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INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
1
Exercicio N°1
What does PC stand for?
PC = Personal Computer
Computer parts (ponga en español las partes de la computadora)
Una primero las palabras con las definiciones y luego pase todo al español en otra hoja:
The basic parts to a personal computer
Disk drive used to help the mouse have better grip.
Monitor used for inputting all information to the monitor.
Tower are used to load programs, games and hardware drivers.
Keyboard controls the cursor on the screen by moving the mouse.
Mouse without a monitor you would not be able to see this website or any other program.
Mouse mat is the main part of the computer. It is the part that contains the hardware needed.
Parts of a laptop and description for each one
Disk drive controls the cursor on the screen by moving the your finger over the pad.
Screen / Monitor used for inputting all information to the monitor.
Keyboard are normally on the side of laptops.
Touch pad / Mouse display the text / images back to the user.
Parts of computer desk
Draws for making phone calls.
Telephone hold the keyboard and slides back in when not in use.
Filing cabinet are used for storing things in.
Keyboard shelf are used for storing things in.
INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
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Cupboards are used for storing important documents in.
Computer keyboard
Try and find the following keys on your keyboard
1. Space bar
2. caps lock
3. Arrow keys
4. Numbers keys
5. Enter button
6. Control button = Ctrl
7. Shift keys
8. number pad
9. Alt keys
10. Backspace
11. Delete
Control button (Ctrl) + i = Makes highlighted text italic
Control button (Ctrl) + b = Makes highlighted text bold>
Computer mouse
What is a mouse?
A mouse is used to move the cursor around the screen.
Using the left the button you can open programs and files.
Are there other types of mouse available?
Yes, the first one is the wireless, cordless which as the ability to work without using
any wires between the mouse and the computer.
The second one is a trackball which looks like an upside down mouse. The on
screen pointer is controlled using a ball using your finger or thumb.
Speakers
What are speakers used for?
Speakers are used to allow you to hear sound from the computer.
Sometimes computer have built in speakers, but these are not good
quality.
Printer
What is a printer?
A printer is a piece of hardware that has to
be used with a computer.
They are able to print text and images on
to paper
Printers can be used to print letters, documents and photographs.
There are 2 main types of printers inkjet and laser printers. Inkjet printers sprays ink
from an ink cartridge to the paper as it passes by. The laser printer uses a laser beam
reflected from a mirror to attract toner (ink) to the selected parts of the paper as a
sheet passes over a drum.
Compact disc
What is a compact disc?
CD is short for compact disc, a compact disc is a flat, round and used for storing things on.
medium that is read by a laser in a CD-ROM drive that was A standard CD can hold up to 72
minutes of music or 650 MB of data.
CD's can be used to store music, video, photos, any type of file.
Computer headphones and microphone
What are computer headphones and microphones used for?
Headphones can be used to listen to sound whilst not disturbing anyone else close by.
Microphone can be used to talk to another person on msn, yahoo messenger or sykpe.
INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
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Exercicio N°2
Interprete (cognados y falsos cognados)
1. First, you have to remove the tape from the top
2. These are his actual words.
3. In actuality, it is much more complex than that
4. Labour costs actually fall every year
5. Carbon is a chemical element
6. They are protecting the fresh water fish of the river Parana
7. I do not like frozen food, I prefer fresh food
8. They bring a fresh supply of water
9. The area has a very rich history.
10.Vegetables grow well in the rich, black soil.
11. I am the first child in my family to attend college
12.She had a big argument with her husband
13.They generally accept the orders without argument
14.His official title is editor
15.He has title to the land
16.Please, Erick, show your good manners
17.Our sympathies are with the families of the victims
18.Her sympathies lie firmly with the Conservative Party
19.I want to dispose my shares of the company
20.He arranged the disposition of her assets upon his mother’s death.
INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
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Exercicio N°3
Computer
A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set
of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed,
the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing
unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations,
and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information.
Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations
saved and retrieved.
Mechanical analog computers started appearing in the first century and were later used in the medieval era
for astronomical calculations. In World War II, mechanical analog computers were used for specialized
military applications such as calculating torpedo aiming. During this time the first electronic digital
computers were developed. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as
several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).
Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early
machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices,
and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. Personal computers in their various forms are
icons of the Information Age and are generally considered as "computers". However, the embedded
computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from electronic toys to industrial
robots are the most numerous.
ACTIVIDADES
a. Lee el texto y marca 6 palabras que crees que son transparentes o cognados
b. Lee el texto y marca 6 palabras técnicas e inclúyelas en tu glosario
c. Pasa al español las frases subrayadas.
d. Escribe de qué trata el texto en dos o tres oraciones
INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
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Exercicio N°4
Software
Computer software also called a program or simply software is a series of instructions that directs
a computer to perform specific tasks or operations. Computer software consists of computer
programs, libraries and related non-executable data (such as online documentation or digital media).
Computer software is intangible, contrasted with computer hardware, which is the physical component of
computers. Computer hardware and software require each other and cannot be realistically used on its
own.
At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an
individual processor—typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of
binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding
state. For example, an instruction may change the value stored in a particular storage location in the
computer—an effect that is not directly observable to the user. An instruction may also (indirectly) cause
something to appear on a display of the computer system—a state change which should be visible to the
user. The processor carries out the instructions in the order they are provided, unless it is instructed to
"jump" to a different instruction, or interrupted.
Software written in a machine language is known as "machine code". However, in practice, software is
usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use
(closer to natural language). High-level languages are translated into machine language using a compiler or
an interpreter or a combination of the two. Software may also be written in a low-level assembly language,
essentially, a vaguely mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet,
which is translated into machine language using an assembler.
ACTIVIDADES
a. Lee el texto y marca 6 palabras técnicas e inclúyelas en tu glosario
b. Lee el texto y marca 6 adjetivos comparativos
c. Lee el texto y marca 4 casos posesivos
d. Pasa al español las oraciones subrayadas.
e. Escribe tres oraciones sobre Software.
Exercicio N°5
Office automation
Office automation refers to the varied computer machinery and software used to digitally create, collect,
store, manipulate, and relay office information needed for accomplishing basic tasks. Raw data storage,
electronic transfer, and the management of electronic business information comprise the basic activities of
an office automation system. Office automation helps in optimizing or automating existing office
procedures.
The backbone of office automation is a Local Area Network (LAN), which allows users to transfer data, mail
and even voice across the network. All office functions, including dictation, typing, filing,
copying, fax, Telex, microfilm and records management, telephone and telephone switchboard operations,
fall into this category. Office automation was a popular term in the 1970s and 1980s as the desktop
computer exploded onto the scene.
Advantages are:
1. Office automation can get many tasks accomplished faster.
2. It eliminates the need for a large staff.
3. Less storage is required to store data.
4. Multiple people can update data simultaneously in the event of changes in schedule
INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
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ACTIVIDADES
a. Lee el texto y marca 6 palabras que crees que son transparentes o cognados
b. Lee el texto y marca 6 adjetivos derivados
c. Lee el texto y marca 6 sustantivos derivados
d. Pasa al español las frases subrayadas.
e. Escribe las ventajas de la Ofimática
Exercicio N°6
Is Facebook a danger to your business data?
Stuart King - 13 Sep 2007 1:00
We are all now familiar with the likes of MySpace and Facebook, and I am sure that many have
published their profiles, comments, moods and questions, and have a list of online "friends".
My organization has its own network on one of the most common social networks, and I know that
many members of that network use the site during office hours.
One of the risks of social networking is identity management. Suppose you receive a request to
connect with someone on the popular LinkedIn network. How can you know that the request is
from the named individual, and not from an impostor looking to gather data about your firm?
Danger of the unknown
A fundamental flaw of all social networks is the lack of identity validation. Anyone can pretend to
be anyone.
In July, New Scientist magazine highlighted this problem as it manifests itself on Facebook, where
spammers create realistic profile pages that make them look like ordinary users. They then
persuade people to accept them as friends, giving the spammer access to the victim's inbox,
which they flood with Viagra ads and pornographic links.
Social networking sites do have their advantages. We can see if our contacts are online and
interact with them in real-time. Having real-time access to a community or network of experts can
create real business efficiencies and accelerate business processes.
Social networking is changing the way we interact. The catch is that there are presently no rules,
and that makes it a dangerous environment.
Changing boundaries
One of the most important aspects of social networking from my point of view is that business use
of social networks extends outside the organization. Therefore, our boundaries become extended
and the potential vectors to access to our data increase. From a user's point of view, the
distinction between personal and business identities begins to blur.
Facebook's privacy policy runs to more than 3,200 words, with a disclaimer stating that the policy
can change at any time without warning. Would you trust this company with your private data?
There are no guarantees and no restrictions about how Facebook can use the huge quantity of
data that it holds. It is a marketers’ dream and a hugely valuable asset for the owners. Do not
forget that Facebook was not designed for business; it was intended as a fun "social utility".
The future will see more development of these sites, tighter integration with our business tools,
and more risk to privacy. So, the message has got to be "use with caution". Do not publish
anything you are likely to regret later, because the likelihood is that your online content will live on
longer than you might wish it to.
http://www.computerweekly.com/news/2240082955/Is-Facebook-a-danger-to-your-business-data
INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
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ACTIVIDADES
a. Marca las partes del texto.
b. Lee el texto y marca 6 palabras que crees que son transparentes o cognados
c. Lee el texto y marca 6 adjetivos derivados
d. Lee el texto y marca 6 sustantivos derivados
e. Lee el texto y marca 4 casos posesivos
f. Pasa al español el texto: Danger of the unknown
Exercicio N°7
Software development
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Software development is the process of computer programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved
in creating and maintaining applications and frameworks involved in a software release life cycle and resulting in
a software product. The term refers to a process of writing and maintaining the source code, but in a broader
sense of the term it includes all that is involved between the conception of the desired software through to the
final manifestation of the software, ideally in a planned and structured process. Therefore, software development
may include research, new development, prototyping, modification, reuse, re-engineering, maintenance, or any
other activities that result in software products.
Software can be developed for a variety of purposes, the three most common being to meet specific needs of a
specific client/business (the case with custom software), to meet a perceived need of some set of
potential users (the case with commercial and open source software), or for personal use (e.g. a scientist may
write software to automate a mundane task). Embedded software development, that is, the development
of embedded software such as used for controlling consumer products, requires the development process to be
integrated with the development of the controlled physical product. System software underlies applications and
the programming process itself, and is often developed separately.
The need for better quality control of the software development process has given rise to the discipline
of software engineering, which aims to apply the systematic approach exemplified in the engineering paradigm
to the process of software development.
There are many approaches to software project management, known as software development life cycle
models, methodologies, processes, or models. The waterfall model is a traditional version, contrasted with the
more recent innovation of agile software development.
ACTIVIDADES
a. Marca las partes del texto.
b. Lee el texto y marca 6 palabras que crees que son transparentes o cognados.
c. Lee el texto y marca 6 adjetivos derivados y dos compuestos.
d. Lee el texto y marca 6 sustantivos derivados.
e. Lee el texto y marca 4 casos posesivos.
f. Dé la definición de Software development.
g. Enuncie los tres propósitos de software development.
h. Escriba dos oraciones resumiendo de qué trata el texto.
INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
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Exercicio N°8
Software development process
A software development process (also known as a software development methodology, model, or life cycle) is a
framework that is used to structure, plan, and control the process of developing information systems. A wide
variety of such frameworks have evolved over the years, each with its own recognized strengths and
weaknesses. There are several different approaches to software development: some take a more structured,
engineering-based approach to developing business solutions, whereas others may take a more incremental
approach, where software evolves as it is developed piece-by-piece. One system development methodology is
not necessarily suitable for use by all projects. Each of the available methodologies is best suited to specific
kinds of projects, based on various technical, organizational, project and team considerations.
Most methodologies share some combination of the following stages of software development:
 Analyzing the problem
 Market research
 Gathering requirements for the proposed business solution
 Devising a plan or design for the software-based solution
 Implementation (coding) of the software
 Testing the software
 Deployment
 Maintenance and bug fixing
These stages are often referred to collectively as the software development lifecycle, or SDLC. Different
approaches to software development may carry out these stages in different orders, or devote more or less time
to different stages. The level of detail of the documentation produced at each stage of software development
may also vary. These stages may also be carried out in turn (a “waterfall” based approach), or they may be
repeated over various cycles or iterations (a more "extreme" approach). The more extreme approach usually
involves less time spent on planning and documentation, and more time spent on coding and development of
automated tests. More “extreme” approaches also promote continuous testing throughout the development
lifecycle, as well as having a working (or bug-free) product at all times. More structured or “waterfall” based
approaches attempt to assess the majority of risks and develop a detailed plan for the software
before implementation (coding) begins, and avoid significant design changes and re-coding in later stages of the
software development life cycle planning.
There are significant advantages and disadvantages to the various methodologies, and the best approach to
solving a problem using software will often depend on the type of problem. If the problem is well understood and
a solution can be effectively planned out ahead of time, the more "waterfall" based approach may work the best.
If, on the other hand, the problem is unique (at least to the development team) and the structure of the software
solution cannot be easily envisioned, then a more "extreme" incremental approach may work best.
ACTIVIDADES
a. Marca las partes del texto.
b. Dé la definición de software development process.
c. Enuncie las etapas en el desarrollo de un software.
d. ¿Cómo se pasan al español las frases subrayadas: There are
e. Pase al español con coherencia las oraciones subrayadas, en ellas hay palabras
recuadradas, ¿cómo se llaman estas estructuras?
INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
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Exercicio N°9
Introduction to Computer Software | Reading Activity | English 4 IT
https://www.english4it.com/unit/2/reading
Introduction to Computer Software
For as long as there has been computer hardware, there has also been computer software. But what is
software? Software is just instructions written by a programmer which tells the computer what to do.
Programmers are also known as 'software developers', or just plain 'developers'.
Nothing much is simple about software. Software programs can have millions of lines of code. If one
line doesn’t work, the whole program could break! Even the process of starting software goes by many
different names in English. Perhaps the most correct technical term is 'execute', as in "the man executed
the computer program." Be careful, because the term 'execute' also means (in another context) to put
someone to death! Some other common verbs used to start a software program you will hear are 'run',
'launch, and even 'boot' (when the software in question is an operating system).
Software normally has both features and bugs. Hopefully more of the former than the latter! When
software has a bug there are a few things that can happen. The program can crash and terminate with a
confusing message. This is not good. End users do not like confusing error messages such as:
Site error: the file /home7/businfc6/public_html/blog/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/seo-blog/core.php
requires the ionCube PHP Loader ioncube_loader_lin_5.2.so to be installed by the site administrator.
Sometimes when software stops responding you are forced to manually abort the program yourself by
pressing some strange combination of keys such as ctrl-alt-delete. Because of poor usability,
documentation, and strange error messages, programming still seems very mysterious.
A- Lea el texto y resuelva los siguientes ejercicios
1. Identifique los cognados y márquelos con un círculo.
2. ¿Qué clases de palabras son las subrayadas en los primeros párrafos? Complete la siguiente tabla
con las mismas.
Singular Plural Simple Derivado Compuesto
3. Encuentre sustantivos derivados con los sufijos –ion,-er, -ity
4. Haga una lista con todos los sustantivos simples del texto, escríbalos en plural y dé su equivalente en
español.
INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
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5. Subraye con color los sustantivos compuestos y dé su interpretación en español.
6. Dé la interpretación de las frases resaltadas en negrita.
7. Repase los prefijos y sufijos más comunes para formar sustantivos en inglés. Provea un listado con
otros ejemplos de vocabulario técnico usado frecuentemente en su área de estudio.
Exercicio N°10
Introduction to Computer Software | Reading Activity | English 4 IT
https://www.english4it.com/unit/2/reading
Introduction to Computer Software (2nd
part)
I think everyone studying Information Technology should learn at least one programming language
and write at least one program. Why? Programming forces you to think like a computer. This can be very
rewarding when dealing with a wide range of IT-related issues from tech support to setting up PPC (pay-
per-click) advertising campaigns for a client's web site. Also, as an IT professional, you will be dealing
with programmers on a daily basis. Having some understanding of the work they do will help you get
along with them better.
Software programs are normally written and compiled for certain hardware platforms. It is very
important that the software is compatible with all the components of the computer. For instance, you
cannot run software written for a Windows computer on a Macintosh computer or a Linux computer.
Actually, you can, but you need to have special emulation software or a virtual machine installed. Even with
this special software installed, it is still normally best to run a program on the kind of computer for which it
was intended.
There are two basic kinds of software you need to learn about as an IT professional. The first is closed
source or proprietary software, which you are not free to modify and improve. An example of this kind of
software is Microsoft Windows or Adobe Photoshop. This software model is so popular that some people
believe it's the only model there is. But there's a whole other world of software out there.
The other kind of software is called open source software, which is normally free to use and modify
(with some restrictions of course). Examples of this type of software include most popular programming
languages, operating systems such as Linux, and thousands of applications such as Mozilla Firefox
and Open Office.
ACTIVIDADES
Lea el texto y resuelva los siguientes ejercicios
1- Identifique los cognados y márquelos con un círculo.
2- Subraye con color todos los artículos.
3- Complete la siguiente tabla con sustantivos extraídos de los dos primeros párrafos del texto.
Singular Plural Simple Derivado Compuesto
INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
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4- Provea el plural de los siguientes sustantivos: language, programme, professional, model, world
5- Dé la interpretación de las frases resaltadas en negrita. ¿Qué sustantivo es incontable?
6- ¿Cuál es la idea principal del texto?
Exercicio N°11
Operating system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_system
Examples of popular operating systems with GUI interfaces include Windows and Mac OS X. Unix
systems have two popular GUIs as well, known as KDE and Gnome, which run on top of X-Windows. All
three of the above mentioned operating systems also have built-in CLI interfaces as well for power users
and software engineers. The CLI in Windows is known as MS-DOS. The CLI in Max OS X is known as
the Terminal. There are many CLIs for Unix and Linux operating systems, but the most popular one is
called Bash.
In recent years, more and more features are being included in the basic GUI OS install, including
notepads, sound recorders, and even web browsers and games. This is another example of the
concept of 'convergence' which we like to mention.
A great example of an up and coming OS is Ubuntu. Ubuntu is a Linux operating system which is totally
free, and ships with nearly every application you will ever need already installed. Even a professional
quality office suite is included by default. What's more, thousands of free, ready-to-use applications can
be downloaded and installed with a few clicks of the mouse. This is a revolutionary feature in an OS and
can save lots of time, not to mention hundreds or even thousands of dollars on a single PC. Not
surprisingly, Ubuntu's OS market share is growing very quickly around the world.
As an IT professional, you will probably have to learn and master several, if not all, the popular operating
systems. If you think this sort of thing is fun and interesting, then you have definitely chosen the right
career.
 This page was last modified on 8 August 2016, at 21:30.
ACTIVIDADES
1. Encuentre:
1. Sustantivos en plural, escriba su singular y su traducción
2. Sustantivos derivados:
3. Artículos y márquelos con un circulo
2. De la interpretación de las frases subrayadas en el texto:
3. Trabaje con los textos 4,5,6.
1. Busque adjetivos en ellos, para completar la siguiente tabla. Dé la interpretación de los mismos en
español.
Simples Derivados Compuestos
INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
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2. Extraer adjetivos derivados, con los sufijos y prefijos más comunes estudiados. Cópielos junto a los
sustantivos que califican.
3. Extraer 4 oraciones, que contengan adjetivos en función atributiva y predicativa.
4. Dé la interpretación en español de las siguientes oraciones. ( Práctica de adjetivos)
a- Perhaps the most correct technical “term” is execute.
b. Hopefully more of the former than the latter.
c. It is normally best to run a program …
d. Examples of this type of software include most popular programming languages,…
e. The most popular one is Bash.
5. Identificar el tiempo verbal en las siguientes oraciones extraídas de los textos 4, 5 y 6 y luego interpretar
en español.
a) Software programs can have millions of lines of code
b) …the most correct technical term is 'execute'.
c) If one line doesn’t work,
d) Software normally has both features and bugs.
e) Programming forces you to think like a computer
f) There are two basic kinds of software you need to learn about as an IT professional
g) But there's a whole other world of software out there.
h) Examples of popular operating systems with GUI interfaces include Windows and Mac OS X
i) There are many CLIs for Unix and Linux operating systems
j) Ubuntu's OS market share is growing very quickly around the world.
6) Interprete las siguientes oraciones del texto N° 1, e identifique los verbos.
a) Software is just instructions written by a programmer which tells the computer what to do. Programmers
are also known as 'software developers', or just plain 'developers'.
b) Nothing much is simple about software. Software programs can have millions of lines of code. If one line
doesn’t work, the whole program could break!
c) When software has a bug there are a few things that can happen. The program can crash and terminate
with a confusing message.
d) Sometimes when software stops responding you are forced to manually abort the program yourself by
pressing some strange combination of keys such as ctrl-alt-delete.
e) Because of poor usability, documentation, and strange error messages, programming still seems very
mysterious.
7) Exprese la idea principal del texto
INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico
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Exercicio N°12
Recognizing Different Types of Computers | Reading Activity | English ...
https://www.english4it.com/unit/10/reading
Recognizing Different Types of Computers
In this unit you will learn about different types of computers and what makes them unique. Computers were
not always things you could carry around with you, or even have in your bedroom. Sixty years ago,
computers (such as ENIAC ) were as big as entire apartments. They were difficult to use and not very
powerful by today's standards. They also cost a lot of money to build and operate. So computers were only
used by large organizations such as governments, international corporations, and universities.
Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, computers captured the public's imagination in literature, films, and TV.
More and more companies wanted computers, even if they didn't always have a good reason to own one.
As a result, computers gradually became smaller, cheaper, and more practical to own. This was thanks in
part to companies like IBM, which mass-produced computers for the first time and promoted them to
medium and large businesses to do things like payroll, accounting, and other number-crunching tasks.
In the 1970s and 1980s a new type of computer started to gain in popularity. It was called the PC or
personal computer. For the first time in history, computers were now for everyone. The PC started a
revolution which affects nearly everything we do today. The ways we work, play, communicate, and access
information have all been radically reshaped due to the invention and evolution of the PC.
PCs are everywhere you look today. At home, at the office, and everywhere in between. Many people still
mistakenly believe the term PC is synonymous with a desktop computer running Windows. This is not really
true. Really, any computer you use by yourself for general purposes could be called a PC. You probably
already own at least one of these types of PCs:
- laptop
- desktop computer
- PDA or personal digital assistant
- workstation
Besides PCs, there are other types of computers you probably see at work or school. These include:
- file servers
- print servers
- web servers
But not all types of computers are so obvious as the ones above. There are still other kinds of computers
that fit inside of other devices and control them. These computers are known as embedded systems.
Embedded systems can be found in traffic lights, TV sets, refrigerators, coffee machines and many more
devices. Embedded systems are typically controlled by inexpensive, specialized processors which can only
handle very specific tasks.
Types of computers go in and out of fashion as times changes. Older kinds of computers which were very
popular in the 20th century (1900’s) are now referred to as legacy systems. These include:
- mainframes
- minicomputers
- IBM clones
New types of computers are always coming out and replacing or augmenting existing computer types.
Examples of new types of computers emerging would be netbooks, tablet PCs, and even wearable
computers.
As you complete this unit, you will learn to differentiate between different computer types. Keep in mind that
the lines between computer types are constantly being blurred. This phenomenon is known as
convergence.
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ACTIVIDADES
1) De la interpretación de las oraciones subrayadas.
2) Identifique en el texto las respuestas a estas preguntas e interprételas en español.
a ¿Qué sucedió en las décadas de 50 y 60?
b ¿Qué cambios produjo la aparición de la PC?
c ¿ Qué tipos de PC hay?
d ¿ A qué se refiere el término convergencia?
3) Complete las siguientes ideas
a) Como resultado de la creciente incorporación de computadoras en diversas compañías, las
computadoras…..
b) Hay otros tipos de computadoras, como ser………..
c) Los sistemas incrustados……….
Exercicio N°13
Famous People in the History of IT | Reading Activity | English 4 IT
https://www.english4it.com/unit/7/reading
Famous People in the History of IT
(1) Almost everyone uses computers these days for everything from shopping to working to playing games.
(2) But have you ever stopped to think about where all this amazing technology came from? (3) Who
invented it all? (4)Well, behind every company, programming language or piece of software, there is a
person - or sometimes a team of people - who turned ideas into reality. We've all heard of Bill Gates, the
founder of Microsoft and one of the richest men in history. (5) Equally famous is Steve Jobs, the person
who, along with Steve Wozniak, started Apple computers. However, there are hundreds of other people,
from early pioneers to later geniuses, who aren't as well known but who deserve recognition for the work
they did in advancing the world of computing.
(6) One of the first people to conceive of computers was Charles Babbage, an English mathematician and
analytical philosopher who drew up plans for the first programmable computer called the Difference Engine.
George Boole came up with a way of describing logical relations using mathematical symbols - now called
Boolean logic - that is the basis of all modern computer processes. ( 7)Vannevar Bush first proposed an
idea in 1945 he called 'memex', which we now know as 'hypertext'. Another notable figure in early
computing was Alan Mathison Turing, an Englishman known as the "father of computer science". He
invented the Turing Test, which is a way to find out if a computer is acting like a machine or a human. (8)
Another English computer scientist, Edgar Frank Codd, is known for inventing the "relational" model for
databases, a model which is still in use today.
As computing became more complicated, people needed a way to make it easier to tell computers what to
do - in other words, they needed ways to program the computers. These computer instruction systems
became known as computer, or programming, languages. FORTRAN, the first widely used high-level
programming language, was invented by an American computer scientist, John Warner Backus. Other
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notable North American inventors of programming languages include Dennis Ritchie, author of the C
programming language, Larry Wall, creator of Perl, and Canadian James Gosling, known as the father of
Java. Two men from Denmark are responsible for writing two other famous programming languages.
Bjarne Stroustrup came up with C++ and Rasmus Lerdorf devised PHP. Dutchman Guido van Rossum
wrote the Python programming language, while the Japanese computer scientist, Yukihiro Matsumoto,
made a language called Ruby.
One of the uses of programming languages is to create operating systems, which are essentially sets of
instructions that allow computers to function. The most widely-used operating system in the world is
Microsoft
Windows, but there are other powerful ones that exist, such as Unix, created by Ken Thompson and his
team at AT&T in 1969, and Linux, written by Linus Torvalds in 1991.
Microsoft, of course, is the largest software company in the world, but there is another company, Intel, that
is equally important when it comes to hardware. Intel was started by several people who are now legends
in the computer world, including Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore. Moore is also famous for coming up
with Moore's Law, which predicts the rapid increase of computer technology over time. Intel expanded
rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s when a man named Andy Grove was in charge of the company.
Other notable figures in the evolution of the computer industry are Ralph Baer, inventor of the first home
video game console, Seymour Cray, for many years the manufacturer of the world's fastest
supercomputers, Richard Stallman, founder of the free software movement called GNU, and Tim
Berners-Lee, the man who created the basis for the World Wide Web.
Through their creativity and hard work, all of these people contributed to shaping what we now experience
as Information and Computer Technology. Every time you boot up a computer, play a video game or surf
the Internet, try to remember the individuals who made these wonders possible.
1) Interprete en español las oraciones subrayadas en el texto, e identifique el tiempo verbal en cada
una de ellas.
2) Complete el cuadro con las actividades que realizaron cada una de estas personas nombradas en
el texto. Escríbalas en español.
Bill Gates
George Boole
Alan Mathison Turing
John Warner Backus
Dennis Ritchie
Larry Wall
James Gosling
Bjarne Stroustrup
Rasmus Lerdorf
Guido van Rossum
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Yukihiro Matsumoto
Ken Thompson
Linus Torvalds
Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore
Andy Grove
Ralph Baer
Seymour Cray
Richard Stallman
Tim Berners-Lee
3) Escriba en español la idea principal del texto
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Exercicio N°14
Computer Hardware, PC Parts & Components, Storage Devices ...
www.newegg.com/Components/Store
Computer Hardware Components
Due to convergence, the traditional categories we divide computing into are blurring. (1) But for practical
reasons, IT professionals can still divide hardware into two main classes: components and peripherals.
Components are primarily core internal devices of a computer which help define what type a computer is,
what it is capable of doing, and how well it is capable of doing it. (2) Nothing affects the overall quality of a
computer more than its components.
(3) Normally the more expensive a component is, the better it performs. This is a general guideline
however and not a steadfast rule. Sometimes you can spend a lot more money on a component with only
slightly better performance than one costing half as much. (4) Other times a very expensive component
might be based on a completely new technology that is not ready for mass production. In these
cases, one is often better off buying a more mainstream part.
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Being an early adopter is not always the most practical move when choosing components for a new
system. Often you can find very powerful hardware at the medium price ranges. There is normally a
relatively large sweet-spot in the market.
How can you know if a component is good or bad? You want to be an IT professional, right? IT
professionals need good computers without performance bottlenecks. So do some research. Read articles
about components on a website. Where do you find them? Just Google it!
One of my favorite places for objective customer reviews of components is Tom's Hardware Guide. Another
place for objective information is on well-known websites such as Amazon.com or NewEgg.com. On sites
like these, customers will often write both positive and negative reviews shortly after receiving their
products. This can help you decide what to buy!
Imagine you want to build your own computer. It's not that difficult or expensive really. I personally think
it's kind of fun, How would you start? If you are experienced, you would start by choosing the components
first! (5) Components must be compatible with each other in order to function correctly. For example not all
processors are compatible with all motherboards. Research is necessary to solve your dependencies.
(6) If you can't afford the exact parts you want to get all at the same time, you can use old parts or buy
cheaper parts at first if you have to. Why? Because certain components can be upgraded to attain
increased performance. For example, a video card (or graphics card) can be upgraded to improve the
graphics for a CAD/CAM application or 3D gaming experience.
At the heart of the computer lies several key components sitting on the motherboard including the
microprocessor, the chipset, RAM and a ROM firmware instruction set called the BIOS. (7) These core
components are connected by several "buses" made to carry information around the system and eventually
out to display devices and other peripherals.
(8) The CPU is another name for the 'brain' of the computer and normally includes the microprocessor and
RAM. This is what does all the calculations. One or more coprocessors may or may not be needed
depending on what the computer is used for. In the 20th century, coprocessors were often used for
mathematics such as floating point operations. Today however coprocessors are mostly used for 3D
graphics (GPUs), sound generation, and physics applications.
ACTIVIDADES
1) ¿Cuál es el tiempo verbal predominante en el texto?
2) ¿Qué clase de palabras son las resaltadas en negrita? Clasifíquelas y dé su interpretación en
español.
3) Responda las siguientes preguntas
a) ¿Cómo se puede dividir el hardware?
b) ¿Qué son los componentes?
c) ¿Cómo se puede saber si el componente es bueno o malo?
d) Para construir una computadora propia, ¿qué se necesita hacer primero?
e) ¿Qué componentes se encuentran en el corazón de la computadora?
4) Interprete en español las oraciones subrayadas.
5) ¿A qué hacen referencia los pronombres resaltados en el texto?
6) Encuentre ejemplos de sustantivos simples y derivados y de adjetivos simples y derivados ( 5 de
cada uno)
7) Busque 5 (cinco) oraciones en diferentes tiempos verbales e interprételas en español.
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Exercicio N°15
Technology Now: Your Companion to SAM Computer Concepts
https://books.google.com.ar/books?isbn=1305445910
RAM -ROM
As you probably learned in an earlier chapter, RAM is the memory which allows your computer to hold the
operating system and all running programs while your computer is in use. On the contrary, ROM is a kind of
permanent memory which is still intact even when the computer is off. The BIOS is a good example of an
application using ROM. The BIOS controls very low-level access to the hardware.
Busses and ports are general terms for connectivity components with connect the different parts of the PC
together. These include the serial port, parallel port, PCI and PCIe busses, and the Universal Serial Bus
(USB) controller. These devices allow communication between different parts of the system. Also network
interface cards are now standard on most motherboards, although USB and PCI versions of the devices
are also available.
Your optical drives and hard disk drives are also components in your computer. To allow data interchange
between your CPU and drives, SATA, ATA, and SCSI controllers are still widely used.
The core multimedia components include the sound card and graphics card. They make computing more
fun and useful for creative professionals such as designers, gamers, and musicians. Multimedia is definitely
a place where high-quality components really matter.
Feeding all these components with a steady supply of energy is another component called the power
supply. This is an often overlooked piece of hardware but obviously very important! A low quality power
supply can cause havoc in a computer system. On the other hand a bigger than necessary power supply
can increase system heat, waste power, and make a lot of noise. Choose wisely!
At the most exterior of the computer we see the computer case. This is meant to look good, protect the
components, and provide an easy interface to plug in peripherals. If you are buying or building your own
computer, make sure it has a good case.
Apple is well-known for high quality PC and laptop cases, although most major companies have fair to
medium quality PC cases. Beware of computers with cheap looking plastic cases. If a computer
manufacturer uses a cheap case, it's very likely they are also using other cheap components inside as well.
Cheap components equal a slow computer which will break after moderate use. If you intend to use a
computer for several hours every day, it makes sense to buy the very best one which fits your needs and
budget.
ACTIVIDADES
1) Encuentre todos los ejemplos de preposiciones e interprete esas las frases u oraciones
2) Describa Memoria RAM y ROM.
3) ¿Qué es el BIOS?
4) Nombre los buses y puertos mencionados. Explique su función
5) ¿Qué otros componentes existen?
6) ¿Cómo se ven beneficiados los profesionales creativos?
7) Explique las consecuencias del uso de una fuente de energía de mala calidad o más grande que la
necesaria.
8) ¿Cuál es la función del gabinete?
9) Interprete el último párrafo en español.
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Exercicio N°15
History of the Web – World Wide Web Foundation
webfoundation.org/about/vision/history-of-the-web/
The Rise of the World Wide Web
By the early 1990's, people were using computers in many different ways. Computers were already
installed in most schools, offices, and homes. They were commonly used for writing papers, playing games,
financial accounting, and business productivity applications. But very few people used them for
communication, research, and shopping the way we do now. A man named Tim Berners-Lee changed all
that. In 1990, Lee added an exciting hypertext and multimedia layer to the Internet and called it the World
Wide Web. The rest, as they say, is history.
The Web was not built for geeks. It was built for everyone. It was built with very high ideals. No single
company, government, or organization controls it. It was new and exciting. New ideas and words appeared
almost daily. Obscure technical terms became household words overnight. First it was email. Then it was
URL and domain name. Then rather quickly came spam, homepage, hyperlink, bookmark, download,
upload, cookie, e-commerce, emoticon, ISP, search engine, and so on. Years later we are still making up
new words to describe our online world. Now we "google" for information. We "tweet" what's happening
around us to others. The new words never seem to stop!
Just because the web seems so chaotic and unorganized compared to more structured companies and
governments, doesn't mean it's total anarchy. In 1994, Tim Berner's Lee started the W3C, a worldwide
organization dedicated to setting standards for the Web. This group is probably the most respected
authority for what should and should not be Web standards. W3C's mission is to lead the Web to it's full
potential.
As a student of English and Technology, you will hear people use the words 'Internet' and 'World Wide
Web' almost interchangeably. They are, of course, not the same thing. So what is the difference between
the two? Perhaps a simple answer is that the Internet is the biggest network in the world, and the World
Wide Web is a collection of software and protocols on that network. I guess a more simple way to put it is,
the World Wide Web is an application that runs on The Internet.
The original backbone of the Internet is based on an old military network called ARPANET which was built
by ARPA in the late 1960's. ARPANET was built so information could withstand a nuclear war. The idea
was not to have a single point of failure. This means if part of the ARPANET was blown up in a nuclear war,
the rest of it will still work! What made ARPANET so successful was its packet-switching technology,
invented by Lawrence Roberts. The idea is that "packets" of information have a "from" address and a "to"
address. How they get from point "a" to point "b" depends on what roads are open to them. Packet
switching is a very elegant thing. Without it, the Internet would simply not work.
People view the World Wide Web through a software application called a web browser or simply a
"browser" for short. Some popular examples of web browsers include Microsoft Internet Explorer, Google
Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Apple Safari. Browsers allow people to search, view, and even add and edit
data on the World Wide Web.
The Web is not supposed to be a passive experience. Creating new pages for the Web is getting easier all
the time. Web editing software is specially designed to work with hypertext languages such as HTML,
which is the original specification for the Web. Web editing software normally allows for the WYSIWYG
creation of text, images, and hyperlinks between related documents. With web applications such as wikis,
MySpace and FaceBook, a typical user can create his or her first online presence in a matter of hours.
In the year 1999, the Internet suffered it' first financial crash. Many companies selling products and services
on the Web were not living up to sales expectations. This was known as the Dot Com Bubble. There were
many reasons why this happened, but perhaps the two most important reasons were a combination of slow
connection speeds and too much optimism. Very few people had fast internet connections and many
people thought the Internet was "just a passing fad". But we know now that the Internet is not a fad. So
what happened? Web 2.0 happened!
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What is Web 2.0? It's very hard to say. It's just a phrase to describe a transition from the pre-existing state
of 'Web 1.0', which was slow, static, and unusable, to a new, 'second web', which was faster, more
dynamic, and more usable for the average person. How did these things happen? Easy. Broadband
modems enabled sites like video-streaming YouTube to become possible. Better design and development
practices enabled social media sites like MySpace and then Facebook to attract hundreds of millions of
users. Finally, search engine technology improved on sites like Google where people could actually find the
information they were looking for.
What will be the future of the Web? Easy. More speed and more power. In the future, digital distribution on
the Internet is likely to replace all other forms of media distribution including CDs, DVDs, and even radio
and television broadcasts.
I personally feel lucky to be alive in the age of the Web. It is one of the coolest things ever invented. It is
unlikely that such another wonderful and major revolutionary invention will occur in our lifetime. But I can
still dream about the Next Big Thing. And who knows? Maybe you will invent it.
ACTIVIDADES
Responda las siguientes preguntas en base al texto, en español. Subraye en el texto las oraciones
en donde encuentra esa información.
a) ¿Qué grandes cambios se produjeron en el uso de las computadoras en los primeros años de la
década de los 90?
b) ¿Cómo se vio reflejada la aparición de la Web en el lenguaje?
c) ¿Qué fue Arpanet?
d) ¿Qué paso en 1999?
e) ¿Qué permiten los biobuses?
f) ¿Cuáles son las posibilidades que brindan aplicaciones como My Space y Facebook?
g) Describa Web 2.0. ¿Qué diferencias presenta con la web 1.0?
h) ¿Cuál es la diferencia entre Internet y World Wide Web?
i) ¿Cómo predice el autor para el futuro?
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PALABRAS DE ALTA FRECUENCIA
A
a (an): un, una
about: acerca de, con respecto a, alrededor de, casi
above: sobre, arriba de, anterioridad, precedente, dicho, superior
according (to): de acuerdo con, conforma a, según que, como
according
y: por lo tanto, pues, en consecuencia
across: a través de, en frente
after: después (de), detrás (de), posterior, siguiente
again: nuevamente, de nuevo, otra vez
against: contra, en contraste con
ago: hace
all: todo(s), completamente, la totalidad
almost: casi
alone: solo
along: a lo largo (de), al lado (de), adelante, junto con
already: ya
also: también, además, asimismo
(al)though: aunque, si bien
always: siempre
among: entre, en medio de
amount: cantidad
and: y, e, u
another: otro/a, distinto/a
any: cualquier, algún, todo, ningún, algo; (o no se traduce)
anything: cualquier cosa, alguna cosa
anything else: alguna otra cosa
around: alrededor (de), en torno (de)
as: como, tal como, cuando, a medida que
as ... as: tan ... como
at: en, a
B
because: porque
before: adelante, delante de, al frente, antes (de)
behind: detrás (de), atrás, por detrás
below: abajo, debajo (de), más abajo, inferior
beneath: abajo, debajo (de)
beside: al lado (de). Junto a, cerca de
besides: también, además (de)
between: entre, en medio de
beyond: más allá (de), tras, después de, al otro lado de
both: ambos, los dos
both ... and: tanto ... como
but: pero, sino, excepto, salvo
by: por, al lado (de), junto a
C
certain: cierto/a/s, seguro
choice: elección, opción
common: común
concerning: respecto a, en lo que respecta a, acerca de
consequently: por lo tanto, por consiguiente, en consecuencia
D
definite: determinado/a, definido/a
despite of: a pesar de, pese a
doubt: duda
down: abajo, hacia abajo
during: durante, mientras
E
each: cada (uno), todo(s), cada cual, por persona
each other: mutuamente, entre sí
either: cualquier(a), uno u otro
either ... or: o ... o
else: otro más
elsewhere: en/a otra parte
enough: suficiente, bastante
even: aún, incluso, siquiera.
(adj):uniforme, constante, par, al mismo nivel
every: cada, todo, todos los
everybody: todos, cada uno
everyone: todos, cada uno
F
few: (a few) pocos/as, no muchos/as, algunos/as
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first: primero
for: para, durante, porque, puesto que
fourth: cuarto
from: de, desde
further: más amplio, adicional, más lejano/allá
furthermore: además
H
he: él
hence: de aquí (que), por tanto
her: su, de ella, le, la, a ella
hers: suyo, de ella
herself: ella misma, sí misma, se
him: le, lo, a él
himself: él mismo, sí mismo, se
his: su, sus, de él, suyo(s), el suyo
however: sin embargo, no obstante, de cualquier modo
I
I: yo
if: si
in: en, dentro (de), de, adentro, interior, interno
inside: interior, interno, adentro, en el interior, dentro de
instead: en vez de
into: a, en, dentro de
it: Pronombre sujeto: generalmente no se traduce
Pronombre objeto: lo, la, le
its: su, de ella, de ello
itself: Él mismo, ella misma, sí mismo/a, se
J
join: unir, conectar
joint: articulación
just: justo, exactamente, sólo, solamente
K
key: llave
(adj): principal, fundamental, clave
kit: equipo
L
least: mínimo, el menor, el mínimo, (lo) menos
less: menor, menos
like: como, tal como, similar, parecido a
likely: probable
likelihood: probabilidad
likewise: asimismo, igualmente, además
long: largo/a, largos/as
M
mainly: principalmente
many: muchos, numerosos
me: me, a mí, yo
middle: medio
mine: mío/a, míos/as, el mío
more: más, además de
moreover: además, por otra parte
most: la mayoría
much: mucho
my: mi, mis
myself: yo mismo, mí mismo, me
N
near: cerca (de), junto a , casi cercano
neither: ningún
neither ... nor: ni … ni
never: nunca, jamás
nevertheless: sin embargo, no obstante
next: junto a, al lado (de), próximo, siguiente, luego
no: no
(adj): ningún/a, nada de
nobody: nadie, ninguno
none: ninguno/a, nadie, nada
no one: nadie, ninguno/a
nor: ni tampoco
nothing: nada
notwithstanding: a pesar de (que)
now: ahora, ya
nowhere: en ninguna parte
O
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of: de, por
off: fuera de, lejos, completamente, apagado
often: frecuentemente, a menudo
on: sobre, encima de, en, encendido
once: una vez (que), cuando, anteriormente
one: uno, alguno
only: solo, único
or: o, u
other: otro/a
our: nuestro/a, nuestros/as
ours: nuestro/a/s, los/las nuestros/as
ourselves: nosotros/as mismos/as, nos
out: fuera, afuera, externo, apagado
outside: fuera (de), a excepción de, externo, afuera
over: sobre, por encima de, durante, al otro lado
own: propio
P
past: más tarde, más allá de
perhaps: tal vez, quizás
provided that: siempre que, con tal que
providing: siempre que, con tal que
Q
quite: bastante
R
right: correcto, sano, en buen estado, bien
rarely: rara vez, pocas veces
rather: más bien, bastante
round: alrededor (de)
(adj): redondo, circular
S
same: mismo, igual
seldom: rara vez
several: varios/as, diversos/as
she: ella
since: ya que, puesto que, desde, a partir de, desde entonces
so: pues, por lo tanto, así, de este modo, tan
so that: de manera que, de modo tal que
some: algunos/as, unos/as, un poco de, una parte de
somebody: alguien, alguna persona
someone: alguien, alguna persona
something: algo, un poco, en cierto modo
sometimes: a veces
somewhat: algo, un poco, en cierto modo
somewhere: a/en algún lugar/ alguna parte
soon: pronto, prontamente
still: sin embargo, no obstante, todavía, aún
(adj): inmóvil, fijo, silencioso
such: tal, tales, tan
such as: tal como
suddenly: de repente, repentinamente
T
than: que
that: que, ese, esa, aquel, aquella, ése, ésa, aquél
the: el, la, los, las
their: su, de ellos/as
theirs: suyo/a, suyos/as, de ellos/as
them: los, las, les, a ellos
themselves: ellos/as mismos/as, sí mismos/as, se
then: entonces, luego, después
there: allí, allá
therefore: por lo tanto, en consecuencia
thereby: con eso, por eso
these: estos/as, éstos/as
they: ellos, ellas
thing: cosas
this: este/a, esto, éste/a
third: tercero
those: esos/as, aquellos/as, ésos/as, aquéllos/as
though: aunque, aún cuando
through: a través de, por
throughout: por todo, en todo, de principio a fin
thus: así, de este modo, por lo tanto
till: hasta
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to: a, para, hacia, hasta
together: junto/a/s
toward: hacia, para
twice: dos veces
U
under: debajo
underline: subrayar
up: para (también da idea de ascender)
until: hasta
usually: usualmente, normalmente
V
variety: variedad
very: muy, sumamente
W
we: nosotros/as
well: bien, razonable
what: que, cual, lo que
whatever: cualquier cosa que, todo lo que
when: cuando
whenever: cuando quiera que, en cualquier momento, cada vez que
where: donde
wherever: donde sea que, en cualquier lugar que
whereas: mientras que, puesto que
whether: si
which: cuál, el/la cual, los/las cuales
while: mientras (que), en tanto (que)
whilst: en tanto (que)
who: quién, quienes, el/la que
whom: a/para quien/es
whose: cuyo/a, a quien, de quien
wide: ancho, extenso
with: con
within: dentro (de)
without: sin
why: por qué, para qué, por la/lo que
Y
yet: todavía, aún, ya, sin embargo
you: Pronombre sujeto: usted/es, tú
Pronombre objeto: le, la, te, a usted/es
your: tú, tus, su, sus, vuestros/as
yours: tuyo/a/s, suyo/a/s, de usted/es
yourself: tú / usted mismo, a ti / usted mismo, te, se
yourselves: ustedes mismos, se
Falsos Cognados
ability: habilidad, capacidad, talento
actual: real, efectivo
eventually: finalmente, al final
figure: cifra
introduced: presentado
large: grande
material: sustancia
minute: diminuto
part: papel, rol
subject: tema, materia
various: diferentes, diversos
several: varios/as, diversos/as
to relalize: constatar, darse cuenta
virtually: casi, prácticamente.

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Cuadernillo inglés Tecnico

  • 1. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 1 Exercicio N°1 What does PC stand for? PC = Personal Computer Computer parts (ponga en español las partes de la computadora) Una primero las palabras con las definiciones y luego pase todo al español en otra hoja: The basic parts to a personal computer Disk drive used to help the mouse have better grip. Monitor used for inputting all information to the monitor. Tower are used to load programs, games and hardware drivers. Keyboard controls the cursor on the screen by moving the mouse. Mouse without a monitor you would not be able to see this website or any other program. Mouse mat is the main part of the computer. It is the part that contains the hardware needed. Parts of a laptop and description for each one Disk drive controls the cursor on the screen by moving the your finger over the pad. Screen / Monitor used for inputting all information to the monitor. Keyboard are normally on the side of laptops. Touch pad / Mouse display the text / images back to the user. Parts of computer desk Draws for making phone calls. Telephone hold the keyboard and slides back in when not in use. Filing cabinet are used for storing things in. Keyboard shelf are used for storing things in.
  • 2. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 2 Cupboards are used for storing important documents in. Computer keyboard Try and find the following keys on your keyboard 1. Space bar 2. caps lock 3. Arrow keys 4. Numbers keys 5. Enter button 6. Control button = Ctrl 7. Shift keys 8. number pad 9. Alt keys 10. Backspace 11. Delete Control button (Ctrl) + i = Makes highlighted text italic Control button (Ctrl) + b = Makes highlighted text bold> Computer mouse What is a mouse? A mouse is used to move the cursor around the screen. Using the left the button you can open programs and files. Are there other types of mouse available? Yes, the first one is the wireless, cordless which as the ability to work without using any wires between the mouse and the computer. The second one is a trackball which looks like an upside down mouse. The on screen pointer is controlled using a ball using your finger or thumb. Speakers What are speakers used for? Speakers are used to allow you to hear sound from the computer. Sometimes computer have built in speakers, but these are not good quality. Printer What is a printer? A printer is a piece of hardware that has to be used with a computer. They are able to print text and images on to paper Printers can be used to print letters, documents and photographs. There are 2 main types of printers inkjet and laser printers. Inkjet printers sprays ink from an ink cartridge to the paper as it passes by. The laser printer uses a laser beam reflected from a mirror to attract toner (ink) to the selected parts of the paper as a sheet passes over a drum. Compact disc What is a compact disc? CD is short for compact disc, a compact disc is a flat, round and used for storing things on. medium that is read by a laser in a CD-ROM drive that was A standard CD can hold up to 72 minutes of music or 650 MB of data. CD's can be used to store music, video, photos, any type of file. Computer headphones and microphone What are computer headphones and microphones used for? Headphones can be used to listen to sound whilst not disturbing anyone else close by. Microphone can be used to talk to another person on msn, yahoo messenger or sykpe.
  • 3. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 3 Exercicio N°2 Interprete (cognados y falsos cognados) 1. First, you have to remove the tape from the top 2. These are his actual words. 3. In actuality, it is much more complex than that 4. Labour costs actually fall every year 5. Carbon is a chemical element 6. They are protecting the fresh water fish of the river Parana 7. I do not like frozen food, I prefer fresh food 8. They bring a fresh supply of water 9. The area has a very rich history. 10.Vegetables grow well in the rich, black soil. 11. I am the first child in my family to attend college 12.She had a big argument with her husband 13.They generally accept the orders without argument 14.His official title is editor 15.He has title to the land 16.Please, Erick, show your good manners 17.Our sympathies are with the families of the victims 18.Her sympathies lie firmly with the Conservative Party 19.I want to dispose my shares of the company 20.He arranged the disposition of her assets upon his mother’s death.
  • 4. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 4 Exercicio N°3 Computer A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved. Mechanical analog computers started appearing in the first century and were later used in the medieval era for astronomical calculations. In World War II, mechanical analog computers were used for specialized military applications such as calculating torpedo aiming. During this time the first electronic digital computers were developed. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs). Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are generally considered as "computers". However, the embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from electronic toys to industrial robots are the most numerous. ACTIVIDADES a. Lee el texto y marca 6 palabras que crees que son transparentes o cognados b. Lee el texto y marca 6 palabras técnicas e inclúyelas en tu glosario c. Pasa al español las frases subrayadas. d. Escribe de qué trata el texto en dos o tres oraciones
  • 5. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 5 Exercicio N°4 Software Computer software also called a program or simply software is a series of instructions that directs a computer to perform specific tasks or operations. Computer software consists of computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data (such as online documentation or digital media). Computer software is intangible, contrasted with computer hardware, which is the physical component of computers. Computer hardware and software require each other and cannot be realistically used on its own. At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor—typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. For example, an instruction may change the value stored in a particular storage location in the computer—an effect that is not directly observable to the user. An instruction may also (indirectly) cause something to appear on a display of the computer system—a state change which should be visible to the user. The processor carries out the instructions in the order they are provided, unless it is instructed to "jump" to a different instruction, or interrupted. Software written in a machine language is known as "machine code". However, in practice, software is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language). High-level languages are translated into machine language using a compiler or an interpreter or a combination of the two. Software may also be written in a low-level assembly language, essentially, a vaguely mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet, which is translated into machine language using an assembler. ACTIVIDADES a. Lee el texto y marca 6 palabras técnicas e inclúyelas en tu glosario b. Lee el texto y marca 6 adjetivos comparativos c. Lee el texto y marca 4 casos posesivos d. Pasa al español las oraciones subrayadas. e. Escribe tres oraciones sobre Software. Exercicio N°5 Office automation Office automation refers to the varied computer machinery and software used to digitally create, collect, store, manipulate, and relay office information needed for accomplishing basic tasks. Raw data storage, electronic transfer, and the management of electronic business information comprise the basic activities of an office automation system. Office automation helps in optimizing or automating existing office procedures. The backbone of office automation is a Local Area Network (LAN), which allows users to transfer data, mail and even voice across the network. All office functions, including dictation, typing, filing, copying, fax, Telex, microfilm and records management, telephone and telephone switchboard operations, fall into this category. Office automation was a popular term in the 1970s and 1980s as the desktop computer exploded onto the scene. Advantages are: 1. Office automation can get many tasks accomplished faster. 2. It eliminates the need for a large staff. 3. Less storage is required to store data. 4. Multiple people can update data simultaneously in the event of changes in schedule
  • 6. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 6 ACTIVIDADES a. Lee el texto y marca 6 palabras que crees que son transparentes o cognados b. Lee el texto y marca 6 adjetivos derivados c. Lee el texto y marca 6 sustantivos derivados d. Pasa al español las frases subrayadas. e. Escribe las ventajas de la Ofimática Exercicio N°6 Is Facebook a danger to your business data? Stuart King - 13 Sep 2007 1:00 We are all now familiar with the likes of MySpace and Facebook, and I am sure that many have published their profiles, comments, moods and questions, and have a list of online "friends". My organization has its own network on one of the most common social networks, and I know that many members of that network use the site during office hours. One of the risks of social networking is identity management. Suppose you receive a request to connect with someone on the popular LinkedIn network. How can you know that the request is from the named individual, and not from an impostor looking to gather data about your firm? Danger of the unknown A fundamental flaw of all social networks is the lack of identity validation. Anyone can pretend to be anyone. In July, New Scientist magazine highlighted this problem as it manifests itself on Facebook, where spammers create realistic profile pages that make them look like ordinary users. They then persuade people to accept them as friends, giving the spammer access to the victim's inbox, which they flood with Viagra ads and pornographic links. Social networking sites do have their advantages. We can see if our contacts are online and interact with them in real-time. Having real-time access to a community or network of experts can create real business efficiencies and accelerate business processes. Social networking is changing the way we interact. The catch is that there are presently no rules, and that makes it a dangerous environment. Changing boundaries One of the most important aspects of social networking from my point of view is that business use of social networks extends outside the organization. Therefore, our boundaries become extended and the potential vectors to access to our data increase. From a user's point of view, the distinction between personal and business identities begins to blur. Facebook's privacy policy runs to more than 3,200 words, with a disclaimer stating that the policy can change at any time without warning. Would you trust this company with your private data? There are no guarantees and no restrictions about how Facebook can use the huge quantity of data that it holds. It is a marketers’ dream and a hugely valuable asset for the owners. Do not forget that Facebook was not designed for business; it was intended as a fun "social utility". The future will see more development of these sites, tighter integration with our business tools, and more risk to privacy. So, the message has got to be "use with caution". Do not publish anything you are likely to regret later, because the likelihood is that your online content will live on longer than you might wish it to. http://www.computerweekly.com/news/2240082955/Is-Facebook-a-danger-to-your-business-data
  • 7. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 7 ACTIVIDADES a. Marca las partes del texto. b. Lee el texto y marca 6 palabras que crees que son transparentes o cognados c. Lee el texto y marca 6 adjetivos derivados d. Lee el texto y marca 6 sustantivos derivados e. Lee el texto y marca 4 casos posesivos f. Pasa al español el texto: Danger of the unknown Exercicio N°7 Software development From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Software development is the process of computer programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications and frameworks involved in a software release life cycle and resulting in a software product. The term refers to a process of writing and maintaining the source code, but in a broader sense of the term it includes all that is involved between the conception of the desired software through to the final manifestation of the software, ideally in a planned and structured process. Therefore, software development may include research, new development, prototyping, modification, reuse, re-engineering, maintenance, or any other activities that result in software products. Software can be developed for a variety of purposes, the three most common being to meet specific needs of a specific client/business (the case with custom software), to meet a perceived need of some set of potential users (the case with commercial and open source software), or for personal use (e.g. a scientist may write software to automate a mundane task). Embedded software development, that is, the development of embedded software such as used for controlling consumer products, requires the development process to be integrated with the development of the controlled physical product. System software underlies applications and the programming process itself, and is often developed separately. The need for better quality control of the software development process has given rise to the discipline of software engineering, which aims to apply the systematic approach exemplified in the engineering paradigm to the process of software development. There are many approaches to software project management, known as software development life cycle models, methodologies, processes, or models. The waterfall model is a traditional version, contrasted with the more recent innovation of agile software development. ACTIVIDADES a. Marca las partes del texto. b. Lee el texto y marca 6 palabras que crees que son transparentes o cognados. c. Lee el texto y marca 6 adjetivos derivados y dos compuestos. d. Lee el texto y marca 6 sustantivos derivados. e. Lee el texto y marca 4 casos posesivos. f. Dé la definición de Software development. g. Enuncie los tres propósitos de software development. h. Escriba dos oraciones resumiendo de qué trata el texto.
  • 8. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 8 Exercicio N°8 Software development process A software development process (also known as a software development methodology, model, or life cycle) is a framework that is used to structure, plan, and control the process of developing information systems. A wide variety of such frameworks have evolved over the years, each with its own recognized strengths and weaknesses. There are several different approaches to software development: some take a more structured, engineering-based approach to developing business solutions, whereas others may take a more incremental approach, where software evolves as it is developed piece-by-piece. One system development methodology is not necessarily suitable for use by all projects. Each of the available methodologies is best suited to specific kinds of projects, based on various technical, organizational, project and team considerations. Most methodologies share some combination of the following stages of software development:  Analyzing the problem  Market research  Gathering requirements for the proposed business solution  Devising a plan or design for the software-based solution  Implementation (coding) of the software  Testing the software  Deployment  Maintenance and bug fixing These stages are often referred to collectively as the software development lifecycle, or SDLC. Different approaches to software development may carry out these stages in different orders, or devote more or less time to different stages. The level of detail of the documentation produced at each stage of software development may also vary. These stages may also be carried out in turn (a “waterfall” based approach), or they may be repeated over various cycles or iterations (a more "extreme" approach). The more extreme approach usually involves less time spent on planning and documentation, and more time spent on coding and development of automated tests. More “extreme” approaches also promote continuous testing throughout the development lifecycle, as well as having a working (or bug-free) product at all times. More structured or “waterfall” based approaches attempt to assess the majority of risks and develop a detailed plan for the software before implementation (coding) begins, and avoid significant design changes and re-coding in later stages of the software development life cycle planning. There are significant advantages and disadvantages to the various methodologies, and the best approach to solving a problem using software will often depend on the type of problem. If the problem is well understood and a solution can be effectively planned out ahead of time, the more "waterfall" based approach may work the best. If, on the other hand, the problem is unique (at least to the development team) and the structure of the software solution cannot be easily envisioned, then a more "extreme" incremental approach may work best. ACTIVIDADES a. Marca las partes del texto. b. Dé la definición de software development process. c. Enuncie las etapas en el desarrollo de un software. d. ¿Cómo se pasan al español las frases subrayadas: There are e. Pase al español con coherencia las oraciones subrayadas, en ellas hay palabras recuadradas, ¿cómo se llaman estas estructuras?
  • 9. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 9 Exercicio N°9 Introduction to Computer Software | Reading Activity | English 4 IT https://www.english4it.com/unit/2/reading Introduction to Computer Software For as long as there has been computer hardware, there has also been computer software. But what is software? Software is just instructions written by a programmer which tells the computer what to do. Programmers are also known as 'software developers', or just plain 'developers'. Nothing much is simple about software. Software programs can have millions of lines of code. If one line doesn’t work, the whole program could break! Even the process of starting software goes by many different names in English. Perhaps the most correct technical term is 'execute', as in "the man executed the computer program." Be careful, because the term 'execute' also means (in another context) to put someone to death! Some other common verbs used to start a software program you will hear are 'run', 'launch, and even 'boot' (when the software in question is an operating system). Software normally has both features and bugs. Hopefully more of the former than the latter! When software has a bug there are a few things that can happen. The program can crash and terminate with a confusing message. This is not good. End users do not like confusing error messages such as: Site error: the file /home7/businfc6/public_html/blog/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/seo-blog/core.php requires the ionCube PHP Loader ioncube_loader_lin_5.2.so to be installed by the site administrator. Sometimes when software stops responding you are forced to manually abort the program yourself by pressing some strange combination of keys such as ctrl-alt-delete. Because of poor usability, documentation, and strange error messages, programming still seems very mysterious. A- Lea el texto y resuelva los siguientes ejercicios 1. Identifique los cognados y márquelos con un círculo. 2. ¿Qué clases de palabras son las subrayadas en los primeros párrafos? Complete la siguiente tabla con las mismas. Singular Plural Simple Derivado Compuesto 3. Encuentre sustantivos derivados con los sufijos –ion,-er, -ity 4. Haga una lista con todos los sustantivos simples del texto, escríbalos en plural y dé su equivalente en español.
  • 10. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 10 5. Subraye con color los sustantivos compuestos y dé su interpretación en español. 6. Dé la interpretación de las frases resaltadas en negrita. 7. Repase los prefijos y sufijos más comunes para formar sustantivos en inglés. Provea un listado con otros ejemplos de vocabulario técnico usado frecuentemente en su área de estudio. Exercicio N°10 Introduction to Computer Software | Reading Activity | English 4 IT https://www.english4it.com/unit/2/reading Introduction to Computer Software (2nd part) I think everyone studying Information Technology should learn at least one programming language and write at least one program. Why? Programming forces you to think like a computer. This can be very rewarding when dealing with a wide range of IT-related issues from tech support to setting up PPC (pay- per-click) advertising campaigns for a client's web site. Also, as an IT professional, you will be dealing with programmers on a daily basis. Having some understanding of the work they do will help you get along with them better. Software programs are normally written and compiled for certain hardware platforms. It is very important that the software is compatible with all the components of the computer. For instance, you cannot run software written for a Windows computer on a Macintosh computer or a Linux computer. Actually, you can, but you need to have special emulation software or a virtual machine installed. Even with this special software installed, it is still normally best to run a program on the kind of computer for which it was intended. There are two basic kinds of software you need to learn about as an IT professional. The first is closed source or proprietary software, which you are not free to modify and improve. An example of this kind of software is Microsoft Windows or Adobe Photoshop. This software model is so popular that some people believe it's the only model there is. But there's a whole other world of software out there. The other kind of software is called open source software, which is normally free to use and modify (with some restrictions of course). Examples of this type of software include most popular programming languages, operating systems such as Linux, and thousands of applications such as Mozilla Firefox and Open Office. ACTIVIDADES Lea el texto y resuelva los siguientes ejercicios 1- Identifique los cognados y márquelos con un círculo. 2- Subraye con color todos los artículos. 3- Complete la siguiente tabla con sustantivos extraídos de los dos primeros párrafos del texto. Singular Plural Simple Derivado Compuesto
  • 11. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 11 4- Provea el plural de los siguientes sustantivos: language, programme, professional, model, world 5- Dé la interpretación de las frases resaltadas en negrita. ¿Qué sustantivo es incontable? 6- ¿Cuál es la idea principal del texto? Exercicio N°11 Operating system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_system Examples of popular operating systems with GUI interfaces include Windows and Mac OS X. Unix systems have two popular GUIs as well, known as KDE and Gnome, which run on top of X-Windows. All three of the above mentioned operating systems also have built-in CLI interfaces as well for power users and software engineers. The CLI in Windows is known as MS-DOS. The CLI in Max OS X is known as the Terminal. There are many CLIs for Unix and Linux operating systems, but the most popular one is called Bash. In recent years, more and more features are being included in the basic GUI OS install, including notepads, sound recorders, and even web browsers and games. This is another example of the concept of 'convergence' which we like to mention. A great example of an up and coming OS is Ubuntu. Ubuntu is a Linux operating system which is totally free, and ships with nearly every application you will ever need already installed. Even a professional quality office suite is included by default. What's more, thousands of free, ready-to-use applications can be downloaded and installed with a few clicks of the mouse. This is a revolutionary feature in an OS and can save lots of time, not to mention hundreds or even thousands of dollars on a single PC. Not surprisingly, Ubuntu's OS market share is growing very quickly around the world. As an IT professional, you will probably have to learn and master several, if not all, the popular operating systems. If you think this sort of thing is fun and interesting, then you have definitely chosen the right career.  This page was last modified on 8 August 2016, at 21:30. ACTIVIDADES 1. Encuentre: 1. Sustantivos en plural, escriba su singular y su traducción 2. Sustantivos derivados: 3. Artículos y márquelos con un circulo 2. De la interpretación de las frases subrayadas en el texto: 3. Trabaje con los textos 4,5,6. 1. Busque adjetivos en ellos, para completar la siguiente tabla. Dé la interpretación de los mismos en español. Simples Derivados Compuestos
  • 12. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 12 2. Extraer adjetivos derivados, con los sufijos y prefijos más comunes estudiados. Cópielos junto a los sustantivos que califican. 3. Extraer 4 oraciones, que contengan adjetivos en función atributiva y predicativa. 4. Dé la interpretación en español de las siguientes oraciones. ( Práctica de adjetivos) a- Perhaps the most correct technical “term” is execute. b. Hopefully more of the former than the latter. c. It is normally best to run a program … d. Examples of this type of software include most popular programming languages,… e. The most popular one is Bash. 5. Identificar el tiempo verbal en las siguientes oraciones extraídas de los textos 4, 5 y 6 y luego interpretar en español. a) Software programs can have millions of lines of code b) …the most correct technical term is 'execute'. c) If one line doesn’t work, d) Software normally has both features and bugs. e) Programming forces you to think like a computer f) There are two basic kinds of software you need to learn about as an IT professional g) But there's a whole other world of software out there. h) Examples of popular operating systems with GUI interfaces include Windows and Mac OS X i) There are many CLIs for Unix and Linux operating systems j) Ubuntu's OS market share is growing very quickly around the world. 6) Interprete las siguientes oraciones del texto N° 1, e identifique los verbos. a) Software is just instructions written by a programmer which tells the computer what to do. Programmers are also known as 'software developers', or just plain 'developers'. b) Nothing much is simple about software. Software programs can have millions of lines of code. If one line doesn’t work, the whole program could break! c) When software has a bug there are a few things that can happen. The program can crash and terminate with a confusing message. d) Sometimes when software stops responding you are forced to manually abort the program yourself by pressing some strange combination of keys such as ctrl-alt-delete. e) Because of poor usability, documentation, and strange error messages, programming still seems very mysterious. 7) Exprese la idea principal del texto
  • 13. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 13 Exercicio N°12 Recognizing Different Types of Computers | Reading Activity | English ... https://www.english4it.com/unit/10/reading Recognizing Different Types of Computers In this unit you will learn about different types of computers and what makes them unique. Computers were not always things you could carry around with you, or even have in your bedroom. Sixty years ago, computers (such as ENIAC ) were as big as entire apartments. They were difficult to use and not very powerful by today's standards. They also cost a lot of money to build and operate. So computers were only used by large organizations such as governments, international corporations, and universities. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, computers captured the public's imagination in literature, films, and TV. More and more companies wanted computers, even if they didn't always have a good reason to own one. As a result, computers gradually became smaller, cheaper, and more practical to own. This was thanks in part to companies like IBM, which mass-produced computers for the first time and promoted them to medium and large businesses to do things like payroll, accounting, and other number-crunching tasks. In the 1970s and 1980s a new type of computer started to gain in popularity. It was called the PC or personal computer. For the first time in history, computers were now for everyone. The PC started a revolution which affects nearly everything we do today. The ways we work, play, communicate, and access information have all been radically reshaped due to the invention and evolution of the PC. PCs are everywhere you look today. At home, at the office, and everywhere in between. Many people still mistakenly believe the term PC is synonymous with a desktop computer running Windows. This is not really true. Really, any computer you use by yourself for general purposes could be called a PC. You probably already own at least one of these types of PCs: - laptop - desktop computer - PDA or personal digital assistant - workstation Besides PCs, there are other types of computers you probably see at work or school. These include: - file servers - print servers - web servers But not all types of computers are so obvious as the ones above. There are still other kinds of computers that fit inside of other devices and control them. These computers are known as embedded systems. Embedded systems can be found in traffic lights, TV sets, refrigerators, coffee machines and many more devices. Embedded systems are typically controlled by inexpensive, specialized processors which can only handle very specific tasks. Types of computers go in and out of fashion as times changes. Older kinds of computers which were very popular in the 20th century (1900’s) are now referred to as legacy systems. These include: - mainframes - minicomputers - IBM clones New types of computers are always coming out and replacing or augmenting existing computer types. Examples of new types of computers emerging would be netbooks, tablet PCs, and even wearable computers. As you complete this unit, you will learn to differentiate between different computer types. Keep in mind that the lines between computer types are constantly being blurred. This phenomenon is known as convergence.
  • 14. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 14 ACTIVIDADES 1) De la interpretación de las oraciones subrayadas. 2) Identifique en el texto las respuestas a estas preguntas e interprételas en español. a ¿Qué sucedió en las décadas de 50 y 60? b ¿Qué cambios produjo la aparición de la PC? c ¿ Qué tipos de PC hay? d ¿ A qué se refiere el término convergencia? 3) Complete las siguientes ideas a) Como resultado de la creciente incorporación de computadoras en diversas compañías, las computadoras….. b) Hay otros tipos de computadoras, como ser……….. c) Los sistemas incrustados………. Exercicio N°13 Famous People in the History of IT | Reading Activity | English 4 IT https://www.english4it.com/unit/7/reading Famous People in the History of IT (1) Almost everyone uses computers these days for everything from shopping to working to playing games. (2) But have you ever stopped to think about where all this amazing technology came from? (3) Who invented it all? (4)Well, behind every company, programming language or piece of software, there is a person - or sometimes a team of people - who turned ideas into reality. We've all heard of Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft and one of the richest men in history. (5) Equally famous is Steve Jobs, the person who, along with Steve Wozniak, started Apple computers. However, there are hundreds of other people, from early pioneers to later geniuses, who aren't as well known but who deserve recognition for the work they did in advancing the world of computing. (6) One of the first people to conceive of computers was Charles Babbage, an English mathematician and analytical philosopher who drew up plans for the first programmable computer called the Difference Engine. George Boole came up with a way of describing logical relations using mathematical symbols - now called Boolean logic - that is the basis of all modern computer processes. ( 7)Vannevar Bush first proposed an idea in 1945 he called 'memex', which we now know as 'hypertext'. Another notable figure in early computing was Alan Mathison Turing, an Englishman known as the "father of computer science". He invented the Turing Test, which is a way to find out if a computer is acting like a machine or a human. (8) Another English computer scientist, Edgar Frank Codd, is known for inventing the "relational" model for databases, a model which is still in use today. As computing became more complicated, people needed a way to make it easier to tell computers what to do - in other words, they needed ways to program the computers. These computer instruction systems became known as computer, or programming, languages. FORTRAN, the first widely used high-level programming language, was invented by an American computer scientist, John Warner Backus. Other
  • 15. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 15 notable North American inventors of programming languages include Dennis Ritchie, author of the C programming language, Larry Wall, creator of Perl, and Canadian James Gosling, known as the father of Java. Two men from Denmark are responsible for writing two other famous programming languages. Bjarne Stroustrup came up with C++ and Rasmus Lerdorf devised PHP. Dutchman Guido van Rossum wrote the Python programming language, while the Japanese computer scientist, Yukihiro Matsumoto, made a language called Ruby. One of the uses of programming languages is to create operating systems, which are essentially sets of instructions that allow computers to function. The most widely-used operating system in the world is Microsoft Windows, but there are other powerful ones that exist, such as Unix, created by Ken Thompson and his team at AT&T in 1969, and Linux, written by Linus Torvalds in 1991. Microsoft, of course, is the largest software company in the world, but there is another company, Intel, that is equally important when it comes to hardware. Intel was started by several people who are now legends in the computer world, including Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore. Moore is also famous for coming up with Moore's Law, which predicts the rapid increase of computer technology over time. Intel expanded rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s when a man named Andy Grove was in charge of the company. Other notable figures in the evolution of the computer industry are Ralph Baer, inventor of the first home video game console, Seymour Cray, for many years the manufacturer of the world's fastest supercomputers, Richard Stallman, founder of the free software movement called GNU, and Tim Berners-Lee, the man who created the basis for the World Wide Web. Through their creativity and hard work, all of these people contributed to shaping what we now experience as Information and Computer Technology. Every time you boot up a computer, play a video game or surf the Internet, try to remember the individuals who made these wonders possible. 1) Interprete en español las oraciones subrayadas en el texto, e identifique el tiempo verbal en cada una de ellas. 2) Complete el cuadro con las actividades que realizaron cada una de estas personas nombradas en el texto. Escríbalas en español. Bill Gates George Boole Alan Mathison Turing John Warner Backus Dennis Ritchie Larry Wall James Gosling Bjarne Stroustrup Rasmus Lerdorf Guido van Rossum
  • 16. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 16 Yukihiro Matsumoto Ken Thompson Linus Torvalds Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore Andy Grove Ralph Baer Seymour Cray Richard Stallman Tim Berners-Lee 3) Escriba en español la idea principal del texto …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Exercicio N°14 Computer Hardware, PC Parts & Components, Storage Devices ... www.newegg.com/Components/Store Computer Hardware Components Due to convergence, the traditional categories we divide computing into are blurring. (1) But for practical reasons, IT professionals can still divide hardware into two main classes: components and peripherals. Components are primarily core internal devices of a computer which help define what type a computer is, what it is capable of doing, and how well it is capable of doing it. (2) Nothing affects the overall quality of a computer more than its components. (3) Normally the more expensive a component is, the better it performs. This is a general guideline however and not a steadfast rule. Sometimes you can spend a lot more money on a component with only slightly better performance than one costing half as much. (4) Other times a very expensive component might be based on a completely new technology that is not ready for mass production. In these cases, one is often better off buying a more mainstream part.
  • 17. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 17 Being an early adopter is not always the most practical move when choosing components for a new system. Often you can find very powerful hardware at the medium price ranges. There is normally a relatively large sweet-spot in the market. How can you know if a component is good or bad? You want to be an IT professional, right? IT professionals need good computers without performance bottlenecks. So do some research. Read articles about components on a website. Where do you find them? Just Google it! One of my favorite places for objective customer reviews of components is Tom's Hardware Guide. Another place for objective information is on well-known websites such as Amazon.com or NewEgg.com. On sites like these, customers will often write both positive and negative reviews shortly after receiving their products. This can help you decide what to buy! Imagine you want to build your own computer. It's not that difficult or expensive really. I personally think it's kind of fun, How would you start? If you are experienced, you would start by choosing the components first! (5) Components must be compatible with each other in order to function correctly. For example not all processors are compatible with all motherboards. Research is necessary to solve your dependencies. (6) If you can't afford the exact parts you want to get all at the same time, you can use old parts or buy cheaper parts at first if you have to. Why? Because certain components can be upgraded to attain increased performance. For example, a video card (or graphics card) can be upgraded to improve the graphics for a CAD/CAM application or 3D gaming experience. At the heart of the computer lies several key components sitting on the motherboard including the microprocessor, the chipset, RAM and a ROM firmware instruction set called the BIOS. (7) These core components are connected by several "buses" made to carry information around the system and eventually out to display devices and other peripherals. (8) The CPU is another name for the 'brain' of the computer and normally includes the microprocessor and RAM. This is what does all the calculations. One or more coprocessors may or may not be needed depending on what the computer is used for. In the 20th century, coprocessors were often used for mathematics such as floating point operations. Today however coprocessors are mostly used for 3D graphics (GPUs), sound generation, and physics applications. ACTIVIDADES 1) ¿Cuál es el tiempo verbal predominante en el texto? 2) ¿Qué clase de palabras son las resaltadas en negrita? Clasifíquelas y dé su interpretación en español. 3) Responda las siguientes preguntas a) ¿Cómo se puede dividir el hardware? b) ¿Qué son los componentes? c) ¿Cómo se puede saber si el componente es bueno o malo? d) Para construir una computadora propia, ¿qué se necesita hacer primero? e) ¿Qué componentes se encuentran en el corazón de la computadora? 4) Interprete en español las oraciones subrayadas. 5) ¿A qué hacen referencia los pronombres resaltados en el texto? 6) Encuentre ejemplos de sustantivos simples y derivados y de adjetivos simples y derivados ( 5 de cada uno) 7) Busque 5 (cinco) oraciones en diferentes tiempos verbales e interprételas en español.
  • 18. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 18 Exercicio N°15 Technology Now: Your Companion to SAM Computer Concepts https://books.google.com.ar/books?isbn=1305445910 RAM -ROM As you probably learned in an earlier chapter, RAM is the memory which allows your computer to hold the operating system and all running programs while your computer is in use. On the contrary, ROM is a kind of permanent memory which is still intact even when the computer is off. The BIOS is a good example of an application using ROM. The BIOS controls very low-level access to the hardware. Busses and ports are general terms for connectivity components with connect the different parts of the PC together. These include the serial port, parallel port, PCI and PCIe busses, and the Universal Serial Bus (USB) controller. These devices allow communication between different parts of the system. Also network interface cards are now standard on most motherboards, although USB and PCI versions of the devices are also available. Your optical drives and hard disk drives are also components in your computer. To allow data interchange between your CPU and drives, SATA, ATA, and SCSI controllers are still widely used. The core multimedia components include the sound card and graphics card. They make computing more fun and useful for creative professionals such as designers, gamers, and musicians. Multimedia is definitely a place where high-quality components really matter. Feeding all these components with a steady supply of energy is another component called the power supply. This is an often overlooked piece of hardware but obviously very important! A low quality power supply can cause havoc in a computer system. On the other hand a bigger than necessary power supply can increase system heat, waste power, and make a lot of noise. Choose wisely! At the most exterior of the computer we see the computer case. This is meant to look good, protect the components, and provide an easy interface to plug in peripherals. If you are buying or building your own computer, make sure it has a good case. Apple is well-known for high quality PC and laptop cases, although most major companies have fair to medium quality PC cases. Beware of computers with cheap looking plastic cases. If a computer manufacturer uses a cheap case, it's very likely they are also using other cheap components inside as well. Cheap components equal a slow computer which will break after moderate use. If you intend to use a computer for several hours every day, it makes sense to buy the very best one which fits your needs and budget. ACTIVIDADES 1) Encuentre todos los ejemplos de preposiciones e interprete esas las frases u oraciones 2) Describa Memoria RAM y ROM. 3) ¿Qué es el BIOS? 4) Nombre los buses y puertos mencionados. Explique su función 5) ¿Qué otros componentes existen? 6) ¿Cómo se ven beneficiados los profesionales creativos? 7) Explique las consecuencias del uso de una fuente de energía de mala calidad o más grande que la necesaria. 8) ¿Cuál es la función del gabinete? 9) Interprete el último párrafo en español.
  • 19. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 19 Exercicio N°15 History of the Web – World Wide Web Foundation webfoundation.org/about/vision/history-of-the-web/ The Rise of the World Wide Web By the early 1990's, people were using computers in many different ways. Computers were already installed in most schools, offices, and homes. They were commonly used for writing papers, playing games, financial accounting, and business productivity applications. But very few people used them for communication, research, and shopping the way we do now. A man named Tim Berners-Lee changed all that. In 1990, Lee added an exciting hypertext and multimedia layer to the Internet and called it the World Wide Web. The rest, as they say, is history. The Web was not built for geeks. It was built for everyone. It was built with very high ideals. No single company, government, or organization controls it. It was new and exciting. New ideas and words appeared almost daily. Obscure technical terms became household words overnight. First it was email. Then it was URL and domain name. Then rather quickly came spam, homepage, hyperlink, bookmark, download, upload, cookie, e-commerce, emoticon, ISP, search engine, and so on. Years later we are still making up new words to describe our online world. Now we "google" for information. We "tweet" what's happening around us to others. The new words never seem to stop! Just because the web seems so chaotic and unorganized compared to more structured companies and governments, doesn't mean it's total anarchy. In 1994, Tim Berner's Lee started the W3C, a worldwide organization dedicated to setting standards for the Web. This group is probably the most respected authority for what should and should not be Web standards. W3C's mission is to lead the Web to it's full potential. As a student of English and Technology, you will hear people use the words 'Internet' and 'World Wide Web' almost interchangeably. They are, of course, not the same thing. So what is the difference between the two? Perhaps a simple answer is that the Internet is the biggest network in the world, and the World Wide Web is a collection of software and protocols on that network. I guess a more simple way to put it is, the World Wide Web is an application that runs on The Internet. The original backbone of the Internet is based on an old military network called ARPANET which was built by ARPA in the late 1960's. ARPANET was built so information could withstand a nuclear war. The idea was not to have a single point of failure. This means if part of the ARPANET was blown up in a nuclear war, the rest of it will still work! What made ARPANET so successful was its packet-switching technology, invented by Lawrence Roberts. The idea is that "packets" of information have a "from" address and a "to" address. How they get from point "a" to point "b" depends on what roads are open to them. Packet switching is a very elegant thing. Without it, the Internet would simply not work. People view the World Wide Web through a software application called a web browser or simply a "browser" for short. Some popular examples of web browsers include Microsoft Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Apple Safari. Browsers allow people to search, view, and even add and edit data on the World Wide Web. The Web is not supposed to be a passive experience. Creating new pages for the Web is getting easier all the time. Web editing software is specially designed to work with hypertext languages such as HTML, which is the original specification for the Web. Web editing software normally allows for the WYSIWYG creation of text, images, and hyperlinks between related documents. With web applications such as wikis, MySpace and FaceBook, a typical user can create his or her first online presence in a matter of hours. In the year 1999, the Internet suffered it' first financial crash. Many companies selling products and services on the Web were not living up to sales expectations. This was known as the Dot Com Bubble. There were many reasons why this happened, but perhaps the two most important reasons were a combination of slow connection speeds and too much optimism. Very few people had fast internet connections and many people thought the Internet was "just a passing fad". But we know now that the Internet is not a fad. So what happened? Web 2.0 happened!
  • 20. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 20 What is Web 2.0? It's very hard to say. It's just a phrase to describe a transition from the pre-existing state of 'Web 1.0', which was slow, static, and unusable, to a new, 'second web', which was faster, more dynamic, and more usable for the average person. How did these things happen? Easy. Broadband modems enabled sites like video-streaming YouTube to become possible. Better design and development practices enabled social media sites like MySpace and then Facebook to attract hundreds of millions of users. Finally, search engine technology improved on sites like Google where people could actually find the information they were looking for. What will be the future of the Web? Easy. More speed and more power. In the future, digital distribution on the Internet is likely to replace all other forms of media distribution including CDs, DVDs, and even radio and television broadcasts. I personally feel lucky to be alive in the age of the Web. It is one of the coolest things ever invented. It is unlikely that such another wonderful and major revolutionary invention will occur in our lifetime. But I can still dream about the Next Big Thing. And who knows? Maybe you will invent it. ACTIVIDADES Responda las siguientes preguntas en base al texto, en español. Subraye en el texto las oraciones en donde encuentra esa información. a) ¿Qué grandes cambios se produjeron en el uso de las computadoras en los primeros años de la década de los 90? b) ¿Cómo se vio reflejada la aparición de la Web en el lenguaje? c) ¿Qué fue Arpanet? d) ¿Qué paso en 1999? e) ¿Qué permiten los biobuses? f) ¿Cuáles son las posibilidades que brindan aplicaciones como My Space y Facebook? g) Describa Web 2.0. ¿Qué diferencias presenta con la web 1.0? h) ¿Cuál es la diferencia entre Internet y World Wide Web? i) ¿Cómo predice el autor para el futuro?
  • 21. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 21 PALABRAS DE ALTA FRECUENCIA A a (an): un, una about: acerca de, con respecto a, alrededor de, casi above: sobre, arriba de, anterioridad, precedente, dicho, superior according (to): de acuerdo con, conforma a, según que, como according y: por lo tanto, pues, en consecuencia across: a través de, en frente after: después (de), detrás (de), posterior, siguiente again: nuevamente, de nuevo, otra vez against: contra, en contraste con ago: hace all: todo(s), completamente, la totalidad almost: casi alone: solo along: a lo largo (de), al lado (de), adelante, junto con already: ya also: también, además, asimismo (al)though: aunque, si bien always: siempre among: entre, en medio de amount: cantidad and: y, e, u another: otro/a, distinto/a any: cualquier, algún, todo, ningún, algo; (o no se traduce) anything: cualquier cosa, alguna cosa anything else: alguna otra cosa around: alrededor (de), en torno (de) as: como, tal como, cuando, a medida que as ... as: tan ... como at: en, a B because: porque before: adelante, delante de, al frente, antes (de) behind: detrás (de), atrás, por detrás below: abajo, debajo (de), más abajo, inferior beneath: abajo, debajo (de) beside: al lado (de). Junto a, cerca de besides: también, además (de) between: entre, en medio de beyond: más allá (de), tras, después de, al otro lado de both: ambos, los dos both ... and: tanto ... como but: pero, sino, excepto, salvo by: por, al lado (de), junto a C certain: cierto/a/s, seguro choice: elección, opción common: común concerning: respecto a, en lo que respecta a, acerca de consequently: por lo tanto, por consiguiente, en consecuencia D definite: determinado/a, definido/a despite of: a pesar de, pese a doubt: duda down: abajo, hacia abajo during: durante, mientras E each: cada (uno), todo(s), cada cual, por persona each other: mutuamente, entre sí either: cualquier(a), uno u otro either ... or: o ... o else: otro más elsewhere: en/a otra parte enough: suficiente, bastante even: aún, incluso, siquiera. (adj):uniforme, constante, par, al mismo nivel every: cada, todo, todos los everybody: todos, cada uno everyone: todos, cada uno F few: (a few) pocos/as, no muchos/as, algunos/as
  • 22. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 22 first: primero for: para, durante, porque, puesto que fourth: cuarto from: de, desde further: más amplio, adicional, más lejano/allá furthermore: además H he: él hence: de aquí (que), por tanto her: su, de ella, le, la, a ella hers: suyo, de ella herself: ella misma, sí misma, se him: le, lo, a él himself: él mismo, sí mismo, se his: su, sus, de él, suyo(s), el suyo however: sin embargo, no obstante, de cualquier modo I I: yo if: si in: en, dentro (de), de, adentro, interior, interno inside: interior, interno, adentro, en el interior, dentro de instead: en vez de into: a, en, dentro de it: Pronombre sujeto: generalmente no se traduce Pronombre objeto: lo, la, le its: su, de ella, de ello itself: Él mismo, ella misma, sí mismo/a, se J join: unir, conectar joint: articulación just: justo, exactamente, sólo, solamente K key: llave (adj): principal, fundamental, clave kit: equipo L least: mínimo, el menor, el mínimo, (lo) menos less: menor, menos like: como, tal como, similar, parecido a likely: probable likelihood: probabilidad likewise: asimismo, igualmente, además long: largo/a, largos/as M mainly: principalmente many: muchos, numerosos me: me, a mí, yo middle: medio mine: mío/a, míos/as, el mío more: más, además de moreover: además, por otra parte most: la mayoría much: mucho my: mi, mis myself: yo mismo, mí mismo, me N near: cerca (de), junto a , casi cercano neither: ningún neither ... nor: ni … ni never: nunca, jamás nevertheless: sin embargo, no obstante next: junto a, al lado (de), próximo, siguiente, luego no: no (adj): ningún/a, nada de nobody: nadie, ninguno none: ninguno/a, nadie, nada no one: nadie, ninguno/a nor: ni tampoco nothing: nada notwithstanding: a pesar de (que) now: ahora, ya nowhere: en ninguna parte O
  • 23. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 23 of: de, por off: fuera de, lejos, completamente, apagado often: frecuentemente, a menudo on: sobre, encima de, en, encendido once: una vez (que), cuando, anteriormente one: uno, alguno only: solo, único or: o, u other: otro/a our: nuestro/a, nuestros/as ours: nuestro/a/s, los/las nuestros/as ourselves: nosotros/as mismos/as, nos out: fuera, afuera, externo, apagado outside: fuera (de), a excepción de, externo, afuera over: sobre, por encima de, durante, al otro lado own: propio P past: más tarde, más allá de perhaps: tal vez, quizás provided that: siempre que, con tal que providing: siempre que, con tal que Q quite: bastante R right: correcto, sano, en buen estado, bien rarely: rara vez, pocas veces rather: más bien, bastante round: alrededor (de) (adj): redondo, circular S same: mismo, igual seldom: rara vez several: varios/as, diversos/as she: ella since: ya que, puesto que, desde, a partir de, desde entonces so: pues, por lo tanto, así, de este modo, tan so that: de manera que, de modo tal que some: algunos/as, unos/as, un poco de, una parte de somebody: alguien, alguna persona someone: alguien, alguna persona something: algo, un poco, en cierto modo sometimes: a veces somewhat: algo, un poco, en cierto modo somewhere: a/en algún lugar/ alguna parte soon: pronto, prontamente still: sin embargo, no obstante, todavía, aún (adj): inmóvil, fijo, silencioso such: tal, tales, tan such as: tal como suddenly: de repente, repentinamente T than: que that: que, ese, esa, aquel, aquella, ése, ésa, aquél the: el, la, los, las their: su, de ellos/as theirs: suyo/a, suyos/as, de ellos/as them: los, las, les, a ellos themselves: ellos/as mismos/as, sí mismos/as, se then: entonces, luego, después there: allí, allá therefore: por lo tanto, en consecuencia thereby: con eso, por eso these: estos/as, éstos/as they: ellos, ellas thing: cosas this: este/a, esto, éste/a third: tercero those: esos/as, aquellos/as, ésos/as, aquéllos/as though: aunque, aún cuando through: a través de, por throughout: por todo, en todo, de principio a fin thus: así, de este modo, por lo tanto till: hasta
  • 24. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR CARMEN MOLINA DE LLANO- Tecnicatura Sup. en Desarrollo de Software –Primer Año - Inglés Técnico 24 to: a, para, hacia, hasta together: junto/a/s toward: hacia, para twice: dos veces U under: debajo underline: subrayar up: para (también da idea de ascender) until: hasta usually: usualmente, normalmente V variety: variedad very: muy, sumamente W we: nosotros/as well: bien, razonable what: que, cual, lo que whatever: cualquier cosa que, todo lo que when: cuando whenever: cuando quiera que, en cualquier momento, cada vez que where: donde wherever: donde sea que, en cualquier lugar que whereas: mientras que, puesto que whether: si which: cuál, el/la cual, los/las cuales while: mientras (que), en tanto (que) whilst: en tanto (que) who: quién, quienes, el/la que whom: a/para quien/es whose: cuyo/a, a quien, de quien wide: ancho, extenso with: con within: dentro (de) without: sin why: por qué, para qué, por la/lo que Y yet: todavía, aún, ya, sin embargo you: Pronombre sujeto: usted/es, tú Pronombre objeto: le, la, te, a usted/es your: tú, tus, su, sus, vuestros/as yours: tuyo/a/s, suyo/a/s, de usted/es yourself: tú / usted mismo, a ti / usted mismo, te, se yourselves: ustedes mismos, se Falsos Cognados ability: habilidad, capacidad, talento actual: real, efectivo eventually: finalmente, al final figure: cifra introduced: presentado large: grande material: sustancia minute: diminuto part: papel, rol subject: tema, materia various: diferentes, diversos several: varios/as, diversos/as to relalize: constatar, darse cuenta virtually: casi, prácticamente.