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A Survey of International Efforts to Combat CybercrimeCTO Cyber-Security ForumLondon, June 18, 2009Richard Simpsone-Novation Consulting
The Global Internet EconomyWorldwide E-Commerce SalesWorldwide e-commerce spending projected to grow at CAGR of 23%, exceeding $8.75 trillion in 2009The growth of B2B spending is comparably strong at CAGR of 22%, amounting to $7.6 trillion by 2009Source: IDC, Worldwide Internet Usage and Commerce 2005-2009 Forecast update, April 2007
Online threats are growing rapidlySpam volumes remain high
75 to 90% of email traffic is spam
represents hundreds of billions of messages
New, more sophisticated and dangerous forms of spam continue to appear, and are increasingly the source of network damage and online fraud
Now have a myriad of threats that go well beyond spam
phishing, botnets, spyware, computer viruses, & malwareSources: Messaging Anti-Abuse Working Group - MAAWG, 2nd Quarter, 2007; using 510 million mailboxes as a baseSophos Security Threat Report, July 25, 2007
Increasing costsGrowth of spam and related threats now a major drag on productivity and business competitivenessCosts to business and consumers estimated at $100 billion per year globally (Ferris Research, February 2007)Phishing estimated at $850/incident and total damage to US economy is $630 million*
Spyware estimated at $100/incident and total damage to US economy is $2.6 billion** Source: Consumer Reports, State of the Net 2006
Eroding trust and confidence Users changing their online practices due to security concernsConsumers losing trust in online banking and other servicesBusiness costs and concerns are mountingSlowing down investment and innovation
3-Tier Cyber Defence StrategyA multi-level, integrated set of tools are needed to make the Internet a safer and more secure environment for both business and consumers.Law Enforcement and National Security
Ground Rules for the Internet Economy
Private Sector Self-Protection7Law Enforcement & National SecurityThe Council of Europe’s Convention on CybercrimeFirst international treaty on crimes committed via the InternetCopyright infringementComputer-related fraudChild pornographyViolations of network securitySeeks to harmonize national laws across signatories to facilitate international cooperation and improve investigative techniques43 signatories including non-European countries such as Canada, Japan, and the United States, 21 countries have ratified  (2009)
8Law Enforcement & National SecurityThe G8 High-Tech Crime Subgroup Enhances the abilities of law enforcement and industry to gather information on, prevent, investigate, and prosecute criminal and terrorist acts that make use of computer networks and wireless technologies.Experts drawn from private and public sectorBuilds upon mutual law enforcement channels (24/7 Contact Network)Shares and expands understanding of investigative techniques        International recommendations include:Principles and Action Plan on High-Tech and Computer-related Crime (1997)Recommendations for Tracing Networked Communications Across National Borders in Terrorist and Criminal Investigations (2002)G8 Statement on Data Protection Regimes (2002)
9Ground Rules for Online MarketsWorking in concert with the private sector, governments have the primary responsibility to develop and implement a clear and consistent set of legal ground rules for the online marketplace, consisting of civil law remedies and regulatory instruments for:Protecting personal information (privacy)Combating spam and related threats Mandating data breach notificationSupporting industry-wide standards for network protectionCurtailing offensive content
10Ground Rules for Online MarketsDue to the borderless nature of the online marketplace, domestic laws and policies are heavily dependent on effective arrangements for international cooperation.  Current venues for inter-governmental cooperationOrganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)Internet Governance ForumLondon Action Plan
11OECD Policy InstrumentsGuidelines Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Data and Personal Information (1980) Guidelines for the Security of Information Systems and Networks (2002) Guidelines for Electronic Authentication (forthcoming)Recommendations Recommendation on Cross-Border Co-operation in the Enforcement of Laws against Spam (2006) Recommendation on Cross-Border Co-operation in the Enforcement of Laws Protecting Privacy (forthcoming)Toolkits Anti-Spam Toolkit (2006) Cross-border Privacy Law Enforcement (forthcoming)OECD Ministerial Meeting (17-18 June 2008 Seoul, Korea):The Future of the Internet Economy
12OECD Forward Work PlanManagement of digital identitiesGuidance for the protection of critical information infrastructuresMalware – analytical report and policy guidanceReview of Guidelines for the Security of Information Systems and Networks (2002) with a view toward improving international cooperationOECD Ministerial Meeting (17-18 June 2008 Seoul, Korea):The Future of the Internet Economy

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CTO-CybersecurityForum-2010-Richard Simpson

  • 1. A Survey of International Efforts to Combat CybercrimeCTO Cyber-Security ForumLondon, June 18, 2009Richard Simpsone-Novation Consulting
  • 2. The Global Internet EconomyWorldwide E-Commerce SalesWorldwide e-commerce spending projected to grow at CAGR of 23%, exceeding $8.75 trillion in 2009The growth of B2B spending is comparably strong at CAGR of 22%, amounting to $7.6 trillion by 2009Source: IDC, Worldwide Internet Usage and Commerce 2005-2009 Forecast update, April 2007
  • 3. Online threats are growing rapidlySpam volumes remain high
  • 4. 75 to 90% of email traffic is spam
  • 5. represents hundreds of billions of messages
  • 6. New, more sophisticated and dangerous forms of spam continue to appear, and are increasingly the source of network damage and online fraud
  • 7. Now have a myriad of threats that go well beyond spam
  • 8. phishing, botnets, spyware, computer viruses, & malwareSources: Messaging Anti-Abuse Working Group - MAAWG, 2nd Quarter, 2007; using 510 million mailboxes as a baseSophos Security Threat Report, July 25, 2007
  • 9. Increasing costsGrowth of spam and related threats now a major drag on productivity and business competitivenessCosts to business and consumers estimated at $100 billion per year globally (Ferris Research, February 2007)Phishing estimated at $850/incident and total damage to US economy is $630 million*
  • 10. Spyware estimated at $100/incident and total damage to US economy is $2.6 billion** Source: Consumer Reports, State of the Net 2006
  • 11. Eroding trust and confidence Users changing their online practices due to security concernsConsumers losing trust in online banking and other servicesBusiness costs and concerns are mountingSlowing down investment and innovation
  • 12. 3-Tier Cyber Defence StrategyA multi-level, integrated set of tools are needed to make the Internet a safer and more secure environment for both business and consumers.Law Enforcement and National Security
  • 13. Ground Rules for the Internet Economy
  • 14. Private Sector Self-Protection7Law Enforcement & National SecurityThe Council of Europe’s Convention on CybercrimeFirst international treaty on crimes committed via the InternetCopyright infringementComputer-related fraudChild pornographyViolations of network securitySeeks to harmonize national laws across signatories to facilitate international cooperation and improve investigative techniques43 signatories including non-European countries such as Canada, Japan, and the United States, 21 countries have ratified (2009)
  • 15. 8Law Enforcement & National SecurityThe G8 High-Tech Crime Subgroup Enhances the abilities of law enforcement and industry to gather information on, prevent, investigate, and prosecute criminal and terrorist acts that make use of computer networks and wireless technologies.Experts drawn from private and public sectorBuilds upon mutual law enforcement channels (24/7 Contact Network)Shares and expands understanding of investigative techniques International recommendations include:Principles and Action Plan on High-Tech and Computer-related Crime (1997)Recommendations for Tracing Networked Communications Across National Borders in Terrorist and Criminal Investigations (2002)G8 Statement on Data Protection Regimes (2002)
  • 16. 9Ground Rules for Online MarketsWorking in concert with the private sector, governments have the primary responsibility to develop and implement a clear and consistent set of legal ground rules for the online marketplace, consisting of civil law remedies and regulatory instruments for:Protecting personal information (privacy)Combating spam and related threats Mandating data breach notificationSupporting industry-wide standards for network protectionCurtailing offensive content
  • 17. 10Ground Rules for Online MarketsDue to the borderless nature of the online marketplace, domestic laws and policies are heavily dependent on effective arrangements for international cooperation. Current venues for inter-governmental cooperationOrganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)Internet Governance ForumLondon Action Plan
  • 18. 11OECD Policy InstrumentsGuidelines Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Data and Personal Information (1980) Guidelines for the Security of Information Systems and Networks (2002) Guidelines for Electronic Authentication (forthcoming)Recommendations Recommendation on Cross-Border Co-operation in the Enforcement of Laws against Spam (2006) Recommendation on Cross-Border Co-operation in the Enforcement of Laws Protecting Privacy (forthcoming)Toolkits Anti-Spam Toolkit (2006) Cross-border Privacy Law Enforcement (forthcoming)OECD Ministerial Meeting (17-18 June 2008 Seoul, Korea):The Future of the Internet Economy
  • 19. 12OECD Forward Work PlanManagement of digital identitiesGuidance for the protection of critical information infrastructuresMalware – analytical report and policy guidanceReview of Guidelines for the Security of Information Systems and Networks (2002) with a view toward improving international cooperationOECD Ministerial Meeting (17-18 June 2008 Seoul, Korea):The Future of the Internet Economy
  • 20. 13APEC InitiativesTelecommunications and Information Working Group (TEL)Frameworks and policy guidance for telecommunications and information technologiesCapacity building initiatives (e.g. legislative frameworks for cybercrime)Areas of focus include communications infrastructure and cybersecurityThe APEC Cybersecurity Strategy aims to:Harmonize legal systems in member statesImprove information sharing and cooperationThe APEC Strategy to Ensure Trusted, Secure and Sustainable Online Environment aims to:Encourage close information security collaboration between public and private sector entitiesIdentifies key areas that require increased attention and stronger cooperation
  • 21. New forum (est. 2006) for multi stakeholder policy dialogueSupports the United Nations Secretary-General in carrying out the mandate from the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)Information and Network security a key focus areaRaises awareness across levelsLegislativeRegulatoryLaw EnforcementTechnological advances14Internet Governance Forum (IGF)
  • 22. 15Private Sector Self--ProtectionMessaging Anti-Abuse Working Group (MAAWG)
  • 23. Challenge and ResponseA safe and secure Internet is essential in order to:Maximize the social and economic benefits of the Information societyAssure proper functioning of critical information infrastructuresBuild trust and confidence in e-business and e-governmentGiven the global and interconnected nature of the Internet: International cybercrime policy and law enforcement remains a significant challengeInternational cooperation is multi-layered: legal, policy, and technologicalGovernments, civil society, public and private stakeholders are working together under the auspices of international fora such as OECD, G8, APEC, and the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to build a safer and more secure Internet.
  • 24. 17A Tool Kit ApproachPublic Policy Unilateral
  • 27. Security by designLaw Enforcement Investigative techniquesPrivate Sector Codes MAAWG Code of ConductPublic/Private PartnershipsMulit-StakeholderLegal Frameworks Domestic & International18ConclusionsStrong criminal law and effective law enforcement, including inter-jurisdictional cooperation, are critically important BUTRobust domestic and international frameworks outside of the criminal law sphere are critical to enhance the power of the Internet as a medium and driver for economic growthMulti-stakeholder involvement is essential for developing private sector, voluntary measures aimed at protecting the Internet economy (i.e. standards and codes of conduct)
  • 28. 19Information SourcesOECD: Committee for Information, Computer and Communications Policy (ICCP)www.oecd.org/sti/security-privacyOECD Ministerial Meeting (17-18 June 2008 Seoul, Korea): The Future of the Internet Economyhttp://www.oecd.org/site/0,3407,en_21571361_38415463_1_1_1_1_1,00.htmlThe G8: High-tech Crime Subgrouphttp://www.g7.utoronto.ca/crimeAPEC: Telecommunications and Information Working Group (TEL)http://www.apec.org/apec/apec_groups/working_groups/telecommunications_and_information.htmlInternet Governance Forum (IGF) http://www.intgovforum.orgCouncil of Europe: Convention on Cybercrimehttp://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=185&CM=8&DF=6/4/2007&CL=ENGIndustry Canada: Electronic Commerce Branchhttp://e-ecom.ic.gc.ca