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Developmentally Appropriate Practice NAEYC DAP 2009 http://www.naeyc.org/DAP Prepared by Dr. Carla Piper  http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/position%20statement%20Web.pdf
Critical Issues in Current Context Shortage of good care for infants and toddlers Steady growth in the number of immigrant families and children in our population More children with special needs (including those with disabilities, those at risk for disabilities, and those with challenging behaviors) Difficulty developing and maintaining a qualified teaching force  More children living in poverty.  Public is more aware of the importance of the early childhood years in shaping children’s futures
Three Major Challenges How to reduce learning gaps and increase the achievement of all children  How to create improved, better connected education for preschool and elementary children How to recognize teacher knowledge and decision making as vital to educational effectiveness
Disparities in School-Related Performance Low- income and African American and Hispanic students lag significantly behind their peers on standardized comparisons of academic achievement throughout the school years Mismatch between the “school” culture and children’s cultural backgrounds Lower level language skills particularly in vocabulary and oral language development
The Standards/Accountability Movement No Child Left Behind (NCLB) holds schools accountable for eliminating the persistent gaps in achievement between different groups of children NCLB seeks to make schools accountable for teaching  ALL  their students effectively As of 2007, more than three-quarters of the states had early learning standards. NAEYC position statements define high-quality early learning standards, curriculum, and assessment
How to Close the Achievement Gap? Create improved, better connected education for preschool and elementary children Need closer relationship between early-years education and the elementary grades Lead to enhanced alignment, greater continuity, and coherence across the preK–3 span. Need to avoid superficial learning objectives that require understandings and tasks that young children cannot really grasp until they are older. Avoid downward mapping and base standards on what we know from research and practice about children from a variety of backgrounds at a given stage/age
Early Learning Standards Address what is important for children to know and be able to do  Align across developmental stages and age/grade levels Be consistent with how children develop and learn Avoid standards overload  overwhelming to teachers and children can lead to potentially problematic teaching practices
Bringing Two Worlds Together The point is  not  for children to learn primary grade skills at an earlier age  The point is to have teachers take the first steps together to ensure that young children develop and learn Children need to acquire skills and understandings as they progress in school
Teacher knowledge and decision making Vital to educational effectiveness Good teaching requires expert decision making.  Teachers need professional preparation ongoing professional development regular opportunities to work collaboratively Standards movement tends to promote “teacher proof” curriculum, tools, and strategies to expedite the educational process Decisions often made by school administrators who have NO early childhood background
Why are quality teachers crucial? “ Children benefit most from teachers who have the skills, knowledge, and judgment to make good decisions and are given the opportunity to use them.”
Research findings hold promise for reducing learning gaps and barriers Early social and emotional, cognitive, physical, and academic competencies enable young children to develop and learn to their full potential. Ensure that children who have learning difficulties or disabilities receive the early intervention services they need to learn and function well in the classroom. Predictors for children’s success in school Dependent on oral language/literacy, vocabulary and mathematics Dimensions of social and emotional competence help with self regulation
Areas of Research Providing Predictors of Children’s Learning Robust curriculum content Careful attention to known learning sequences (in literacy, mathematics, science, physical education, and other domains) Emphasis on developing children’s self-regulation, engagement, and focused attention  Relationship-based teaching and learning Partnering with families Adapting teaching for children from different backgrounds and for individual children  Active, meaningful, and connected learning Smaller class sizes Importance of teachers
Teacher Decision Making  Based on Intentionality Teachers need to:  Have knowledge about child development and learning.  Know about the sequences in which a domain’s specific concepts and skills are learned.  Have a well developed repertoire of teaching strategies to employ for different purposes. Have guidance without being forced to use “overscripted” curriculum
Core Considerations in Teacher’s Effective Decision Making Must know about child development and learning age-related characteristics that permit general predictions about what experiences are likely to best promote children’s learning and development Must know about each child as an individual how best to adapt and be responsive to that individual variation
Core Considerations in Teacher’s Effective Decision Making Must know about the social and cultural contexts in which children live values, expectations, and behavioral and linguistic conventions that shape children’s lives at home and in their communities  ensure that learning experiences in the program or school are meaningful, relevant, and respectful for each child and family.
Need Challenging and Achievable Goals for our Children New experiences build on what a child already knows and is able to do and when those learning experiences  Reflects on what goals should come next after the child reaches that new level of mastery in skill or understanding Advance children’s learning in a developmentally appropriate way
Intentionality – Hallmark of Developmentally Appropriate Teaching  Teachers apply intentionality to: Setting up the classroom  Planning curriculum  Making use of various teaching  strategies  Assessing children Interacting with children Working with families.  Intentional teachers  Are purposeful and thoughtful about the actions they take Direct their teaching toward the goals the program is trying to help children reach
Principles of child  development and learning  that inform practice Developmentally Appropriate Practices Based on Early Childhood Development  Research
Principle #1 All the domains of development and learning—physical, social and emotional, and cognitive—are important and closely interrelated.  Children’s development and learning in one domain influence and are influenced by what takes place in other domains. Research ideas Social and emotional competence affects academic achievement  Language development affects personal and social relationships
Principle #2 Many aspects of children’s learning and development follow well documented sequences, with later abilities, skills, and knowledge building on those already acquired Research ideas Expanding knowledge of how children typically develop and learn  Understanding sequences in which children gain specific concepts, skills, and abilities, building on prior development and learning.
Principle #3 Development and learning proceed at varying rates from child to child, as well as at uneven rates across different areas of a child’s individual functioning.  Research ideas  Variability around the typical or normative course of development Uniqueness of each child as an individual  Variation in children’s temperament, personality, and aptitudes Differing family and social-cultural contexts that shape children’s experiences.  Need for individualized instruction
Principle #4 Development and learning result from a dynamic and continuous interaction of biological maturation and experience.  Research ideas: Individualized interventions High expectations and learning Using knowledge, ingenuity, and persistence to find ways to help every child succeed. Multiple intelligences
Principle #5 Early experiences have profound effects, both cumulative and delayed, on a child’s development and learning Optimal periods exist for certain types of development and learning to occur. Research ideas Eary intervention Cumulative effect of early experiences, whether positive or negative. Brain development and neural connections resulting from early stimulation Intervention and support  Prevention of reading difficulties
Principle #6 Development proceeds toward greater complexity, self-regulation, and symbolic or representational capacities.  Research ideas Increasingly complex functioning with language, social interaction, physical movement, problem solving Simple routines that can develop into more complex strategies with increased organization and memory capacity in the brain Self-regulation - capacity to manage strong emotions and keep one’s attention focused.  Moving from sensory or behavioral responses to symbolic or representational knowledge
Principle #7 Children develop best when they have secure, consistent relationships with responsive adults and opportunities for positive relationships with peers.  Research ideas  Key areas of children’s development empathy cooperation  self-regulation cultural socialization  language and communication  peer relationships identity formation
Principle #8 Development and learning occur in and are influenced by multiple social and cultural contexts.  Research ideas Sociocultural context of family, educational setting, and community, as well as within the broader society Culture -  customary beliefs and patterns of behavior, both explicit and implicit, that are inculcated by the society—or by a social, religious, or ethnic group within the  How our own cultural experience shapes our perspective  Multiple perspectives must be considered in decisions about children’s development and learning.  Additive process of acquiring a new language rather than causing the displacement of the child’s first language and culture
Principle #9 Children are always mentally active in seeking to understand the world around them Children learn in a variety of ways  A wide range of teaching strategies and interactions are effective in supporting all these kinds of learning.  Research ideas Cognitive development from the constructivist, interactive perspective Using multiple teaching strategies to meet children’s different learning needs
Principle #10 Play is an important vehicle for developing self-regulation as well as for promoting language, cognition, and social competence.  Research ideas Links between play and foundational capacities such as memory, self-regulation, oral language abilities, social skills, and success in school High-level dramatic play produces documented cognitive, social, and emotional benefits Developing self-regulation through play Play supports abilities that underlie learning and thus to promote school success.
Principle #11 Development and learning advance when children are challenged to achieve at a level just beyond their current mastery, and also when they have many opportunities to practice newly acquired skills.  Research ideas Rich learning environments promote children’s undertaking and mastering of new and progressively more advanced challenges Scaffolding Opportunities to practice and consolidate new skills and concepts essential in order for children to reach the threshold of mastery Setting achievable goals for young children
Principle #12 Children’s experiences shape their motivation and approaches to learning (persistence, initiative, and flexibility) These dispositions and behaviors affect their learning and development.   Research ideas Focus on  how  rather than the  what  of learning  Involving children’s feelings about learning (interest, pleasure, and motivation to learn) and children’s behavior when learning (attention, persistence, flexibility, and self-regulation) Children who start school more eager to learn tend to do better in reading and mathematics than do less motivated children Children with more positive learning behaviors, such as initiative, attention, and persistence, later develop stronger language skills.  Children with greater self-regulation and other “learning-related skills” in kindergarten are more skilled in reading and mathematics in later grades.
Guidelines for Developmentally Appropriate Practice Create a Caring Community of Learners Teach to Enhance Development and Learning Plan Curriculum to Achieve Important Goals Assess Children’s Development and Learning Establish Reciprocal Relationships with Families
Create a Caring  Community of Learners Each member of the community is valued by the others  Relationships are an important context through which children develop and learn Each member of the community respects and is accountable to the others to behave in a way that is conducive to the learning and well-being of all Practitioners design and maintain the physical environment to protect the health and safety of the learning community members. Practitioners ensure members of the community feel psychologically safe.
Provide an Overall  Positive Social Climate Interactions among community members  and the experiences provided by teachers, leave participants feeling secure, relaxed, and comfortable rather than disengaged, frightened, worried, or unduly stressed. Teachers foster in children an enjoyment of and engagement in learning. Teachers ensure that the environment is organized and the schedule follows an orderly routine that provides a stable structure within which development and learning can take place. Children hear and see their home language and culture reflected in the daily interactions and activities of the classroom.
The Teacher’s Role Help children develop responsibility and self-regulation  Monitor, anticipate, prevent, and redirect behaviors not conducive to learning or disrespectful of the community Set clear and reasonable limits on children’s behavior and apply those limits consistently.  Listen to and acknowledge children’s feelings and frustrations Respond with respect in ways that children can understand, guide children to resolve conflicts Model skills that help children to solve their own problems. Demonstrate high levels of responsibility and self-regulation in their interactions with other adults (colleagues, family members) and with children.
Teach to Enhance  Development and Learning Provide an optimal balance of adult-guided and child-guided experiences.  Adult-guided  experience proceeds primarily along the lines of the teacher’s goals, but is also shaped by the children’s active engagement  C hild-guided  experience proceeds primarily along the lines of children’s interests and actions, with strategic teacher support. Stimulate, direct, and support children’s development and learning by providing the experiences that each child needs
Plan Curriculum to Achieve Important Goals Plan learning experiences that will result in meeting learning outcomes for children. Program needs a comprehensive, effective curriculum that targets the identified goals, including all those foundational for later learning and school success Identify and articulate desired goals that are important in young children’s learning and development
Teacher Identifies and  Articulates Desired  Goals Consider what children should know, understand, and be able to do across the domains of physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development and across the disciplines Language, literacy, mathematics, social studies, science, art, music, physical education, and health. Become thoroughly familiar with state standards or other mandates that are in place. Eensure that goals are clearly defined for, communicated to, and understood by all stakeholders, including families
Teacher’s Role with  Curriculum Framework Use framework in planning to ensure there is ample attention to important learning goals. Make meaningful connections a priority in the learning experiences to reflect that all learners learn best when concepts, language, and skills they encounter are related to something they know and care about Collaborate with those teaching in the preceding and subsequent grade levels,  Share information about children Work to increase the continuity and coherence across ages/grades Protect the integrity and appropriateness of practices at each level. Plan curriculum (routines and experiences) for infants and toddlers
Assess Children’s  Development and Learning Ongoing, strategic, and purposeful assessment.  Focus on children’s progress toward goals that are developmentally and educationally significant. Have a system in place to collect, make sense of, and use the assessment information to guide what goes on in the classroom (formative assessment).  Use appropriate methods according to the developmental status and experiences of young children Allow children to demonstrate their competence in different ways recognizing individual variation in learners Look not only at what children can do independently but also at what they can do with assistance from other children or adults.
Assessments Use input from families as well as children’s own evaluations of their work are part of the program’s overall assessment strategy Tailor to a specific purpose and used only for the purpose for which they have been demonstrated to produce reliable, valid information. Use multiple sources of relevant information for decision making that has a major impact on children. When a screening or other assessment identifies children who may have special learning or developmental needs Use appropriate follow-up, evaluation, and, if indicated, referral.
Establish Reciprocal  Relationships with Families Respect, cooperate, and share responsibility and negotiation of conflicts toward achievement of shared goals. Work in collaborative partnerships with families Establish regular communication using language of the home. Welcome family members  Provide multiple opportunities for family participation.
Relationships with  Families Plan conferences with family Share knowledge of the particular child and understanding of child development and learning as part of day-to-day communication Involve families as a source of information about the child  Link families with a range of services, based on identified resources, priorities, and concerns.
Be a Good Teacher!  Acknowledge and encourage children’s efforts Model and demonstrate Create challenges and support children in extending their capabilities Provide specific directions or instruction.  Use a variety of teaching strategies in the context of play and structured activities. Organize the classroom environment Plan ways to pursue educational goals for each child as opportunities arise in child-initiated activities  in activities planned and initiated by the teacher.

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Dap

  • 1. Developmentally Appropriate Practice NAEYC DAP 2009 http://www.naeyc.org/DAP Prepared by Dr. Carla Piper http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/position%20statement%20Web.pdf
  • 2. Critical Issues in Current Context Shortage of good care for infants and toddlers Steady growth in the number of immigrant families and children in our population More children with special needs (including those with disabilities, those at risk for disabilities, and those with challenging behaviors) Difficulty developing and maintaining a qualified teaching force More children living in poverty. Public is more aware of the importance of the early childhood years in shaping children’s futures
  • 3. Three Major Challenges How to reduce learning gaps and increase the achievement of all children How to create improved, better connected education for preschool and elementary children How to recognize teacher knowledge and decision making as vital to educational effectiveness
  • 4. Disparities in School-Related Performance Low- income and African American and Hispanic students lag significantly behind their peers on standardized comparisons of academic achievement throughout the school years Mismatch between the “school” culture and children’s cultural backgrounds Lower level language skills particularly in vocabulary and oral language development
  • 5. The Standards/Accountability Movement No Child Left Behind (NCLB) holds schools accountable for eliminating the persistent gaps in achievement between different groups of children NCLB seeks to make schools accountable for teaching ALL their students effectively As of 2007, more than three-quarters of the states had early learning standards. NAEYC position statements define high-quality early learning standards, curriculum, and assessment
  • 6. How to Close the Achievement Gap? Create improved, better connected education for preschool and elementary children Need closer relationship between early-years education and the elementary grades Lead to enhanced alignment, greater continuity, and coherence across the preK–3 span. Need to avoid superficial learning objectives that require understandings and tasks that young children cannot really grasp until they are older. Avoid downward mapping and base standards on what we know from research and practice about children from a variety of backgrounds at a given stage/age
  • 7. Early Learning Standards Address what is important for children to know and be able to do Align across developmental stages and age/grade levels Be consistent with how children develop and learn Avoid standards overload overwhelming to teachers and children can lead to potentially problematic teaching practices
  • 8. Bringing Two Worlds Together The point is not for children to learn primary grade skills at an earlier age The point is to have teachers take the first steps together to ensure that young children develop and learn Children need to acquire skills and understandings as they progress in school
  • 9. Teacher knowledge and decision making Vital to educational effectiveness Good teaching requires expert decision making. Teachers need professional preparation ongoing professional development regular opportunities to work collaboratively Standards movement tends to promote “teacher proof” curriculum, tools, and strategies to expedite the educational process Decisions often made by school administrators who have NO early childhood background
  • 10. Why are quality teachers crucial? “ Children benefit most from teachers who have the skills, knowledge, and judgment to make good decisions and are given the opportunity to use them.”
  • 11. Research findings hold promise for reducing learning gaps and barriers Early social and emotional, cognitive, physical, and academic competencies enable young children to develop and learn to their full potential. Ensure that children who have learning difficulties or disabilities receive the early intervention services they need to learn and function well in the classroom. Predictors for children’s success in school Dependent on oral language/literacy, vocabulary and mathematics Dimensions of social and emotional competence help with self regulation
  • 12. Areas of Research Providing Predictors of Children’s Learning Robust curriculum content Careful attention to known learning sequences (in literacy, mathematics, science, physical education, and other domains) Emphasis on developing children’s self-regulation, engagement, and focused attention Relationship-based teaching and learning Partnering with families Adapting teaching for children from different backgrounds and for individual children Active, meaningful, and connected learning Smaller class sizes Importance of teachers
  • 13. Teacher Decision Making Based on Intentionality Teachers need to: Have knowledge about child development and learning. Know about the sequences in which a domain’s specific concepts and skills are learned. Have a well developed repertoire of teaching strategies to employ for different purposes. Have guidance without being forced to use “overscripted” curriculum
  • 14. Core Considerations in Teacher’s Effective Decision Making Must know about child development and learning age-related characteristics that permit general predictions about what experiences are likely to best promote children’s learning and development Must know about each child as an individual how best to adapt and be responsive to that individual variation
  • 15. Core Considerations in Teacher’s Effective Decision Making Must know about the social and cultural contexts in which children live values, expectations, and behavioral and linguistic conventions that shape children’s lives at home and in their communities ensure that learning experiences in the program or school are meaningful, relevant, and respectful for each child and family.
  • 16. Need Challenging and Achievable Goals for our Children New experiences build on what a child already knows and is able to do and when those learning experiences Reflects on what goals should come next after the child reaches that new level of mastery in skill or understanding Advance children’s learning in a developmentally appropriate way
  • 17. Intentionality – Hallmark of Developmentally Appropriate Teaching Teachers apply intentionality to: Setting up the classroom Planning curriculum Making use of various teaching strategies Assessing children Interacting with children Working with families. Intentional teachers Are purposeful and thoughtful about the actions they take Direct their teaching toward the goals the program is trying to help children reach
  • 18. Principles of child development and learning that inform practice Developmentally Appropriate Practices Based on Early Childhood Development Research
  • 19. Principle #1 All the domains of development and learning—physical, social and emotional, and cognitive—are important and closely interrelated. Children’s development and learning in one domain influence and are influenced by what takes place in other domains. Research ideas Social and emotional competence affects academic achievement Language development affects personal and social relationships
  • 20. Principle #2 Many aspects of children’s learning and development follow well documented sequences, with later abilities, skills, and knowledge building on those already acquired Research ideas Expanding knowledge of how children typically develop and learn Understanding sequences in which children gain specific concepts, skills, and abilities, building on prior development and learning.
  • 21. Principle #3 Development and learning proceed at varying rates from child to child, as well as at uneven rates across different areas of a child’s individual functioning. Research ideas Variability around the typical or normative course of development Uniqueness of each child as an individual Variation in children’s temperament, personality, and aptitudes Differing family and social-cultural contexts that shape children’s experiences. Need for individualized instruction
  • 22. Principle #4 Development and learning result from a dynamic and continuous interaction of biological maturation and experience. Research ideas: Individualized interventions High expectations and learning Using knowledge, ingenuity, and persistence to find ways to help every child succeed. Multiple intelligences
  • 23. Principle #5 Early experiences have profound effects, both cumulative and delayed, on a child’s development and learning Optimal periods exist for certain types of development and learning to occur. Research ideas Eary intervention Cumulative effect of early experiences, whether positive or negative. Brain development and neural connections resulting from early stimulation Intervention and support Prevention of reading difficulties
  • 24. Principle #6 Development proceeds toward greater complexity, self-regulation, and symbolic or representational capacities. Research ideas Increasingly complex functioning with language, social interaction, physical movement, problem solving Simple routines that can develop into more complex strategies with increased organization and memory capacity in the brain Self-regulation - capacity to manage strong emotions and keep one’s attention focused. Moving from sensory or behavioral responses to symbolic or representational knowledge
  • 25. Principle #7 Children develop best when they have secure, consistent relationships with responsive adults and opportunities for positive relationships with peers. Research ideas Key areas of children’s development empathy cooperation self-regulation cultural socialization language and communication peer relationships identity formation
  • 26. Principle #8 Development and learning occur in and are influenced by multiple social and cultural contexts. Research ideas Sociocultural context of family, educational setting, and community, as well as within the broader society Culture - customary beliefs and patterns of behavior, both explicit and implicit, that are inculcated by the society—or by a social, religious, or ethnic group within the How our own cultural experience shapes our perspective Multiple perspectives must be considered in decisions about children’s development and learning. Additive process of acquiring a new language rather than causing the displacement of the child’s first language and culture
  • 27. Principle #9 Children are always mentally active in seeking to understand the world around them Children learn in a variety of ways A wide range of teaching strategies and interactions are effective in supporting all these kinds of learning. Research ideas Cognitive development from the constructivist, interactive perspective Using multiple teaching strategies to meet children’s different learning needs
  • 28. Principle #10 Play is an important vehicle for developing self-regulation as well as for promoting language, cognition, and social competence. Research ideas Links between play and foundational capacities such as memory, self-regulation, oral language abilities, social skills, and success in school High-level dramatic play produces documented cognitive, social, and emotional benefits Developing self-regulation through play Play supports abilities that underlie learning and thus to promote school success.
  • 29. Principle #11 Development and learning advance when children are challenged to achieve at a level just beyond their current mastery, and also when they have many opportunities to practice newly acquired skills. Research ideas Rich learning environments promote children’s undertaking and mastering of new and progressively more advanced challenges Scaffolding Opportunities to practice and consolidate new skills and concepts essential in order for children to reach the threshold of mastery Setting achievable goals for young children
  • 30. Principle #12 Children’s experiences shape their motivation and approaches to learning (persistence, initiative, and flexibility) These dispositions and behaviors affect their learning and development. Research ideas Focus on how rather than the what of learning Involving children’s feelings about learning (interest, pleasure, and motivation to learn) and children’s behavior when learning (attention, persistence, flexibility, and self-regulation) Children who start school more eager to learn tend to do better in reading and mathematics than do less motivated children Children with more positive learning behaviors, such as initiative, attention, and persistence, later develop stronger language skills. Children with greater self-regulation and other “learning-related skills” in kindergarten are more skilled in reading and mathematics in later grades.
  • 31. Guidelines for Developmentally Appropriate Practice Create a Caring Community of Learners Teach to Enhance Development and Learning Plan Curriculum to Achieve Important Goals Assess Children’s Development and Learning Establish Reciprocal Relationships with Families
  • 32. Create a Caring Community of Learners Each member of the community is valued by the others Relationships are an important context through which children develop and learn Each member of the community respects and is accountable to the others to behave in a way that is conducive to the learning and well-being of all Practitioners design and maintain the physical environment to protect the health and safety of the learning community members. Practitioners ensure members of the community feel psychologically safe.
  • 33. Provide an Overall Positive Social Climate Interactions among community members and the experiences provided by teachers, leave participants feeling secure, relaxed, and comfortable rather than disengaged, frightened, worried, or unduly stressed. Teachers foster in children an enjoyment of and engagement in learning. Teachers ensure that the environment is organized and the schedule follows an orderly routine that provides a stable structure within which development and learning can take place. Children hear and see their home language and culture reflected in the daily interactions and activities of the classroom.
  • 34. The Teacher’s Role Help children develop responsibility and self-regulation Monitor, anticipate, prevent, and redirect behaviors not conducive to learning or disrespectful of the community Set clear and reasonable limits on children’s behavior and apply those limits consistently. Listen to and acknowledge children’s feelings and frustrations Respond with respect in ways that children can understand, guide children to resolve conflicts Model skills that help children to solve their own problems. Demonstrate high levels of responsibility and self-regulation in their interactions with other adults (colleagues, family members) and with children.
  • 35. Teach to Enhance Development and Learning Provide an optimal balance of adult-guided and child-guided experiences. Adult-guided experience proceeds primarily along the lines of the teacher’s goals, but is also shaped by the children’s active engagement C hild-guided experience proceeds primarily along the lines of children’s interests and actions, with strategic teacher support. Stimulate, direct, and support children’s development and learning by providing the experiences that each child needs
  • 36. Plan Curriculum to Achieve Important Goals Plan learning experiences that will result in meeting learning outcomes for children. Program needs a comprehensive, effective curriculum that targets the identified goals, including all those foundational for later learning and school success Identify and articulate desired goals that are important in young children’s learning and development
  • 37. Teacher Identifies and Articulates Desired Goals Consider what children should know, understand, and be able to do across the domains of physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development and across the disciplines Language, literacy, mathematics, social studies, science, art, music, physical education, and health. Become thoroughly familiar with state standards or other mandates that are in place. Eensure that goals are clearly defined for, communicated to, and understood by all stakeholders, including families
  • 38. Teacher’s Role with Curriculum Framework Use framework in planning to ensure there is ample attention to important learning goals. Make meaningful connections a priority in the learning experiences to reflect that all learners learn best when concepts, language, and skills they encounter are related to something they know and care about Collaborate with those teaching in the preceding and subsequent grade levels, Share information about children Work to increase the continuity and coherence across ages/grades Protect the integrity and appropriateness of practices at each level. Plan curriculum (routines and experiences) for infants and toddlers
  • 39. Assess Children’s Development and Learning Ongoing, strategic, and purposeful assessment. Focus on children’s progress toward goals that are developmentally and educationally significant. Have a system in place to collect, make sense of, and use the assessment information to guide what goes on in the classroom (formative assessment). Use appropriate methods according to the developmental status and experiences of young children Allow children to demonstrate their competence in different ways recognizing individual variation in learners Look not only at what children can do independently but also at what they can do with assistance from other children or adults.
  • 40. Assessments Use input from families as well as children’s own evaluations of their work are part of the program’s overall assessment strategy Tailor to a specific purpose and used only for the purpose for which they have been demonstrated to produce reliable, valid information. Use multiple sources of relevant information for decision making that has a major impact on children. When a screening or other assessment identifies children who may have special learning or developmental needs Use appropriate follow-up, evaluation, and, if indicated, referral.
  • 41. Establish Reciprocal Relationships with Families Respect, cooperate, and share responsibility and negotiation of conflicts toward achievement of shared goals. Work in collaborative partnerships with families Establish regular communication using language of the home. Welcome family members Provide multiple opportunities for family participation.
  • 42. Relationships with Families Plan conferences with family Share knowledge of the particular child and understanding of child development and learning as part of day-to-day communication Involve families as a source of information about the child Link families with a range of services, based on identified resources, priorities, and concerns.
  • 43. Be a Good Teacher! Acknowledge and encourage children’s efforts Model and demonstrate Create challenges and support children in extending their capabilities Provide specific directions or instruction. Use a variety of teaching strategies in the context of play and structured activities. Organize the classroom environment Plan ways to pursue educational goals for each child as opportunities arise in child-initiated activities in activities planned and initiated by the teacher.