SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 29
Download to read offline
GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES 
By 
Rahul sinha
TOPICS 
•DAMS 
Types of dams 
Selection of dam sites 
Geological characters for investigation 
Selection of the dam type
DAMS 
•A dam may be defined as a solid barrier constructed at suitable location across river valley with a view of impounding water flowing through that river. 
•Dams are created for the following objectives: 
Generation of hydropower energy 
Providing water for irrigation facilities 
Fish farming 
Fighting droughts 
Controlling of floods 
Water supply for domestic consumption 
Providing navigational facilities
Types of dams 
•Gravity dams 
A gravity is a solid concrete structure, generally having a triangular profile, which is so designed that it can safely stand against the precalculated volume of water by virtue of its weight. 
Forces in the dam : thrust of impounded water in x-axis and weight of the dam in y- axis.
Some examples 
•Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam across the Sutlej River, and is in Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh in northern India. 
•India's second tallest at 225.55 m (740 ft) high next to the 261m Tehri Dam. 
•The 90 km long reservoir created by the Bhakra Dam is spread over an area of 168.35 km2. In terms of storage of water, it withholds the second largest reservoir in India, the first being Indira Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh with capacity of 12.22 billion cm3.
Butress dam 
•Butress dams are derived from gravity dams. This type of dams are supported uses thin concrete slab which is supported from downstream side by butresses. 
•It uses multiple reinforced columns to support the dams. Since it has relatively thin structure so there is considerable amount of saving of concrete material.
Arch dams 
•The extraordinary Mir Alam multi-arch dam was completed in 1804 for the water supply of Hyderabad. 
•This dam was the work of Henry Russel, a member of the British Royal Engineers. The structure, reaching a height of 12 m, consisted of 21 semicircular, vertical arches that were of constant thicknesses and variable spans. 
It is an arch – shaped solid structure made up of concrete which is designed in such a way that a major part of the thrust forces acting on the dam are transmitted to arch. There are mainly two types of ach dams : 
• Constant radius arch dams : radius of curvature throughout the structure is constant and upstream face is vertical. 
• Variable radius dams : curvatures are different on upstream and downstream sides. 
These types of dames are best suited for narrow valleys. 
An arch dam having a curvature both in horizontal and vertical alignment is often called a CUPOLA dam.
Example 
•Arch dams are quite thin walled dams and hence lighter in weight. 
•The Idukki Dam, located in Kerala, India, is a 168.91 m (554 ft) tall arch dam. 
•It is built on the Periyar River, in the ravine between the Kuravan and Kurathi Hills in Kerala, India. 
•At 167.68 metres, it is one of the highest arch dams in Asia and third tallest arch dam. Technically, the dam type is a concrete double, curvature parabolic, thin arc dam. 
•It supports a 780 MW hydroelectric power station. It was constructed and is owned by the Kerala State Electricity Board.
Embankment dams 
•These are non rigid structures which are build over wide valleys with varying foundations. These are trapezoidal in shape and are build of single type of material(such as earth fill or rock fill) or combination of more than one material. 
•The main advantage of these dams is that it can be constructed on weak foundation. 
•Impervious core is placed in the middle of the embankment body. 
•Generally riprap is used to control erosion.
Example 
•The Tehri Dam is the highest dam in India and one of the tallest in the world. 
•It is a multi-purpose rock and earthfill embankment dam on the Bhagirathim River near Tehri in Uttarakhand, India. 
•It is the primary dam of the THDC India Ltd. and the Tehri hydroelectric complex. The Tehri Dam withholds a reservoir for irrigation, municipal water supply and the generation of 1,000 MW of hydroelectricity. 
•The dam's 1,000 MW pumped-storage scheme is currently under construction.
COMPOSITE DAMS 
•Composite dams are combinations of one or more dam types. 
•Most often a large section of a dam will be either an embankment or gravity dam, with the section responsible for power generation being a buttress or arch.
Example 
•Ujani Dam, also known as Bhima Dam or Bhima Irrigation Project, on the Bhima River, a tributary of the Krishna River, is an earthfill cum Masonry gravity dam located near Ujani village of Madha Taluk in Solapur district of the state of Maharashtra in India. 
SELECTION OF DAM SITES 
Selection of sites is based on following basis: Topographically: most suitable place must be chosen for construction. Ideally it must be a narrow gorge or a small valley with enough catchment area available behind so that calculated amount of water can be easily stored in the reservoir created upstream.
•Location of spillway: All dam should have an adequate spillway for passing flood flows. If a river gorge is narrow, then there may not be sufficient spillway width available and a suitable location on the periphery of the reservoir has to be found to locate a spillway. 
•Possibility of river diversion during construction : The way, river can be diverted at a particular site for making way for construction of the dam may affect the design of the dam and also the construction schedule. 
•Sedimentation possibilities :The average quantity of sediment carried by the river has to be known, as precisely as possible, which would give an idea of the rate at which a proposed reservoir way get filled up.
•Technically: the site must be sound as possible: strong, impermeable and stable. Strong rocks make the job of designer easy. Impermeable sites ensure better storage inventories. Site must be stable with respect to seismic shocks slope failures around dam. 
•Constructionally: the site should be far from the materials which will be used for the construction. Their non-availability will make the cost of project high. 
•Human welfare: site selection should be done in such a way that it must cause minimum damage to public in the of destruction or failure. 
•Economically: the creation of the dam must not create ecological disorder. Fish culture is the first sector that suffers the major shock due to dam construction. It indirectly affects the other population. The dam should become an acceptable element of the ecological set up of the area.
Geological characters for investigation 
•Geology of the site 
a.Lithology : surface and subsurface studies must be carried out. These studies reveal the type, the composition and texture of the rocks along the valley floor. 
b.Structures: 
1.Dip and strike: the resultant force due to weight of the dam and the up thrust of the impounded water is always inclined the downstream as shown in the figure.
•So, gently upstream dipping layers offer best resistance to the resultant force of the dam. 
•So most unfavorable strike direction is the one in which the bed strike is parallel to the axis of the dam and the slip is downward.
2. Faults: Dams founded on the fault zones are most liable to the shocks during an earthquake. Generally the small scale fault zones can be treated effectively by grouting.
3. Folds: the effects on of fold on rock are shattering and jointing along the axial planes and stressing of limbs. In the synclinal region dams placed on the upstream limbs have the risk of leakage from beneath the dam.
4. Engineering properties of rocks: 
a. Strength parameter: it consist of three investigations – laboratory, in-situ static and dynamic. 
•The compressive and shearing strength of the rocks are estimated by laboratory test. 
•These tests are complimented with in-situ studies using static and dynamic studies. 
•Static study: by this test settlements and strains are recorded with different loadings which is used to estimate the bearing strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio. 
•The dynamic method involve creating seismic waves artificially at selected locations and recording the velocity of the shock waves through the rocks of the sites. The shock wave velocity relates to the density, rigidity, porosity and permeability of the rocks at the site.
b. Porosity and permeability: a dam is a water impounding structure. So water must not find easy avenues to escape other than provided in design such as spillways. So porosity and permeability of the rocks are tested both in laboratory and in-situ. Artificial treatment is given to the critical zones such as grouting to make the rocks water tight. 
Selection of the dam type 
Material availability: If the cost of transportation of construction material is excessively high, then an alternate design with locally available materials, have to be considered. Seismicity : It is very important to analyse the behaviour of the dam under earth quake vibrations thereby making it possible for the designer to check if a particular section of the dam is suitable or not.
•Geology and foundation strength- The existence of joint patterns in the abutments (their orientation, inclination and infilling) may indicate the possibility of instability under loading from an arch dam and reservoir water. Such a site would be more satisfactory for an embankment dam or an adequately dimensioned gravity dam. 
• Where the possibility exists of differential deformation of the foundation along the axis of a dam, a gravity or arch dam would not be a suitable choice because of their inherent rigidity due to their construction in concrete. Instead, an embankment dam may be proposed, which is more flexible. 
• Further, it may be noted that the stresses expected at the base of a dam may have to be checked with the bearing capacity of the foundation material. 
•Embankment dams produce the least formation stress, Followed by gravity, buttress and arch, in that order.
•Hydrology- If, during the construction season, there are possibilities of the partially constructed dam being overtopped by the floods of the river water, then a concrete dam section would be preferred then an embankment dam section. 
•If an embankment dam section is still proposed to be built, then adequate diversion works have to be provided for diverting the river flood water. 
•Unavailability of skilled workers- In case of sophisticated dam section, skilled workers are an absolute necessity. Unavailability of such workers at proposed dam construction site may have to force the designer to adopt a more easy to construct a type of dam.
Valley shape and overburden- The shape of the river valley and the overburden also influences the type of dam that may be proposed to be constructed. 
•In case of a wide valley with deep deposits of fine- grained soil overburden favours earth fill embankment dams (Figure a) . 
•A river valley that has much less over-burden (Figure b), would be suitable for embankment, gravity or buttress dams. 
•A narrow valley with steep sides (Figure c) and with sound rock in the valley floor and sides may be suited to an arch or cupola dams. 
•In case of a wide valley separated in two parts (Figure d) may suggest a combination of two types of dams. An earth fill embankment may be constructed where the overburden depth is considerable and a concrete gravity dam on the site where the overburden is less. The spillway portion can then be located on the concrete gravity section.
Please visit ( for more presentations) www.slideshare.net/RAHULSINHA1993

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

Dam and types of dam with site selection
Dam and types of dam with site selectionDam and types of dam with site selection
Dam and types of dam with site selection
 
DAMS AND ITS TYPES
DAMS AND ITS TYPESDAMS AND ITS TYPES
DAMS AND ITS TYPES
 
Hydrogeology
HydrogeologyHydrogeology
Hydrogeology
 
Aquifer Parameter Estimation
Aquifer Parameter EstimationAquifer Parameter Estimation
Aquifer Parameter Estimation
 
Scope of studying engineering geology
Scope of studying engineering geologyScope of studying engineering geology
Scope of studying engineering geology
 
Ground water exploration
Ground water explorationGround water exploration
Ground water exploration
 
Groundwater Investigation Techniques-Geophysical Methods
Groundwater Investigation Techniques-Geophysical MethodsGroundwater Investigation Techniques-Geophysical Methods
Groundwater Investigation Techniques-Geophysical Methods
 
Rock Mass Classification
Rock Mass ClassificationRock Mass Classification
Rock Mass Classification
 
Reservoir Dam Safety
Reservoir Dam SafetyReservoir Dam Safety
Reservoir Dam Safety
 
Procedure for conducting pumping tests
Procedure for conducting pumping testsProcedure for conducting pumping tests
Procedure for conducting pumping tests
 
Arch dam
Arch dam   Arch dam
Arch dam
 
Tunnels, types & importance
Tunnels, types &  importanceTunnels, types &  importance
Tunnels, types & importance
 
2 tunnels
2 tunnels2 tunnels
2 tunnels
 
Reservoir sedimentation
Reservoir sedimentationReservoir sedimentation
Reservoir sedimentation
 
Arch and Buttress Dams
Arch and Buttress DamsArch and Buttress Dams
Arch and Buttress Dams
 
Rock testing
Rock testingRock testing
Rock testing
 
Artificial ground water recharge ppt
Artificial ground water recharge pptArtificial ground water recharge ppt
Artificial ground water recharge ppt
 
Ground Water Hydrology
Ground Water HydrologyGround Water Hydrology
Ground Water Hydrology
 
1 dams
1 dams1 dams
1 dams
 
Geotechnical investigations for tunnelling
Geotechnical  investigations for tunnellingGeotechnical  investigations for tunnelling
Geotechnical investigations for tunnelling
 

Viewers also liked

Rock Drilling, Sampling & Testing
Rock Drilling, Sampling & TestingRock Drilling, Sampling & Testing
Rock Drilling, Sampling & TestingSARASWATI PATHARIYA
 
Soil exploration/Investigation method, purpose depth of exploration (Usefulse...
Soil exploration/Investigation method, purpose depth of exploration (Usefulse...Soil exploration/Investigation method, purpose depth of exploration (Usefulse...
Soil exploration/Investigation method, purpose depth of exploration (Usefulse...Make Mannan
 
Dam construction
Dam constructionDam construction
Dam constructionalizay41
 
Reservoir planning ajitha miss
Reservoir planning ajitha missReservoir planning ajitha miss
Reservoir planning ajitha missSHAMJITH KM
 
Classification of reservoirs
Classification of reservoirsClassification of reservoirs
Classification of reservoirsFertiglobe
 
Dams & its Construction
Dams & its ConstructionDams & its Construction
Dams & its ConstructionZakaria Yahya
 

Viewers also liked (14)

DAMS AND IT'S TYPES . . .
DAMS AND IT'S TYPES . . .DAMS AND IT'S TYPES . . .
DAMS AND IT'S TYPES . . .
 
Rock Drilling, Sampling & Testing
Rock Drilling, Sampling & TestingRock Drilling, Sampling & Testing
Rock Drilling, Sampling & Testing
 
Soil exploration/Investigation method, purpose depth of exploration (Usefulse...
Soil exploration/Investigation method, purpose depth of exploration (Usefulse...Soil exploration/Investigation method, purpose depth of exploration (Usefulse...
Soil exploration/Investigation method, purpose depth of exploration (Usefulse...
 
Water reservoirs
Water reservoirsWater reservoirs
Water reservoirs
 
Dam construction
Dam constructionDam construction
Dam construction
 
Types of dams
Types of dams Types of dams
Types of dams
 
1. reservoirs unit !
1. reservoirs   unit !1. reservoirs   unit !
1. reservoirs unit !
 
Reservoir planning ajitha miss
Reservoir planning ajitha missReservoir planning ajitha miss
Reservoir planning ajitha miss
 
Classification of reservoirs
Classification of reservoirsClassification of reservoirs
Classification of reservoirs
 
Reservoir
ReservoirReservoir
Reservoir
 
05 water supply system
05 water supply system05 water supply system
05 water supply system
 
Dams & its Construction
Dams & its ConstructionDams & its Construction
Dams & its Construction
 
Ppt of design of dams
Ppt of design of damsPpt of design of dams
Ppt of design of dams
 
Water distribution system
Water distribution systemWater distribution system
Water distribution system
 

Similar to Dams, Types of dams

Dams arvind gupta-12march13 (2)
Dams   arvind gupta-12march13 (2)Dams   arvind gupta-12march13 (2)
Dams arvind gupta-12march13 (2)Arvind Gupta
 
damandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723.pdf
damandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723.pdfdamandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723.pdf
damandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723.pdfCIVIL48
 
26901321007_SAPTADEEP DASGUPTA_CE(PE)701C.pdf
26901321007_SAPTADEEP DASGUPTA_CE(PE)701C.pdf26901321007_SAPTADEEP DASGUPTA_CE(PE)701C.pdf
26901321007_SAPTADEEP DASGUPTA_CE(PE)701C.pdfRijuDasgupta
 
damandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723 (1) (1).pptx
damandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723 (1) (1).pptxdamandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723 (1) (1).pptx
damandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723 (1) (1).pptxabhijitsaha99
 
Role of Engineering Geology In Resevoirs,Dams & Tunneling.
Role of Engineering Geology In Resevoirs,Dams & Tunneling.Role of Engineering Geology In Resevoirs,Dams & Tunneling.
Role of Engineering Geology In Resevoirs,Dams & Tunneling.kaustubhpetare
 
Design of Hydraulic Structures
Design of Hydraulic StructuresDesign of Hydraulic Structures
Design of Hydraulic StructuresGAURAV. H .TANDON
 
Ecg533 rock-tunnel-engineering
Ecg533 rock-tunnel-engineeringEcg533 rock-tunnel-engineering
Ecg533 rock-tunnel-engineeringJunaida Wally
 
Introduction to Dam in Hydrology
Introduction to Dam in HydrologyIntroduction to Dam in Hydrology
Introduction to Dam in HydrologyVishalVishwakarma59
 
GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR CONSTRUCTION OF DAMS
GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR CONSTRUCTION OF DAMSGEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR CONSTRUCTION OF DAMS
GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR CONSTRUCTION OF DAMSLorevieOlaes
 
New geology of dams & reservoir unit v
New geology of dams & reservoir unit vNew geology of dams & reservoir unit v
New geology of dams & reservoir unit vDr.Anil Deshpande
 

Similar to Dams, Types of dams (20)

Dams arvind gupta-12march13 (2)
Dams   arvind gupta-12march13 (2)Dams   arvind gupta-12march13 (2)
Dams arvind gupta-12march13 (2)
 
damandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723.pdf
damandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723.pdfdamandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723.pdf
damandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723.pdf
 
26901321007_SAPTADEEP DASGUPTA_CE(PE)701C.pdf
26901321007_SAPTADEEP DASGUPTA_CE(PE)701C.pdf26901321007_SAPTADEEP DASGUPTA_CE(PE)701C.pdf
26901321007_SAPTADEEP DASGUPTA_CE(PE)701C.pdf
 
damandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723 (1) (1).pptx
damandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723 (1) (1).pptxdamandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723 (1) (1).pptx
damandtypesofdamwithsiteselection-170403160723 (1) (1).pptx
 
Dams
DamsDams
Dams
 
Role of Engineering Geology In Resevoirs,Dams & Tunneling.
Role of Engineering Geology In Resevoirs,Dams & Tunneling.Role of Engineering Geology In Resevoirs,Dams & Tunneling.
Role of Engineering Geology In Resevoirs,Dams & Tunneling.
 
Dam presentation
Dam presentationDam presentation
Dam presentation
 
Dams.pptx
Dams.pptxDams.pptx
Dams.pptx
 
Dams PPT
Dams PPTDams PPT
Dams PPT
 
Dams.ppt
Dams.pptDams.ppt
Dams.ppt
 
Design of Hydraulic Structures
Design of Hydraulic StructuresDesign of Hydraulic Structures
Design of Hydraulic Structures
 
Infrastructure of Dam
Infrastructure of DamInfrastructure of Dam
Infrastructure of Dam
 
Dam types
Dam typesDam types
Dam types
 
Ecg533 rock-tunnel-engineering
Ecg533 rock-tunnel-engineeringEcg533 rock-tunnel-engineering
Ecg533 rock-tunnel-engineering
 
Introduction to Dam in Hydrology
Introduction to Dam in HydrologyIntroduction to Dam in Hydrology
Introduction to Dam in Hydrology
 
typesofdamsPPT
typesofdamsPPTtypesofdamsPPT
typesofdamsPPT
 
Unit 6
Unit 6Unit 6
Unit 6
 
GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR CONSTRUCTION OF DAMS
GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR CONSTRUCTION OF DAMSGEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR CONSTRUCTION OF DAMS
GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR CONSTRUCTION OF DAMS
 
Dams 1
Dams 1Dams 1
Dams 1
 
New geology of dams & reservoir unit v
New geology of dams & reservoir unit vNew geology of dams & reservoir unit v
New geology of dams & reservoir unit v
 

More from RAHUL SINHA

Rahul sinha foundation engineering
Rahul sinha foundation engineeringRahul sinha foundation engineering
Rahul sinha foundation engineeringRAHUL SINHA
 
Rahul sinha soil mech. basics
Rahul sinha soil mech. basicsRahul sinha soil mech. basics
Rahul sinha soil mech. basicsRAHUL SINHA
 
Rahul sinha geotechnical engineering
Rahul sinha geotechnical engineeringRahul sinha geotechnical engineering
Rahul sinha geotechnical engineeringRAHUL SINHA
 
Maths and apti rahul sinha
Maths and apti rahul sinhaMaths and apti rahul sinha
Maths and apti rahul sinhaRAHUL SINHA
 
Transportation engineering rahul sinha
Transportation engineering rahul sinhaTransportation engineering rahul sinha
Transportation engineering rahul sinhaRAHUL SINHA
 
Seepage through soil
Seepage through soilSeepage through soil
Seepage through soilRAHUL SINHA
 
BASIC OF PERMEABILITY OF SOIL
BASIC OF PERMEABILITY OF SOILBASIC OF PERMEABILITY OF SOIL
BASIC OF PERMEABILITY OF SOILRAHUL SINHA
 
Open channel flow rahul sinha
Open channel flow rahul sinhaOpen channel flow rahul sinha
Open channel flow rahul sinhaRAHUL SINHA
 
Fluid mechanics rahul sinha
Fluid mechanics rahul sinhaFluid mechanics rahul sinha
Fluid mechanics rahul sinhaRAHUL SINHA
 
Structural analysis rahul sinha
Structural analysis rahul sinhaStructural analysis rahul sinha
Structural analysis rahul sinhaRAHUL SINHA
 
Mechanics of materials rahul sinha
Mechanics of materials rahul sinhaMechanics of materials rahul sinha
Mechanics of materials rahul sinhaRAHUL SINHA
 
Compass surveying
Compass surveyingCompass surveying
Compass surveyingRAHUL SINHA
 
Levelling in Surveying
Levelling in SurveyingLevelling in Surveying
Levelling in SurveyingRAHUL SINHA
 
Joukowski's airfoils, introduction to conformal mapping
Joukowski's  airfoils, introduction to conformal mappingJoukowski's  airfoils, introduction to conformal mapping
Joukowski's airfoils, introduction to conformal mappingRAHUL SINHA
 
pointing, plastering, bonding
pointing, plastering, bondingpointing, plastering, bonding
pointing, plastering, bondingRAHUL SINHA
 
Ventilation/Roofing
Ventilation/RoofingVentilation/Roofing
Ventilation/RoofingRAHUL SINHA
 
The cost of production/Chapter 7(pindyck)
The cost of production/Chapter 7(pindyck)The cost of production/Chapter 7(pindyck)
The cost of production/Chapter 7(pindyck)RAHUL SINHA
 
Joints and unconformity
Joints and unconformityJoints and unconformity
Joints and unconformityRAHUL SINHA
 
Folds and foldings
Folds and foldingsFolds and foldings
Folds and foldingsRAHUL SINHA
 
cost of production / Chapter 6(pindyck)
cost of production / Chapter 6(pindyck)cost of production / Chapter 6(pindyck)
cost of production / Chapter 6(pindyck)RAHUL SINHA
 

More from RAHUL SINHA (20)

Rahul sinha foundation engineering
Rahul sinha foundation engineeringRahul sinha foundation engineering
Rahul sinha foundation engineering
 
Rahul sinha soil mech. basics
Rahul sinha soil mech. basicsRahul sinha soil mech. basics
Rahul sinha soil mech. basics
 
Rahul sinha geotechnical engineering
Rahul sinha geotechnical engineeringRahul sinha geotechnical engineering
Rahul sinha geotechnical engineering
 
Maths and apti rahul sinha
Maths and apti rahul sinhaMaths and apti rahul sinha
Maths and apti rahul sinha
 
Transportation engineering rahul sinha
Transportation engineering rahul sinhaTransportation engineering rahul sinha
Transportation engineering rahul sinha
 
Seepage through soil
Seepage through soilSeepage through soil
Seepage through soil
 
BASIC OF PERMEABILITY OF SOIL
BASIC OF PERMEABILITY OF SOILBASIC OF PERMEABILITY OF SOIL
BASIC OF PERMEABILITY OF SOIL
 
Open channel flow rahul sinha
Open channel flow rahul sinhaOpen channel flow rahul sinha
Open channel flow rahul sinha
 
Fluid mechanics rahul sinha
Fluid mechanics rahul sinhaFluid mechanics rahul sinha
Fluid mechanics rahul sinha
 
Structural analysis rahul sinha
Structural analysis rahul sinhaStructural analysis rahul sinha
Structural analysis rahul sinha
 
Mechanics of materials rahul sinha
Mechanics of materials rahul sinhaMechanics of materials rahul sinha
Mechanics of materials rahul sinha
 
Compass surveying
Compass surveyingCompass surveying
Compass surveying
 
Levelling in Surveying
Levelling in SurveyingLevelling in Surveying
Levelling in Surveying
 
Joukowski's airfoils, introduction to conformal mapping
Joukowski's  airfoils, introduction to conformal mappingJoukowski's  airfoils, introduction to conformal mapping
Joukowski's airfoils, introduction to conformal mapping
 
pointing, plastering, bonding
pointing, plastering, bondingpointing, plastering, bonding
pointing, plastering, bonding
 
Ventilation/Roofing
Ventilation/RoofingVentilation/Roofing
Ventilation/Roofing
 
The cost of production/Chapter 7(pindyck)
The cost of production/Chapter 7(pindyck)The cost of production/Chapter 7(pindyck)
The cost of production/Chapter 7(pindyck)
 
Joints and unconformity
Joints and unconformityJoints and unconformity
Joints and unconformity
 
Folds and foldings
Folds and foldingsFolds and foldings
Folds and foldings
 
cost of production / Chapter 6(pindyck)
cost of production / Chapter 6(pindyck)cost of production / Chapter 6(pindyck)
cost of production / Chapter 6(pindyck)
 

Recently uploaded

UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)
UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)
UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)Dr SOUNDIRARAJ N
 
welding defects observed during the welding
welding defects observed during the weldingwelding defects observed during the welding
welding defects observed during the weldingMuhammadUzairLiaqat
 
Work Experience-Dalton Park.pptxfvvvvvvv
Work Experience-Dalton Park.pptxfvvvvvvvWork Experience-Dalton Park.pptxfvvvvvvv
Work Experience-Dalton Park.pptxfvvvvvvvLewisJB
 
Engineering Drawing section of solid
Engineering Drawing     section of solidEngineering Drawing     section of solid
Engineering Drawing section of solidnamansinghjarodiya
 
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasadhome automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasadaditya806802
 
Research Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdfResearch Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdfCaalaaAbdulkerim
 
Arduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.ppt
Arduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.pptArduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.ppt
Arduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.pptSAURABHKUMAR892774
 
Virtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemVirtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
Earthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical SubstationEarthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical Substationstephanwindworld
 
Configuration of IoT devices - Systems managament
Configuration of IoT devices - Systems managamentConfiguration of IoT devices - Systems managament
Configuration of IoT devices - Systems managamentBharaniDharan195623
 
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdfCh10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdfChristianCDAM
 
Risk Management in Engineering Construction Project
Risk Management in Engineering Construction ProjectRisk Management in Engineering Construction Project
Risk Management in Engineering Construction ProjectErbil Polytechnic University
 
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdfHafizMudaserAhmad
 
Indian Dairy Industry Present Status and.ppt
Indian Dairy Industry Present Status and.pptIndian Dairy Industry Present Status and.ppt
Indian Dairy Industry Present Status and.pptMadan Karki
 
Gurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort service
Gurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort serviceGurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort service
Gurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort servicejennyeacort
 
Autonomous emergency braking system (aeb) ppt.ppt
Autonomous emergency braking system (aeb) ppt.pptAutonomous emergency braking system (aeb) ppt.ppt
Autonomous emergency braking system (aeb) ppt.pptbibisarnayak0
 
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptxMine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptxRomil Mishra
 
multiple access in wireless communication
multiple access in wireless communicationmultiple access in wireless communication
multiple access in wireless communicationpanditadesh123
 
BSNL Internship Training presentation.pptx
BSNL Internship Training presentation.pptxBSNL Internship Training presentation.pptx
BSNL Internship Training presentation.pptxNiranjanYadav41
 

Recently uploaded (20)

UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)
UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)
UNIT III ANALOG ELECTRONICS (BASIC ELECTRONICS)
 
welding defects observed during the welding
welding defects observed during the weldingwelding defects observed during the welding
welding defects observed during the welding
 
Work Experience-Dalton Park.pptxfvvvvvvv
Work Experience-Dalton Park.pptxfvvvvvvvWork Experience-Dalton Park.pptxfvvvvvvv
Work Experience-Dalton Park.pptxfvvvvvvv
 
Engineering Drawing section of solid
Engineering Drawing     section of solidEngineering Drawing     section of solid
Engineering Drawing section of solid
 
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasadhome automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
 
Research Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdfResearch Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdf
 
Arduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.ppt
Arduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.pptArduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.ppt
Arduino_CSE ece ppt for working and principal of arduino.ppt
 
Virtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemVirtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating System
 
Designing pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptx
Designing pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptxDesigning pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptx
Designing pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptx
 
Earthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical SubstationEarthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical Substation
 
Configuration of IoT devices - Systems managament
Configuration of IoT devices - Systems managamentConfiguration of IoT devices - Systems managament
Configuration of IoT devices - Systems managament
 
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdfCh10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
 
Risk Management in Engineering Construction Project
Risk Management in Engineering Construction ProjectRisk Management in Engineering Construction Project
Risk Management in Engineering Construction Project
 
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
11. Properties of Liquid Fuels in Energy Engineering.pdf
 
Indian Dairy Industry Present Status and.ppt
Indian Dairy Industry Present Status and.pptIndian Dairy Industry Present Status and.ppt
Indian Dairy Industry Present Status and.ppt
 
Gurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort service
Gurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort serviceGurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort service
Gurgaon ✡️9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 51 escort service
 
Autonomous emergency braking system (aeb) ppt.ppt
Autonomous emergency braking system (aeb) ppt.pptAutonomous emergency braking system (aeb) ppt.ppt
Autonomous emergency braking system (aeb) ppt.ppt
 
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptxMine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
 
multiple access in wireless communication
multiple access in wireless communicationmultiple access in wireless communication
multiple access in wireless communication
 
BSNL Internship Training presentation.pptx
BSNL Internship Training presentation.pptxBSNL Internship Training presentation.pptx
BSNL Internship Training presentation.pptx
 

Dams, Types of dams

  • 2. TOPICS •DAMS Types of dams Selection of dam sites Geological characters for investigation Selection of the dam type
  • 3. DAMS •A dam may be defined as a solid barrier constructed at suitable location across river valley with a view of impounding water flowing through that river. •Dams are created for the following objectives: Generation of hydropower energy Providing water for irrigation facilities Fish farming Fighting droughts Controlling of floods Water supply for domestic consumption Providing navigational facilities
  • 4. Types of dams •Gravity dams A gravity is a solid concrete structure, generally having a triangular profile, which is so designed that it can safely stand against the precalculated volume of water by virtue of its weight. Forces in the dam : thrust of impounded water in x-axis and weight of the dam in y- axis.
  • 5.
  • 6. Some examples •Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam across the Sutlej River, and is in Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh in northern India. •India's second tallest at 225.55 m (740 ft) high next to the 261m Tehri Dam. •The 90 km long reservoir created by the Bhakra Dam is spread over an area of 168.35 km2. In terms of storage of water, it withholds the second largest reservoir in India, the first being Indira Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh with capacity of 12.22 billion cm3.
  • 7. Butress dam •Butress dams are derived from gravity dams. This type of dams are supported uses thin concrete slab which is supported from downstream side by butresses. •It uses multiple reinforced columns to support the dams. Since it has relatively thin structure so there is considerable amount of saving of concrete material.
  • 8.
  • 9. Arch dams •The extraordinary Mir Alam multi-arch dam was completed in 1804 for the water supply of Hyderabad. •This dam was the work of Henry Russel, a member of the British Royal Engineers. The structure, reaching a height of 12 m, consisted of 21 semicircular, vertical arches that were of constant thicknesses and variable spans. It is an arch – shaped solid structure made up of concrete which is designed in such a way that a major part of the thrust forces acting on the dam are transmitted to arch. There are mainly two types of ach dams : • Constant radius arch dams : radius of curvature throughout the structure is constant and upstream face is vertical. • Variable radius dams : curvatures are different on upstream and downstream sides. These types of dames are best suited for narrow valleys. An arch dam having a curvature both in horizontal and vertical alignment is often called a CUPOLA dam.
  • 10.
  • 11. Example •Arch dams are quite thin walled dams and hence lighter in weight. •The Idukki Dam, located in Kerala, India, is a 168.91 m (554 ft) tall arch dam. •It is built on the Periyar River, in the ravine between the Kuravan and Kurathi Hills in Kerala, India. •At 167.68 metres, it is one of the highest arch dams in Asia and third tallest arch dam. Technically, the dam type is a concrete double, curvature parabolic, thin arc dam. •It supports a 780 MW hydroelectric power station. It was constructed and is owned by the Kerala State Electricity Board.
  • 12. Embankment dams •These are non rigid structures which are build over wide valleys with varying foundations. These are trapezoidal in shape and are build of single type of material(such as earth fill or rock fill) or combination of more than one material. •The main advantage of these dams is that it can be constructed on weak foundation. •Impervious core is placed in the middle of the embankment body. •Generally riprap is used to control erosion.
  • 13. Example •The Tehri Dam is the highest dam in India and one of the tallest in the world. •It is a multi-purpose rock and earthfill embankment dam on the Bhagirathim River near Tehri in Uttarakhand, India. •It is the primary dam of the THDC India Ltd. and the Tehri hydroelectric complex. The Tehri Dam withholds a reservoir for irrigation, municipal water supply and the generation of 1,000 MW of hydroelectricity. •The dam's 1,000 MW pumped-storage scheme is currently under construction.
  • 14. COMPOSITE DAMS •Composite dams are combinations of one or more dam types. •Most often a large section of a dam will be either an embankment or gravity dam, with the section responsible for power generation being a buttress or arch.
  • 15.
  • 16. Example •Ujani Dam, also known as Bhima Dam or Bhima Irrigation Project, on the Bhima River, a tributary of the Krishna River, is an earthfill cum Masonry gravity dam located near Ujani village of Madha Taluk in Solapur district of the state of Maharashtra in India. SELECTION OF DAM SITES Selection of sites is based on following basis: Topographically: most suitable place must be chosen for construction. Ideally it must be a narrow gorge or a small valley with enough catchment area available behind so that calculated amount of water can be easily stored in the reservoir created upstream.
  • 17. •Location of spillway: All dam should have an adequate spillway for passing flood flows. If a river gorge is narrow, then there may not be sufficient spillway width available and a suitable location on the periphery of the reservoir has to be found to locate a spillway. •Possibility of river diversion during construction : The way, river can be diverted at a particular site for making way for construction of the dam may affect the design of the dam and also the construction schedule. •Sedimentation possibilities :The average quantity of sediment carried by the river has to be known, as precisely as possible, which would give an idea of the rate at which a proposed reservoir way get filled up.
  • 18. •Technically: the site must be sound as possible: strong, impermeable and stable. Strong rocks make the job of designer easy. Impermeable sites ensure better storage inventories. Site must be stable with respect to seismic shocks slope failures around dam. •Constructionally: the site should be far from the materials which will be used for the construction. Their non-availability will make the cost of project high. •Human welfare: site selection should be done in such a way that it must cause minimum damage to public in the of destruction or failure. •Economically: the creation of the dam must not create ecological disorder. Fish culture is the first sector that suffers the major shock due to dam construction. It indirectly affects the other population. The dam should become an acceptable element of the ecological set up of the area.
  • 19. Geological characters for investigation •Geology of the site a.Lithology : surface and subsurface studies must be carried out. These studies reveal the type, the composition and texture of the rocks along the valley floor. b.Structures: 1.Dip and strike: the resultant force due to weight of the dam and the up thrust of the impounded water is always inclined the downstream as shown in the figure.
  • 20. •So, gently upstream dipping layers offer best resistance to the resultant force of the dam. •So most unfavorable strike direction is the one in which the bed strike is parallel to the axis of the dam and the slip is downward.
  • 21. 2. Faults: Dams founded on the fault zones are most liable to the shocks during an earthquake. Generally the small scale fault zones can be treated effectively by grouting.
  • 22. 3. Folds: the effects on of fold on rock are shattering and jointing along the axial planes and stressing of limbs. In the synclinal region dams placed on the upstream limbs have the risk of leakage from beneath the dam.
  • 23. 4. Engineering properties of rocks: a. Strength parameter: it consist of three investigations – laboratory, in-situ static and dynamic. •The compressive and shearing strength of the rocks are estimated by laboratory test. •These tests are complimented with in-situ studies using static and dynamic studies. •Static study: by this test settlements and strains are recorded with different loadings which is used to estimate the bearing strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio. •The dynamic method involve creating seismic waves artificially at selected locations and recording the velocity of the shock waves through the rocks of the sites. The shock wave velocity relates to the density, rigidity, porosity and permeability of the rocks at the site.
  • 24. b. Porosity and permeability: a dam is a water impounding structure. So water must not find easy avenues to escape other than provided in design such as spillways. So porosity and permeability of the rocks are tested both in laboratory and in-situ. Artificial treatment is given to the critical zones such as grouting to make the rocks water tight. Selection of the dam type Material availability: If the cost of transportation of construction material is excessively high, then an alternate design with locally available materials, have to be considered. Seismicity : It is very important to analyse the behaviour of the dam under earth quake vibrations thereby making it possible for the designer to check if a particular section of the dam is suitable or not.
  • 25. •Geology and foundation strength- The existence of joint patterns in the abutments (their orientation, inclination and infilling) may indicate the possibility of instability under loading from an arch dam and reservoir water. Such a site would be more satisfactory for an embankment dam or an adequately dimensioned gravity dam. • Where the possibility exists of differential deformation of the foundation along the axis of a dam, a gravity or arch dam would not be a suitable choice because of their inherent rigidity due to their construction in concrete. Instead, an embankment dam may be proposed, which is more flexible. • Further, it may be noted that the stresses expected at the base of a dam may have to be checked with the bearing capacity of the foundation material. •Embankment dams produce the least formation stress, Followed by gravity, buttress and arch, in that order.
  • 26. •Hydrology- If, during the construction season, there are possibilities of the partially constructed dam being overtopped by the floods of the river water, then a concrete dam section would be preferred then an embankment dam section. •If an embankment dam section is still proposed to be built, then adequate diversion works have to be provided for diverting the river flood water. •Unavailability of skilled workers- In case of sophisticated dam section, skilled workers are an absolute necessity. Unavailability of such workers at proposed dam construction site may have to force the designer to adopt a more easy to construct a type of dam.
  • 27. Valley shape and overburden- The shape of the river valley and the overburden also influences the type of dam that may be proposed to be constructed. •In case of a wide valley with deep deposits of fine- grained soil overburden favours earth fill embankment dams (Figure a) . •A river valley that has much less over-burden (Figure b), would be suitable for embankment, gravity or buttress dams. •A narrow valley with steep sides (Figure c) and with sound rock in the valley floor and sides may be suited to an arch or cupola dams. •In case of a wide valley separated in two parts (Figure d) may suggest a combination of two types of dams. An earth fill embankment may be constructed where the overburden depth is considerable and a concrete gravity dam on the site where the overburden is less. The spillway portion can then be located on the concrete gravity section.
  • 28.
  • 29. Please visit ( for more presentations) www.slideshare.net/RAHULSINHA1993