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A Study on the Types of
Cyber Crimes and Prevention
         Methods
What is Cyber Crime?
A generalized definition of cyber crime may be “unlawful acts
 wherein the computer is either a tool or target or both”
The computer may be used as a tool in the following kinds of
 activity- financial crimes, sale of illegal articles, pornography,
 online gambling, intellectual property crime, e-mail spoofing,
 forgery, cyber defamation, cyber stalking
The computer may however be target for unlawful acts in the
 following cases- unauthorized access to computer/ computer
 system/ computer networks, theft of information contained in
 the electronic form, e-mail bombing, Trojan attacks, internet
 time thefts, theft of computer system, physically damaging the
 computer system
Computer crimes encompass a broad range of potentially
  illegal activities. Generally, however, it may be divided into
  one of two types of categories
(1) Crimes that target computer networks or devices directly;
 Examples -
 Malware and malicious code, Denial-of-service attacks and
  Computing viruses
(2) Crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices, the
  primary target of which is independent of the computer
  network or device
Examples -
 Cyber stalking, Fraud and identity theft, Phishing scams and
  Information warfare
The Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of
Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (Vienna, 10-17 April
2000) categorized five offenses as cyber-crime: unauthorized
access, damage to computer data or programs, sabotage to
hinder the functioning of a computer system or network,
unauthorized interception of data to from and within a system
or network, and computer espionage.

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This document discusses cyber crime, including its history and common types. It notes that early hacking was done to learn about computer systems but later became more malicious. The main types of cyber crime covered are hacking, cyber terrorism, cyber theft, and cyber stalking. Hacking involves illegally accessing computers to steal or damage information. Cyber terrorism uses the internet for terrorist activities like disrupting networks. Cyber theft involves stealing personal details to illegally obtain money. Cyber stalking uses technology to harass or threaten an individual. The document also discusses causes of cyber crime and methods to tackle it through strong security across computer networks and domains.

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The document discusses various types of cybercrimes such as hacking, virus dissemination, computer vandalism, and software piracy. It also covers topics like internet security, ways to protect computers from cyber threats, and etiquette for safe internet use. Examples are provided of security measures like using antivirus software and firewalls, as well as behaviors to avoid like responding to harassing messages online.

cybercrime
Classification of Cyber Crimes
  The subject of cyber crime may be broadly classified under the
  following three groups. They are:

1. Against individuals
 Their person
 Their property of an individual.
2. Against an organization
 Government
 Firm, Company, Group of Individuals
3. Against the society at large
Against Individuals:

 Harassment via e-mails
 Cyber-stalking
 Dissemination of obscene material
 Defamation
 Unauthorized control/access over computer system
 Indecent exposure
 Email spoofing
 Cheating & Fraud
Against Individual Property:
 Computer vandalism
 Transmitting virus
 Netrespass
 Unauthorized control/access over computer system
 Intellectual Property crimes
 Internet time thefts

Against an Organization:
 Unauthorized control/access over computer system
 Possession of unauthorized information
 Cyber terrorism against the government organization
 Distribution of pirated software
Against the Society at large: -
 Pornography (basically child pornography)
 Polluting the youth through indecent exposure
 Trafficking
 Financial crimes
 Sale of illegal articles
 Online gambling
 Forgery

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Cyber security expert Vivek Agarwal presented on cyber security. His presentation covered internet security, types of cyber crimes like hacking, child pornography, virus dissemination and cyber terrorism. It also discussed primary online risks like cyberbullies, predators, viruses and identity theft. The presentation provided steps individuals can take to boost cyber security such as using firewalls, automatic updates, antivirus and antispyware software. It emphasized educating families on internet safety and managing personal information.

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Cyber crime refers to criminal activity involving computers or networks, where they are tools, targets, or places of crime. Common cyber crimes in India include phishing, fraud, and intellectual property theft. The document outlines several types of cyber crimes such as hacking, cyber stalking, and phishing. It also discusses Indian cyber laws and prevention methods. Overall, the document provides an overview of cyber crimes in India, the relevant laws, and importance of prevention through security measures and awareness.

SPAM:
 Spam, or the unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial
  purposes, is unlawful to varying degrees.

  FRAUD:
 Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact
  intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something
  which causes loss.
 Forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems,
  including bank fraud, identity theft, extortion, and theft of
  classified information. A variety of Internet scams target
  consumers direct.
 Valid credit card numbers can be intercepted electronically, as
  well as physically; the digital information stored on a card can
  be counterfeited.
 Computer networks may also be used in furtherance of
  extortion.

 PHISHING:
 It is technique of pulling out confidential information from the
 bank/financial institutional account holders by deceptive
 means.

  SALAMI ATTACK:
 In such crime criminal makes insignificant changes in such a
  manner that such changes would go unnoticed.
 Criminal makes such program that deducts small amount like
  Rs. 2.50 per month from the account of all the customer of the
  Bank and deposit the same in his account.
 In this case no account holder will approach the bank for such
  small amount but criminal gains huge amount

  OBSCENE OR OFFENSIVE CONTENT: -
 Content considered by some to be objectionable exists in
  abundance in cyberspace.
 This includes, among much else, sexually explicit materials,
  racist propaganda, and instructions for the fabrication of
  incendiary and explosive devices.
 In some instances these communications may be illegal.
 One area of Internet pornography that has been the target of the
  strongest efforts at curtailment is child pornography
 According to Crime Research, child pornography involves
  distributing, trafficking, dissemination and posting any child-
  related obscene material
 When executing this cyber crime, offenders will post obscene
  photos and videos of children and underage teenagers. They
  will provide these for free or charge a subscription fee to those
  who sign up for their websites

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Cybercrime involves using computers or the internet to steal identities or import illegal programs. The first recorded cybercrime took place in 1820. There are different types of cybercrimes such as hacking, denial of service attacks, computer viruses, and software piracy. Cybercrimes also include using computers to attack other systems, commit real-world crimes, or steal proprietary information. Common cyber attacks include financial fraud, sabotage of networks, theft of data, and unauthorized access. Internet security aims to establish rules to protect against such attacks by using antivirus software, firewalls, and updating security settings regularly.

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HARASSMENT:
 It involves violating the privacy of another person by using the
  Internet
 Whereas content may be offensive in a non-specific way,
  harassment directs obscenities and derogatory comments at
  specific individuals focusing for example on gender, race,
  religion, nationality, sexual orientation
 This often occurs in chat rooms, through newsgroups, and by
  sending hate e-mail to interested parties. Any comment that
  may be found derogatory or offensive is considered harassment
 Cyber stalking involves following a person's movements across
  the Internet by posting messages (sometimes threatening) on
  the bulletin boards frequented by the victim, entering the chat-
  rooms frequented by the victim, constantly bombarding the
  victim with emails etc.
 Defamation is an act of imputing any person with intent to
  lower the person in the estimation of the right-thinking
  members of society generally or to cause him to be shunned or
  avoided or to expose him to hatred, contempt or ridicule.
TRAFFICKING:
 Trafficking may assume different forms. It may be trafficking
  in drugs, human beings, arms, weapons etc.
 Drug traffickers are increasingly taking advantage of the
  Internet to sell their illegal substances through encrypted e-
  mail and other Internet Technology.
 Some drug traffickers arrange deals at internet cafes, use
  courier Web sites to track illegal packages of pills, and swap
  recipes for amphetamines in restricted-access chat rooms.
PIRACY:
 Piracy is the act of copying copyrighted material
 It involves the use of the Internet to market or distribute
  creative works protected by copyright
 This has caused considerable concern to owners of copyrighted
  material. Each year, it has been estimated that losses of
  between US$15 and US$17 billion are sustained by industry by
  reason of copyright infringement

  HACKING:
 It is hacking websites
 This may be done for personal notoriety, the challenge, or a
  political message just as with traditional defacement of
  property. It can also include hacking into computer networks

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VIRUSES:
 Viruses are sent to other people's computers to gain access to
  their personal information and to eventually destroy their hard
  drive.

 To combat viruses, companies and individuals can purchase
  anti-virus software for their computer, avoid downloading
  anything unless they know the source is completely safe and
  not open emails from anyone they do not know
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 The law enforcement agencies are trying to combat this
  cybercrime by working undercover online

  Viruses
 To combat viruses, companies and individuals can purchase
  anti-virus software for their computer, avoid downloading
  anything unless they know the source is completely safe and
  not open emails from anyone they do not know.

  Cyber Harassment
 To combat cyber harassment, individuals should report all
  suspected cases to their local law enforcement agency
 Law enforcement agencies will take the proper measures to
  identify the harasser and may choose to prosecute them

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This document provides an overview of hacking, including its history, definitions, types, famous hackers, reasons for hacking, and advice on security and ethics. Hacking emerged in the 1960s at MIT and refers to attempting to gain unauthorized access to computer systems. It describes hackers as those who exploit weaknesses in computers. Different types of hacking are outlined such as website, network, password, and computer hacking. Advice is given around using strong unique passwords, backing up data, and contacting authorities if hacked. Both advantages like security testing and disadvantages like privacy harm are discussed.

Terrorism
 Combat this type of cyber crime, law enforcement agencies,
  particularly the FBI, have special units. The Cyber Division
  that deals specifically with cyber terrorism

  Cracking
 Cracking can be difficult to solve, but any suspected cracking
  crimes should be discussed with a local law enforcement
  agency. If they do not have the man power to pursue the
  offender, the FBI may decide to pursue it
Prevention Methods
  Frequent password changing
 With the advent of multi-user systems, security has become
  dependent on passwords. Thus one should always keep
  passwords to sensitive data secure. Changing them frequently,
  and keeping them sufficiently complex in the first place can do
  this.

  Safe surfing
 This is a practice, which should be followed by all users on a
  network. Safe surfing involves keeping ones e-mail address
  private, not chatting on open systems, which do not have
  adequate protection methods, visiting secure sites.
 Accepting data from only known users, downloading carefully,
  and then from known sites also minimizes risk

  Frequent virus checks
 One should frequently check ones computer for viruses and
  worms. Also any external media such as floppy disks and CD
  ROMS should always be virus checked before running

  Email filters
 These are programs, which monitor the inflow of mails to the
  inbox and delete automatically any suspicious or useless mails
  thus reducing the chances of being bombed or spoofed
To Conclude,
A netizen should keep in mind the following things
 To prevent cyber stalking avoid disclosing any information
  pertaining to oneself. This is as good as disclosing your
  identity to strangers in public place
 Always avoid sending any photograph online particularly to
  strangers and chat friends as there have been incidents of
  misuse of the photographs
 Always use latest and up date anti virus software to guard
  against virus attacks
 Always keep back up volumes so that one may not suffer data
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This document discusses cyber crime and provides an overview presented by Dr. Soreingam Ragui. It defines cyber crime as any illegal activity committed using computers or networks. India ranks 11th globally for cyber crime, constituting 3% of total cyber crime. Reasons for India's high rates include a rapidly growing internet user base. Common cyber crimes include hacking, phishing, and intellectual property theft. The document also discusses Indian cyber law and acts like the Information Technology Act of 2000.

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Cyber crime has increased with the growth of internet usage. While the internet initially aimed to improve communication and research, it now enables crimes to be committed remotely from a computer. Some criminals began exploiting the internet for illegal acts in the 1980s, termed "cyber crimes". These can include hacking, theft of information, computer viruses, and other online offenses. While laws have been implemented to address cyber crimes, legislation alone cannot eliminate all criminal acts. Continued education of legal rights and responsibilities, as well as stringent enforcement of laws, are needed to help control cyber crime.

 Never send your credit card number to any site that is not
  secured, to guard against frauds.
 Always keep a watch on the sites that your children are
  accessing to prevent any kind of harassment or depravation in
  children.
 It is better to use a security programme that gives control over
  the cookies and send information back to the site as leaving the
  cookies unguarded might prove fatal.
 Web site owners should watch traffic and check any
  irregularity on the site. Putting host-based intrusion detection
  devices on servers may do this
 Use of firewalls may be beneficial
 And finally, Web servers running public sites must be
 physically separate protected from internal corporate network
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Cyber crime

  • 1. A Study on the Types of Cyber Crimes and Prevention Methods
  • 2. What is Cyber Crime? A generalized definition of cyber crime may be “unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or target or both” The computer may be used as a tool in the following kinds of activity- financial crimes, sale of illegal articles, pornography, online gambling, intellectual property crime, e-mail spoofing, forgery, cyber defamation, cyber stalking The computer may however be target for unlawful acts in the following cases- unauthorized access to computer/ computer system/ computer networks, theft of information contained in the electronic form, e-mail bombing, Trojan attacks, internet time thefts, theft of computer system, physically damaging the computer system
  • 3. Computer crimes encompass a broad range of potentially illegal activities. Generally, however, it may be divided into one of two types of categories (1) Crimes that target computer networks or devices directly; Examples -  Malware and malicious code, Denial-of-service attacks and Computing viruses (2) Crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices, the primary target of which is independent of the computer network or device Examples -  Cyber stalking, Fraud and identity theft, Phishing scams and Information warfare
  • 4. The Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (Vienna, 10-17 April 2000) categorized five offenses as cyber-crime: unauthorized access, damage to computer data or programs, sabotage to hinder the functioning of a computer system or network, unauthorized interception of data to from and within a system or network, and computer espionage.
  • 5. Classification of Cyber Crimes The subject of cyber crime may be broadly classified under the following three groups. They are: 1. Against individuals  Their person  Their property of an individual. 2. Against an organization  Government  Firm, Company, Group of Individuals 3. Against the society at large
  • 6. Against Individuals:  Harassment via e-mails  Cyber-stalking  Dissemination of obscene material  Defamation  Unauthorized control/access over computer system  Indecent exposure  Email spoofing  Cheating & Fraud
  • 7. Against Individual Property:  Computer vandalism  Transmitting virus  Netrespass  Unauthorized control/access over computer system  Intellectual Property crimes  Internet time thefts Against an Organization:  Unauthorized control/access over computer system  Possession of unauthorized information  Cyber terrorism against the government organization  Distribution of pirated software
  • 8. Against the Society at large: -  Pornography (basically child pornography)  Polluting the youth through indecent exposure  Trafficking  Financial crimes  Sale of illegal articles  Online gambling  Forgery
  • 9. SPAM:  Spam, or the unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes, is unlawful to varying degrees. FRAUD:  Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss.  Forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems, including bank fraud, identity theft, extortion, and theft of classified information. A variety of Internet scams target consumers direct.
  • 10.  Valid credit card numbers can be intercepted electronically, as well as physically; the digital information stored on a card can be counterfeited.  Computer networks may also be used in furtherance of extortion. PHISHING:  It is technique of pulling out confidential information from the bank/financial institutional account holders by deceptive means. SALAMI ATTACK:  In such crime criminal makes insignificant changes in such a manner that such changes would go unnoticed.
  • 11.  Criminal makes such program that deducts small amount like Rs. 2.50 per month from the account of all the customer of the Bank and deposit the same in his account.  In this case no account holder will approach the bank for such small amount but criminal gains huge amount OBSCENE OR OFFENSIVE CONTENT: -  Content considered by some to be objectionable exists in abundance in cyberspace.  This includes, among much else, sexually explicit materials, racist propaganda, and instructions for the fabrication of incendiary and explosive devices.  In some instances these communications may be illegal.
  • 12.  One area of Internet pornography that has been the target of the strongest efforts at curtailment is child pornography  According to Crime Research, child pornography involves distributing, trafficking, dissemination and posting any child- related obscene material  When executing this cyber crime, offenders will post obscene photos and videos of children and underage teenagers. They will provide these for free or charge a subscription fee to those who sign up for their websites
  • 13. HARASSMENT:  It involves violating the privacy of another person by using the Internet  Whereas content may be offensive in a non-specific way, harassment directs obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing for example on gender, race, religion, nationality, sexual orientation  This often occurs in chat rooms, through newsgroups, and by sending hate e-mail to interested parties. Any comment that may be found derogatory or offensive is considered harassment
  • 14.  Cyber stalking involves following a person's movements across the Internet by posting messages (sometimes threatening) on the bulletin boards frequented by the victim, entering the chat- rooms frequented by the victim, constantly bombarding the victim with emails etc.  Defamation is an act of imputing any person with intent to lower the person in the estimation of the right-thinking members of society generally or to cause him to be shunned or avoided or to expose him to hatred, contempt or ridicule.
  • 15. TRAFFICKING:  Trafficking may assume different forms. It may be trafficking in drugs, human beings, arms, weapons etc.  Drug traffickers are increasingly taking advantage of the Internet to sell their illegal substances through encrypted e- mail and other Internet Technology.  Some drug traffickers arrange deals at internet cafes, use courier Web sites to track illegal packages of pills, and swap recipes for amphetamines in restricted-access chat rooms.
  • 16. PIRACY:  Piracy is the act of copying copyrighted material  It involves the use of the Internet to market or distribute creative works protected by copyright  This has caused considerable concern to owners of copyrighted material. Each year, it has been estimated that losses of between US$15 and US$17 billion are sustained by industry by reason of copyright infringement HACKING:  It is hacking websites  This may be done for personal notoriety, the challenge, or a political message just as with traditional defacement of property. It can also include hacking into computer networks
  • 17. VIRUSES:  Viruses are sent to other people's computers to gain access to their personal information and to eventually destroy their hard drive.  To combat viruses, companies and individuals can purchase anti-virus software for their computer, avoid downloading anything unless they know the source is completely safe and not open emails from anyone they do not know
  • 18. Conclusion: The above forms of computer-related crime are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and need not occur in isolation  Computer-related crime may be compound in nature, combining two or more of the generic forms outlined above
  • 20. Child Pornography  The law enforcement agencies are trying to combat this cybercrime by working undercover online Viruses  To combat viruses, companies and individuals can purchase anti-virus software for their computer, avoid downloading anything unless they know the source is completely safe and not open emails from anyone they do not know. Cyber Harassment  To combat cyber harassment, individuals should report all suspected cases to their local law enforcement agency  Law enforcement agencies will take the proper measures to identify the harasser and may choose to prosecute them
  • 21. Terrorism  Combat this type of cyber crime, law enforcement agencies, particularly the FBI, have special units. The Cyber Division that deals specifically with cyber terrorism Cracking  Cracking can be difficult to solve, but any suspected cracking crimes should be discussed with a local law enforcement agency. If they do not have the man power to pursue the offender, the FBI may decide to pursue it
  • 22. Prevention Methods Frequent password changing  With the advent of multi-user systems, security has become dependent on passwords. Thus one should always keep passwords to sensitive data secure. Changing them frequently, and keeping them sufficiently complex in the first place can do this. Safe surfing  This is a practice, which should be followed by all users on a network. Safe surfing involves keeping ones e-mail address private, not chatting on open systems, which do not have adequate protection methods, visiting secure sites.
  • 23.  Accepting data from only known users, downloading carefully, and then from known sites also minimizes risk Frequent virus checks  One should frequently check ones computer for viruses and worms. Also any external media such as floppy disks and CD ROMS should always be virus checked before running Email filters  These are programs, which monitor the inflow of mails to the inbox and delete automatically any suspicious or useless mails thus reducing the chances of being bombed or spoofed
  • 24. To Conclude, A netizen should keep in mind the following things  To prevent cyber stalking avoid disclosing any information pertaining to oneself. This is as good as disclosing your identity to strangers in public place  Always avoid sending any photograph online particularly to strangers and chat friends as there have been incidents of misuse of the photographs  Always use latest and up date anti virus software to guard against virus attacks  Always keep back up volumes so that one may not suffer data loss in case of virus contamination
  • 25.  Never send your credit card number to any site that is not secured, to guard against frauds.  Always keep a watch on the sites that your children are accessing to prevent any kind of harassment or depravation in children.  It is better to use a security programme that gives control over the cookies and send information back to the site as leaving the cookies unguarded might prove fatal.  Web site owners should watch traffic and check any irregularity on the site. Putting host-based intrusion detection devices on servers may do this  Use of firewalls may be beneficial
  • 26.  And finally, Web servers running public sites must be physically separate protected from internal corporate network