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Damage assessment and
conservation of underground
space as valuable resources
for human activities use in
Italy and Japan
CNR-JSPS Bilateral program 2018-2019
Roberta Varriale
varriale@issm.cnr.it
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
The Italian TEAM
Roberta Varriale (Urban Historian) ISSM
Laura Genovese (Archaeologist) ICVBC
Marco Leo (Computer science engineer) ISASI
Mario Parise (Geologist) University of Bari
Bruno Venditto (Sociologist) ISSM
Underground space and
the management of aboveground
urban conflicts
• Environmental and urban history
• Natural and social conflicts
• Sustainable urban development
• Long period
• Cultural heritage valorization, green-economy, risk management and
smart cities planning
UNDERGROUND BUILT HERITAGE (UBH)
The complex of underground artifacts caved in the
past to manage urban functions and now
significant part of local cultural heritage
All phases of the decisional process:
• Selection of sites
• Individuation of the most suitable reconversion practice according to the
historical use
• Preservation and safeguard of the comunicative value within the reconversion
What is the role played by historical classification
within the reconversion planning?
Urban history approach, the projects:
• Undergrounds in Naples
• Underground in Europe
• Undergrounds in the Mediterranean
• Bilateral agreement Italy-China
• Comparative study Italy-Algeria
3 different levels of action for UBH
regeneration
• cultural heritage itself: monitoring, communication of
historical functions, restoration, fruition as a cultural site
(installations of technological instruments to diffuse the
underground culture, reconstruction of underground life)
• same functions as in the past: the historical sites restored
and used again according new parameters (productive
spaces reinvented according to the contemporary
standards, sustainable living)
• new functions: the sites are restored and new functions
are located but the communicative role is preserved (shops,
hotels, restaurants, urban facilities in pre-existent
underground spaces)
Italy-Japan
Case study: Naples and Matera
• Visit 2018: NAPLES
• Visit 2019: MATERA
Naples is known as the underground city
• Greek settlers used yellow tuff to build the city, reconverted caves in
cisterns, built the first aqueduct “the Bolla” and caved their necropolis
extra moenia.
• Romans built the second aqueduct, “the Claudio”, the catacombs of San
Gennaro and thermal facilities.
• During Middle ages new necropolis were built and dismissed caved were
used as wheat and oil deposits.
• During the Spanish domination the importation of building materials from
outside was forbidden for demographic reasons and the citizens started
caving in the city subsoil to build: underground became the negative face
of the aboveground city.
• Dismissed caved were used as collective burial places during epidemics till
XVIII Century.
• During XIX Century dismissed caves supported local economy
• During Second World War, underground networks were used as bunkers
UBH
Naples Defence
Communication
Food
Food
cells
Oil and wheat
deposits
Transports
Water
management
Social
Interactions
Knowledge
Economy
Religion
Living
spaces
Caved
houses
Urban
sanitation
Landslides
Environmental
worning
Coast
changes
Underground
houses
Environmental
Conflicts
Necropolis
Catacombs
Acqueducts
Sewers
Black
pools
Water
pools
Bunkers
Castle
prisons
Escape
tunnel
I sectorII sector
Food
transformation
Wharehouses
Tuff caves
StablesFarming
Fascist tags
Refugee graffiti
SsttraStratifications
Vines
Selected case-study in Naples
• Pizzofalcone Hill
• Fontanelle cemetery in the Sanità district
• Posillipo coastal caves (monitoring)
Galleria Borbonica
Built as an escaping route during
Bourbons’ domination
Transformend into a deposit
Pizzofalcone Hill
Modern Age
Tuff cave
Pre-existant
aqueducts
Escaping
tunnel
Deposit for
impounded
cars
Second World War Bunker
Car Parking
Leisure space
Museum
The Fontanelle Cemetery in the Sanità district
Tuff cave
Food
management
•Olives and pickles
•Under salt anchovies
•Stokfish
•Mushrooms cultivation
•Animals breeding
Public
cemetery
Museum
Monitoring case study: Via Posillipo 26 caves
Matera: the CAVED CITY
Sometimes the underground experience was extreme …
• Underground was the place for urban development itself
• The idea of negative building culture was used in Matera in order to
face and solve adverse social and climatic conditions:
Strong annual
temperatures ranges
Plateau
Water scarcity
MATERA 2019: the European capital of Culture
UBH
MATERA Defence
Communication
Food
Food
cells
Public
ovens
Transports
Water
management
Social
Interactions
Knowledge
Economy
Religion
Living
spaces
Caved
houses
Urban
sanitation
Landslides
Environmental
worning
Environmental
Conflicts
Necropolis
Caved Churces
Il Palombaro
Cisterns
prisons
I sectorII sector
Food
transformation
Wharehouses
Tuff caves
StablesFarming
SsttraStratifications
Vines
grafiti
Public
fountains
Selected cases in Matera
• Original Sin Caved church • Casa Cava(Caved house)
Vulnerability
Unicity
Extreme
Preservation
Caved cities Gentrification
Static
Representatio
n of history
Food
Extended
networks
Focus on
major artfacts
Private use,
dismission
Economy
Transport
Sanitary
Water
Religion
Functional
classification Criticity Actions
Stratification
Inglobment
of Layers
Fixed and
technical
supports
Valorization of historical
funtions in Matera
Casa grotta di
Vico Solitario
Il
Palombaro
Project
ATA2018
BRAND
protection
musealization
ZATEMA:
Original Sin
church: Caved
Sistine
Chappel)
IGP2018
Domenico
Ridola
Museum
Projects
Monitoring the risck (Marco Leo):
Naples case study: coastal cave in Via Posillipo
First acquisition Second acquisition
Point cloud comparison
A region in the cloud with
substantial metrical differences
along two acquisition sessions.
Differences have to be pointed
out if they lay outside the
intrinsic sensor uncertainty.
Using the sweep v1.0 , at a
distance of 6 meters the
uncertenty is about 2 cm.
More accurate sensors are
required to increase
reliability.
During the project e will try
to minimize uncertenty
trough high level reasonings
(e.g. object segmentation
and classification) inherited
from computer vision field.
Research activity
Knowledge improvement (Laura Genovese)
Data collection and analysis of historical
and archaeological information (also
coming from documents, iconography,
maps, photos, etc.) related to the
underground heritage
Methods and Tools for Sustainable Enhancement
Solutions to improve artificial caves
cultural utilization and the
integrated enhancement within a
broader territorial scale.
Project results dissemination.

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Damage assessment and conservation of underground space as valuable resources for human activities use in Italy and Japan

  • 1. Damage assessment and conservation of underground space as valuable resources for human activities use in Italy and Japan CNR-JSPS Bilateral program 2018-2019 Roberta Varriale varriale@issm.cnr.it This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
  • 2. The Italian TEAM Roberta Varriale (Urban Historian) ISSM Laura Genovese (Archaeologist) ICVBC Marco Leo (Computer science engineer) ISASI Mario Parise (Geologist) University of Bari Bruno Venditto (Sociologist) ISSM
  • 3. Underground space and the management of aboveground urban conflicts • Environmental and urban history • Natural and social conflicts • Sustainable urban development • Long period • Cultural heritage valorization, green-economy, risk management and smart cities planning
  • 4. UNDERGROUND BUILT HERITAGE (UBH) The complex of underground artifacts caved in the past to manage urban functions and now significant part of local cultural heritage
  • 5. All phases of the decisional process: • Selection of sites • Individuation of the most suitable reconversion practice according to the historical use • Preservation and safeguard of the comunicative value within the reconversion What is the role played by historical classification within the reconversion planning?
  • 6. Urban history approach, the projects: • Undergrounds in Naples • Underground in Europe • Undergrounds in the Mediterranean • Bilateral agreement Italy-China • Comparative study Italy-Algeria
  • 7. 3 different levels of action for UBH regeneration • cultural heritage itself: monitoring, communication of historical functions, restoration, fruition as a cultural site (installations of technological instruments to diffuse the underground culture, reconstruction of underground life) • same functions as in the past: the historical sites restored and used again according new parameters (productive spaces reinvented according to the contemporary standards, sustainable living) • new functions: the sites are restored and new functions are located but the communicative role is preserved (shops, hotels, restaurants, urban facilities in pre-existent underground spaces)
  • 8. Italy-Japan Case study: Naples and Matera • Visit 2018: NAPLES • Visit 2019: MATERA
  • 9. Naples is known as the underground city • Greek settlers used yellow tuff to build the city, reconverted caves in cisterns, built the first aqueduct “the Bolla” and caved their necropolis extra moenia. • Romans built the second aqueduct, “the Claudio”, the catacombs of San Gennaro and thermal facilities. • During Middle ages new necropolis were built and dismissed caved were used as wheat and oil deposits. • During the Spanish domination the importation of building materials from outside was forbidden for demographic reasons and the citizens started caving in the city subsoil to build: underground became the negative face of the aboveground city. • Dismissed caved were used as collective burial places during epidemics till XVIII Century. • During XIX Century dismissed caves supported local economy • During Second World War, underground networks were used as bunkers
  • 10. UBH Naples Defence Communication Food Food cells Oil and wheat deposits Transports Water management Social Interactions Knowledge Economy Religion Living spaces Caved houses Urban sanitation Landslides Environmental worning Coast changes Underground houses Environmental Conflicts Necropolis Catacombs Acqueducts Sewers Black pools Water pools Bunkers Castle prisons Escape tunnel I sectorII sector Food transformation Wharehouses Tuff caves StablesFarming Fascist tags Refugee graffiti SsttraStratifications Vines
  • 11. Selected case-study in Naples • Pizzofalcone Hill • Fontanelle cemetery in the Sanità district • Posillipo coastal caves (monitoring)
  • 12.
  • 13. Galleria Borbonica Built as an escaping route during Bourbons’ domination Transformend into a deposit
  • 14. Pizzofalcone Hill Modern Age Tuff cave Pre-existant aqueducts Escaping tunnel Deposit for impounded cars Second World War Bunker Car Parking Leisure space Museum
  • 15. The Fontanelle Cemetery in the Sanità district Tuff cave Food management •Olives and pickles •Under salt anchovies •Stokfish •Mushrooms cultivation •Animals breeding Public cemetery Museum
  • 16. Monitoring case study: Via Posillipo 26 caves
  • 17. Matera: the CAVED CITY Sometimes the underground experience was extreme … • Underground was the place for urban development itself • The idea of negative building culture was used in Matera in order to face and solve adverse social and climatic conditions: Strong annual temperatures ranges Plateau Water scarcity
  • 18. MATERA 2019: the European capital of Culture
  • 20. Selected cases in Matera • Original Sin Caved church • Casa Cava(Caved house)
  • 21. Vulnerability Unicity Extreme Preservation Caved cities Gentrification Static Representatio n of history Food Extended networks Focus on major artfacts Private use, dismission Economy Transport Sanitary Water Religion Functional classification Criticity Actions Stratification Inglobment of Layers Fixed and technical supports Valorization of historical funtions in Matera Casa grotta di Vico Solitario Il Palombaro Project ATA2018 BRAND protection musealization ZATEMA: Original Sin church: Caved Sistine Chappel) IGP2018 Domenico Ridola Museum Projects
  • 22. Monitoring the risck (Marco Leo): Naples case study: coastal cave in Via Posillipo First acquisition Second acquisition
  • 23. Point cloud comparison A region in the cloud with substantial metrical differences along two acquisition sessions. Differences have to be pointed out if they lay outside the intrinsic sensor uncertainty.
  • 24. Using the sweep v1.0 , at a distance of 6 meters the uncertenty is about 2 cm. More accurate sensors are required to increase reliability. During the project e will try to minimize uncertenty trough high level reasonings (e.g. object segmentation and classification) inherited from computer vision field. Research activity
  • 25. Knowledge improvement (Laura Genovese) Data collection and analysis of historical and archaeological information (also coming from documents, iconography, maps, photos, etc.) related to the underground heritage
  • 26. Methods and Tools for Sustainable Enhancement Solutions to improve artificial caves cultural utilization and the integrated enhancement within a broader territorial scale. Project results dissemination.