically Bad (Digital) Humanities Proposal (and how to avoid it)Dorothea Salo
 
Is this BIG DATA which I see before me?
Is this BIG DATA which I see before me?Is this BIG DATA which I see before me?
Is this BIG DATA which I see before me?Dorothea Salo
 
MARC and BIBFRAME; Linking libraries and archives
MARC and BIBFRAME; Linking libraries and archivesMARC and BIBFRAME; Linking libraries and archives
MARC and BIBFRAME; Linking libraries and archivesDorothea Salo
 
Research Data and Scholarly Communication
Research Data and Scholarly CommunicationResearch Data and Scholarly Communication
Research Data and Scholarly CommunicationDorothea Salo
 
Research Data and Scholarly Communication (with notes)
Research Data and Scholarly Communication (with notes)Research Data and Scholarly Communication (with notes)
Research Data and Scholarly Communication (with notes)Dorothea Salo
 
I own copyright, so I pwn you!
I own copyright, so I pwn you!I own copyright, so I pwn you!
I own copyright, so I pwn you!Dorothea Salo
 
Librarians love data!
Librarians love data!Librarians love data!
Librarians love data!Dorothea Salo
 
Taming the Monster: Digital Preservation Planning and Implementation Tools
Taming the Monster: Digital Preservation Planning and Implementation ToolsTaming the Monster: Digital Preservation Planning and Implementation Tools
Taming the Monster: Digital Preservation Planning and Implementation ToolsDorothea Salo
 
Avoiding the Heron's Way
Avoiding the Heron's WayAvoiding the Heron's Way
Avoiding the Heron's WayDorothea Salo
 
Manufacturing Serendipity
Manufacturing SerendipityManufacturing Serendipity
Manufacturing SerendipityDorothea Salo
 
Lipstick on a Pig: Integrated Library Systems
Lipstick on a Pig: Integrated Library SystemsLipstick on a Pig: Integrated Library Systems
Lipstick on a Pig: Integrated Library SystemsDorothea Salo
 

More from Dorothea Salo (20)

Soylent SemanticWeb Is People!
Soylent SemanticWeb Is People!Soylent SemanticWeb Is People!
Soylent SemanticWeb Is People!
 
Encryption
EncryptionEncryption
Encryption
 
Privacy and libraries
Privacy and librariesPrivacy and libraries
Privacy and libraries
 
Paying for it
Paying for itPaying for it
Paying for it
 
Risk management and auditing
Risk management and auditingRisk management and auditing
Risk management and auditing
 
The Canonically Bad (Digital) Humanities Proposal (and how to avoid it)
The Canonically Bad (Digital) Humanities Proposal (and how to avoid it)The Canonically Bad (Digital) Humanities Proposal (and how to avoid it)
The Canonically Bad (Digital) Humanities Proposal (and how to avoid it)
 
Is this BIG DATA which I see before me?
Is this BIG DATA which I see before me?Is this BIG DATA which I see before me?
Is this BIG DATA which I see before me?
 
MARC and BIBFRAME; Linking libraries and archives
MARC and BIBFRAME; Linking libraries and archivesMARC and BIBFRAME; Linking libraries and archives
MARC and BIBFRAME; Linking libraries and archives
 
Library Linked Data
Library Linked DataLibrary Linked Data
Library Linked Data
 
FRBR and RDA
FRBR and RDAFRBR and RDA
FRBR and RDA
 
Research Data and Scholarly Communication
Research Data and Scholarly CommunicationResearch Data and Scholarly Communication
Research Data and Scholarly Communication
 
Research Data and Scholarly Communication (with notes)
Research Data and Scholarly Communication (with notes)Research Data and Scholarly Communication (with notes)
Research Data and Scholarly Communication (with notes)
 
What We Organize
What We OrganizeWhat We Organize
What We Organize
 
I own copyright, so I pwn you!
I own copyright, so I pwn you!I own copyright, so I pwn you!
I own copyright, so I pwn you!
 
Librarians love data!
Librarians love data!Librarians love data!
Librarians love data!
 
Taming the Monster: Digital Preservation Planning and Implementation Tools
Taming the Monster: Digital Preservation Planning and Implementation ToolsTaming the Monster: Digital Preservation Planning and Implementation Tools
Taming the Monster: Digital Preservation Planning and Implementation Tools
 
Avoiding the Heron's Way
Avoiding the Heron's WayAvoiding the Heron's Way
Avoiding the Heron's Way
 
Manufacturing Serendipity
Manufacturing SerendipityManufacturing Serendipity
Manufacturing Serendipity
 
Open Content
Open ContentOpen Content
Open Content
 
Lipstick on a Pig: Integrated Library Systems
Lipstick on a Pig: Integrated Library SystemsLipstick on a Pig: Integrated Library Systems
Lipstick on a Pig: Integrated Library Systems
 

Recently uploaded

Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxAdelaideRefugio
 
UGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdf
UGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdfUGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdf
UGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdfNirmal Dwivedi
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesAmanpreetKaur157993
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024Borja Sotomayor
 
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes GuàrdiaPersonalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes GuàrdiaEADTU
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMELOISARIVERA8
 
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismDabee Kamal
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchCaitlinCummins3
 
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfRich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfJerry Chew
 
Model Attribute _rec_name in the Odoo 17
Model Attribute _rec_name in the Odoo 17Model Attribute _rec_name in the Odoo 17
Model Attribute _rec_name in the Odoo 17Celine George
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................MirzaAbrarBaig5
 
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...
PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...
PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...nhezmainit1
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxLimon Prince
 
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsOSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsSandeep D Chaudhary
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....Ritu480198
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
 
UGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdf
UGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdfUGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdf
UGC NET Paper 1 Unit 7 DATA INTERPRETATION.pdf
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
 
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes GuàrdiaPersonalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
 
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdfIncluding Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
 
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
 
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfRich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
 
Model Attribute _rec_name in the Odoo 17
Model Attribute _rec_name in the Odoo 17Model Attribute _rec_name in the Odoo 17
Model Attribute _rec_name in the Odoo 17
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................
 
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
 
PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...
PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...
PS-Policies-on-Enrolment-Transfer-of-Docs-Checking-of-School-Forms-and-SF10-a...
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
 
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsOSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
 

Data and the Law

  • 1. Data and the law Dorothea Salo
  • 2. C opy!ght and "e #gital humanities http://www.flickr.com/photos/84299143@N00/2490004138/
  • 3. Why do you care? •Do you want to USE something that may be under legal restrictions? •Publishing a photo in a book or ebook •Text-mining (“non-consumptive use”) •Extensive quotation •Classroom use •Do you want to MAKE something? •... and let other people legally use it? •... and let other people legally use it, but only under certain conditions? •... without them bugging you by email all the time? •Then you NEED the basics of copyright.
  • 4. DH and copyright •DHers study and use a lot of copyrighted objects, in ways that sometimes create risk of infringement (or perceived infringement). •Copyright creates barriers to accessing materials that DHers would like to study. • Librarians can sometimes help break down these barriers. •DHers therefore need a base-level understanding of copyright, and a willingness to research beyond the base level. • And sometimes a willingness to take risks!
  • 5. Sound off! •News or projects that have copyright implications for DHers?
  • 6. Stuff you can use with relative ease •Public domain stuff •... if you can figure out what that is, cf. “Happy Birthday” lawsuit •Federal-government stuff •Openly-licensed stuff •Creative Commons is your friend! •Other licensed stuff •... but you better follow the terms of the license! •Other stuff, to an extent: “fair use”
  • 8. What is it (in the US)? •A limited monopoly granted by federal law •over “original works of authorship” that are “fixed in a tangible medium of expression”* •‘To promote the progress of science and the useful arts’ •Is it still doing that? You decide. But I think not, on the whole. •Not unlimited! Not forever! By design! *yes, the Internet counts as “tangible” for copyright purposes
  • 9. A copyrightable item must minimally... •Be original • Feist v. Rural Telephone Service: “sweat of the brow” does not suffice to make something copyrightable • This is one reason you’ll hear “data can’t be copyrighted.” •Be fixed in some “tangible” form • yes, the Internet counts!!!! •That’s it. But it wasn’t always. • Registration used to be required, not optional. • If you didn’t renew? You snooze, you lose. • Didn’t put an explicit copyright notice on it? Oops.
  • 10. Copyright does not cover... •Ideas (only their fixed expression) •Databases and other fact collections! (notably different overseas) •Methods, processes, systems (patent!) •Recipes are uncopyrightable. Bet you didn’t know that. •Messy exception: software. •Words. (trademark!) Titles. Recipes. •Invented languages? Nobody’s sure. •Natural languages? Nope. •Works by the federal government •Works already in the public domain •no takebacks! ... except Golan v. Holder.
  • 11. Copyright DOES cover... •Unpublished material • more straitly than published! and with different time rules! •Images and photographs • Are copyrighted! Just like text! • It’s not “fair use” just because you found it on the Internet. • It’s not “fair use” because you give credit; US copyright law says nothing about credit! •Sound (and fury)... • Same idea. • Except sound recordings do not fall under federal copyright at present! Patchwork of state law; talk of “harmonization.” • (Please don’t ask me about sampling. ARGH.)
  • 12. Copyright lasts... •For something created 1978 or later: • Life of author plus 70 years • For corporate-created works (often “works for hire,”) 120 years after creation or 95 years after publication. • Copyright Act of 1976 •For something created between 1923 and 1977: • ... that’s a really good question, because of all the former copyright formalities that don’t exist now. •Pre-1923: probably public domain •Once copyright expires, the item is in the “public domain.”
  • 14. Copyfraud •Claiming a copyright that either doesn’t exist, or is someone else’s. • Bridgeman v. Corel: “slavish copying” of a physical item, as in a photographic or digitized reproduction, fails copyright’s originality test. •Not illegal, sadly. •ENDEMIC. Don’t believe every copyright notice you read! • GLAM are not immune to copyfraud. • Remember: we have the rights we USE and DEFEND. You may have to intervene with your publishers! •Recommended: Jason Mazzone
  • 15. Doctrine of first sale •Owning copyright in a work does not confer control over legally-made physical copies of that work. •Buyers who buy legally can share, lend, and resell their copies freely. •They can’t make copies of their legally-obtained copies without incurring copyright-litigation risk, however. •Wiley v. Kirtsaeng: copies purchased legally overseas ARE subject to first-sale, CAN be imported and resold legally. •There is no right of first sale in digital materials. Only physical ones.
  • 16. Important note •Everything I’ve told you is for US works. •Copyright works differently elsewhere! (Yes, despite Berne.) •“Moral rights” of authors •Copyright term length •What is copyrightable •This is a wretched headache. •If you have an international-copyright question, SEE A LAWYER. Really. I mean it!
  • 18. What can you do* with your copyrighted work? Copy Perform All rights sold separately! Republish Translate Adapt “derivative work” Broadcast Arrange Use as part of a new work Allow or restrict access Write a sequel * and prevent others from doing without permission
  • 19. What can you do with your copyright? •Sell it, in whole or in part. •Sign it away without payment. •For the most part, this is what faculty do with their journal articles. •License it (i.e. give others permission to use some or all of your rights) •for broad or narrow purposes •temporarily or permanently •“exclusive”ly or non- •free or for pay. •It’s just like any other license. You negotiate it! (With a lawyer around.)
  • 20. A “copyright transfer agreement” is what it sounds like! Once you transfer your exclusive copyright over a work to someone else, YOU NO LONGER OWN THE WORK. You have no say whatever in what is done with or to it, AND YOU CANNOT USE IT AS THOUGH YOU OWNED ITS COPYRIGHT. Publishers ask you to sign these. KNOW WHAT YOU ARE SIGNING.
  • 21. Libraries and licensing •All those nifty ebooks and ejournals the library gets you access to? •The library pays ridiculous boatloads of money to LICENSE (not own!) them. •No first-sale! These are digital! •And their use is subject to whatever terms the publisher/aggregator and library signed. •You can’t treat ‘em like print, sorry!
  • 22. Working with licensed materials •E.g. text mining, visualizations, etc. • here’s that “non-consumptive use” “distant reading” thing again... •Please don’t Just Do It! • Licensors monitor use. If you download a whole bunch at once, they’ll notice, and they’ll yank access for all of campus. • The worst-case consequences for you could be severe. We learned this, sadly, from what happened to Aaron Swartz. •Talk to your librarians. • A given aggregator may have a research program you can join. • Or the library may be able to work out a deal. • Or the licensor, when contacted through the library’s channels, may say “Oh. Huh. Sure, why not?”
  • 23. “Orphan work” •Copyright can leave its original owner (via sale or other transfer), in part or in whole. • Authors die. So do publishers. Wills? Don’t make me laugh. •Copyright registration has been optional for many years. • It’s not optional if you actually want to sue! But you can still register after an infringement has taken place. •Result: large body of copyrighted works whose owners are unknown or unclear. • Especially from the mid-to-late 20th century. •What about digitization? DH work? Preservation?
  • 25. Copyright and the digital realm •Suddenly it’s a lot easier to make perfect copies! •Some of the workings of the Internet require copies! •Your web browser makes a copy of every page you see •Exception: “streaming media” •Current media business model is founded upon the difficulty of making perfect copies. •Solution (?): DRM!
  • 26. Digital rights management •Technological jiggery-pokery that locks a digital file into certain uses • By device • By time or number-of-use limits • By software • By user or geography • Examples: various ebook schemes, DVD “zoning” •Eschenfelder: “technological protection measures” • DRM (“hard” TPM) plus heightened annoyance factors (“soft” TPM)
  • 27. DRM and the library •DRMed files present a substantial digital preservation risk •E-journals and databases could use DRM on their materials... •... but mostly haven’t, preferring proxy servers and “annoyance factor” tricks (obfuscation, omission, polyglot, frustration) •And preservation practices for these are fairly well-established. •Ebooks, however, are another story.
  • 28. DRM and the law: DMCA •Digital Millennium Copyright Act (1996) •Illegal to circumvent DRM •For us too! No exceptions for GLAM. Or fair use. Or research. •No, not even for preservation. •ISPs must take down allegedly copyright- infringing content when notified •Notable chilling effects •Sklyarov case (2001), Felten case (cryptography), Sony rootkit case •YouTube and other web properties are still struggling with how to manage DMCA at scale. This has bitten some DHers!
  • 29. CFAA •Computer Fraud and Abuse Act •Meant to go after black-hat hackers •Loose enough wording for prosecutors to attack any terms-of-service violation •Used against Aaron Swartz, others •“Aaron’s Law” just introduced in Congress
  • 30. Advocacy •Librarians are political animals, especially around intellectual-property and privacy law. •We have to be! •Faculty: please make common cause with us. We need more voices! •And humanists tend to be... less helpful than we’d like. •In the hopper: US copyright “reform,” international treaties, ebook access for the blind, open access to federally-funded research •Twitterers/Tumblarians: watch @ARLPolicy
  • 31. Exceptions and workar&nds to copy!ght http://www.flickr.com/photos/84299143@N00/2490004138/
  • 32. Copyright permits... •Copying for certain socially-approved uses •Library preservation and patron service (“section 108”) •Classroom use (“the TEACH Act”) •Limited copying for other reasons: “fair use” (“section 107”) •Scholarship •Parody/satire •Etc.
  • 33. Fair use •Possibly the least-understood concept in copyright! •An “affirmative defense” in a copyright lawsuit. •Though Kevin Smith notably disagrees with this analysis... •Principles and guidelines, not hard-and- fast rules.
  • 34. How to know for sure whether a use is fair, in four simple steps 1.Copy a copyrighted work. 2.Get yourself sued by the work’s legitimate copyright owner. 3.Assert fair use as your defense. 4.Win the case. AFAIK, this is the only way.
  • 35. I’m thinking you think this is a loony way to proceed. Good. I agree with you. But that means that what we’re doing is risk management.
  • 36. Risk is never zero. I wish it could be too. I’m sorry. (but if it makes you feel any better, many copyright risks are overblown)
  • 37. Four-factor fair use test •Character of the use •“Transformative use” finding favor with judges lately. •Nature of the work •Amount of the work copied •often considered as a percentage of the whole •also, “heart of the work” matters •Effect on the market for that work, if everybody did what you’re doing •part of this is asking whether there IS a market for the work in the first place!
  • 38. Community fair-use principles •Started with documentarists •who couldn’t get insurance for their work because of perceived copyright-infringement risk... which, given litigious idiots who sue over background noise... was a rational stance. •So they published a “how documentarists use fair use” document. •Courts took notice. So more such documents have been created. •Academic libraries (ARL), journalism (Center for Social Media) •There isn’t one for DH. There should be. Talk to your professional organizations!
  • 39. Creative Commons •What if you WANT people to reuse your stuff? • You could grant it to the public domain... • ... but then anybody can do anything with it. •Creative Commons is a middle ground. • Boilerplate language and machine-readable techniques for licensing copyrighted works to all comers! • Under certain conditions... •N.b.: CC is predicated on owning a copyright. If you don’t, you can’t use a CC license! • If there’s a copyright, but it’s not yours. (Jointly-held with others is okay.) • If it’s not copyrightable to begin with
  • 40. CC license provisions •BY: Must attribute to creator. • On all CC licenses except CC0 (public domain dedication) •ND: No derivative works. •NC: Non-commercial use only. • Looks better than it is. Avoid! •SA: Share-alike • Release new work under the same or more liberal license. •These can be combined! •CC0: total rights waiver. • Special resonance for data!
  • 41. CC and the humanities •So, that thing with the UK history editors... •University-press editors are often not friends of openness either. •I really hope 2013 is the year we start calling these people on their, um, errors and misrepresentations. •DH is in a good position to do that. •It’s more open and public than much of the humanities. •And slightly (only slightly!) less dependent on traditional book publishing.
  • 42. Okay, so? •The point of keeping data is to reuse it! •Okay, there are other points, such as reproducibility and fraud detection. Still. The central reason we’re talking about data so intently is reuse value. •Data with legal strings attached are harder to reuse. So fewer people reuse them. •Kinda defeats the purpose, no? •This is why, as a digital humanist, YOU NEED TO CARE about open access and the Creative Commons. •And advocate for them! Again, humanists have lagged here.
  • 44. Open movements •There are a lot of them. Don’t mix them up. •I know, I know, everybody else does. Well, everybody else is stupid! Don’t be stupid! •Open source SOFTWARE •Open access JOURNAL ARTICLES •(and occasionally books, but mostly journal articles) •Open (government) DATA •Open (notebook) SCIENCE •which is larger than open data! It opens the process of doing the science as well.
  • 45. Open access funder mandate: NIH •Congress: “Hi, NIH. We think taxpayers should be able to read the research they fund!” • NIH: “Cool. We’ll build a repository for it, then.” •NIH, mid-2000s: “Hi, researchers. Please put your final manuscripts in PubMed Central.” • You can guess how well THAT worked. ~3% deposit rate. •Congress: “Okay, NIH, voluntary didn’t work; how about mandatory?” • Current deposit rate: about 67%. • But the NIH has only started cracking down on slackers. (Grant cycles are long.)
  • 46. Keep in mind: universities are also funders! •DH centers, IT support, and libraries don’t exactly come free! •But it’s not easy (maybe not possible) for a university to impose an open-access mandate the way a funder can. •Tradition of “faculty governance” forbids. •Are there university OA mandates? Yes! •But they’re by faculty (usually faculty senates, sometimes individual schools/departments) for faculty. Always. Anything else, and faculty howl. •Humanists are the loudest howlers. Make of that what you will.
  • 47. NSF data-management plans •As of January 2011, all NSF grant proposals must include a two-page data-management plan. • Got no data? Using someone else’s? Say so! • Data sharing required? Not necessarily. Just data management. • Best practices? Standards? Depends on the discipline/directorate, but for the most part, not yet. • Digital data only? Absolutely not! If you’re taking physical samples, you need to talk about them too. •Why am I talking about this here and now? • Because the NEH’s Office of Digital Programs has a similar policy! • Because the OSTP Memo bids fair to extend this to many more agencies!
  • 48. Now: OSTP Memo •Office of Science and Technology Policy (part of the executive branch) •Big federal funders have until the end of July to explain how they’ll achieve open access AND open data for research they fund. •The NEH is not subject to the memo (budget too small), but they have announced they plan to comply anyway. •Pass the popcorn. This should be good.
  • 49. How can your library help? •Getting the word out •Offering consultation services • often in collaboration with other campus units, e.g. IT • usually includes an informational website •Offering institutional repositories as data home • This is... problematic, but it’s something. •Training •In a very few cases: planning for and working toward greater involvement • e.g. Purdue, Penn State, California Digital Library, University of Prince Edward Island
  • 51. Who has policies? Photo: “Who Am I?” Ahmad Hammoud http://www.flickr.com/photos/ahmadhammoudphotography/5212868148/ CC-BY •Non-profit grant funders, now and then •The federal government, more and more often •State governments, in limited situations •Your institution, sometimes •Journals, sometimes •(not usually in the humanities)
  • 52. What might a data policy cover? •Who “owns” data •How long you need to keep data •When and with whom you need to share data (or are forbidden from doing so) •What data you need to keep secure, and (sometimes) standards for doing so •What happens to “your” data when you graduate or change jobs or institutions •PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO THIS, graduate students! This can bite you! Photo: “Martha” Ford Buchanan http://www.flickr.com/photos/fordbuchanan/4022157306/ CC-BY
  • 53. Institutional policies •Not all institutions have them. •Not all institutions enforce them. •But if you get in trouble, the policy will be used to throw the book at you. •FIND OUT. Wherever you go, whatever you do, FIND OUT. Photo: “Rowlandsway House, Wythenshawe” Gene Hunt http://www.flickr.com/photos/raver_mikey/467480300/ CC-BY
  • 55. FERPA •If you want student records for your research, plan on getting student or parental consent (depending on student’s age). • Caveat: if you’re doing research FOR THE SCHOOL ITSELF, you’re probably off the hook, but you can’t use the data for anything else. •FERPA does not cover statistical data compilations in which students are not individually identifiable. •Graded assignments are covered (because the grade is protected). An assignment printout with no grade? Not covered!
  • 56. IRB data questions •Institutional Review Board: ethics watchdog for research •Science has a pretty exploitative history. IRBs are designed to prevent harm to study subjects. •Still working to catch up, mentally, to the realities of e.g. Web research, open data •Consider referring ethics questions about data sharing to the IRB. They’re the last word. •Though realize you may have to educate them! IRBs are known to be... overzealous, many places.
  • 57. “Extra risk” •Key variable for IRBs is “risk to participants.” •What are the additional risks of data retention and sharing? • Is Big Brother coming to get your study subjects? • Added deanonymization/reidentification risk? Cracking risk? • “If it’s on the open Internet, it’s fair game.” Well... •IRBs not entirely up on this just now. THEY WILL LEARN. •And more humanists, especially digital humanists, are doing work that falls under this kind of oversight.
  • 58. Thanks! •Copyright 2011 by Dorothea Salo. •This lecture and slide deck are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License.