SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Phoenix AZ, May 27, 2015
Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga
Melanie Swan
Kingston University London
melanie@BlockchainStudies.org
www.BlockchainStudies.org
Cryptocitizen:
Smart Contracts, Pluralistic
Morality, and Blockchain Society
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Thesis
1
Blockchain technology is not just about
cryptocurrencies, registering wills and IP on
blockchains, and bank transfers taking less
than 3 days to settle, philosophically
blockchains invite a new level of thinking
about the sensibility of the Cryptocitizen and
possibilities for societal design
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Agenda
 Introduction
 Part I
 Smart Property and Smart Contracts
 Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen
 Part II
 Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust
 Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI
 Design Space of Digital Society
 Conclusion
2
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society 3
Melanie Swan, Blockchain Scholar
 Founder, Institute for Blockchain Studies
 Singularity University Instructor, EDGE Contributor
IEET Affiliate Scholar
 Swan, M. Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy. Sebastopol CA: O'Reilly Media, 2015.
 Swan, M. We Should Consider The Future World As One Of Multi-Species Intelligence. Response to The Edge Question 2015: What do you
think about machines that think? John Brockman, Ed., 2015.
 Swan, M. Cognitive Applications of the Brain as a DAC. Cognitive Science 2015: The Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society: Mind,
Technology, and Society, Pasadena CA, July 2015. submitted.
 Swan, M. Philosophy of Big Data: Expanding the Human-Data Relation with Big Data Science Services. IEEE BigDataService 2015,
Redwood City CA, Mar 31-Apr 2, 2015.
 Swan, M. Blockchain Thinking: The Brain as a DAC (Decentralized Autonomous Corporation). Texas Bitcoin Conference, Austin TX, March
27-29, 2015.
 Swan, M. Machine ethics interfaces: An ethics of perception of nanorobot-aided cognition. Journal of Responsible Innovation. submitted.
Traditional Markets,
Science, Arts Background
New Vision
http://melanieswan.com/publications.htm, http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society 4
Blockchain (non-technical overview of blockchain possibilities)
 What people are saying…
 #mindblowing – SD
 Instrumental – SG
 Intriguing - JH
 Great to read your book! Willing to transform
your ideas to real life – AW
 I find it amazing … a good mix of explanation
about state-of-the-art products as well as
visionary ideas. I was waiting for awhile for this
kind of book – JM
 A compelling and unique overview of the
possibilities – DC
 Thank you for helping bring about a new era in
finance – JW
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Bitcoin-FinTech-Blockchain Growth
5
https://angel.co/bitcoin, http://thefinanser.co.uk/fsclub/2015/02/the-fintech-scene-is-so-hot-its-boiling.html
http://thenextweb.com/insider/2015/04/16/bitcoin-is-the-worlds-most-dangerous-idea/
Silicon Valley Bank:
Global investment in
FinTech is set to
double from $10
billion in 2014 to
$19.7 billion in 2015,
and reach $46.1
billion by 2020
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Gartner Emerging Technology Hype Cycle
6
http://thenextweb.com/insider/2015/04/16/bitcoin-is-the-worlds-most-dangerous-idea/
Cryptocurrencies added July 2014
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
What is a Blockchain?
7
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
 A decentralized database/transaction ledger
 A giant ‘interactive Google doc spreadsheet’ that
anyone can view on-demand and administrators
(miners) continually verify and update to confirm
that each transaction is valid
 A shared truth state in a distributed system
 Etymology: blocks (batches) of transactions
posted sequentially to a ledger, referencing the
prior block (chain)
 Implication: secure network where any
transaction can be independently confirmed
as unique and valid without a centralized
intermediary (implies greater scale possible)
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Two modes: Improvement and Revolution
8
https://twitter.com/matteastwood/status/594603199685926913/photo/1
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Two modes of Blockchain Apps: Enterprise
(Improvement) and Individual (Revolution)
9
http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-consensus-protocols
Charts per: http://www.ofnumbers.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Permissioned-distributed-ledgers.pdf
Individual (revolution)
• Permissionless ledgers; public
• Censorship-resistant (pseudonymous)
• ‘Brave new world’ apps
• Anonymous validators (network
vulnerable to anonymous attack)
Enterprise (improvement)
• Permissioned ledgers; private
• Identity known/confirmed, legally-compliant
• ‘Reinvent the existing world’ efficiency
improvement, eliminate intermediaries
• Decentralized SaaS
Stellar
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Enterprise Blockchain Apps by Sector (selected)
10
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
Crucial Blockchain Properties
• Cryptoledger
• Decentralized network
• Trustless
counterparties
• Independent
consensus-confirmed
transactions
• Permanent record
• Public records
repository
• Notarization time-
stamping hashes
• Universal format
• Accessibility
Government
& Legal
• Transnational orgs
• Personalized
governance services
• Voting, propositions
• P2P bonds
• Tele-attorney services
• IP registration and
exchange
• Tax receipts
• Notary service and
document registry
Economics
and Markets
• Currency
• Payments &
Remittance
• Banking & Finance
• Clearing &
Settlement
• Insurance
• FinTech
• Trading & Derivatives
• QA & Internal Audit
• Crowdfunding
IOT
• Agricultural & drone
sensor networks
• Smarthome networks
• Integrated smartcity,
connected car,
smarthome sensors
• Self-driving car
• Personalized robots,
robotic companions
• Personalized drones
• Digital assistants
• Communication
(messaging)
• Large-scale
coordination
• Entity ingress/egress
• Transaction security
• Universal format
• Large-scale multi-
data-stream
integration
• Privacy and security
Real-time
accessibility
Health
• Universal EMR
• Health databanks
• QS Data Commons
• Big health data
stream analytics
• Digital health wallet
• Smart property
• HealthToken
• Personal
development
contracts
• Large-scale
infrastructural
element for
coordination
• Checks-and-
balances system
for ‘good-player’
access
• Community
supercomputing
• Crowd analysis
• P2P resourcenets
• Film, dataviz
• AI: blockchain
advocates, friendly
AI, blockchain
learners, digital
mindfile services
Science,
Art, AI
Example: Smarthome IOT blockchains
privately monitor physical and mental status
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Agenda
 Introduction
 Part I
 Smart Property and Smart Contracts
 Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen
 Part II
 Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust
 Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI
 Design Space of Digital Society
 Conclusion
11
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Smart Property and Smart Contracts
 Implications: a future of cryptographically-
activated assets and actions…
 …physical and intellectual property might
be registered and transacted via
blockchains as smart property, and
 …agreements, contractual relationships,
societal record-keeping, and governance
might be enacted through code-based
smart contracts
12
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
What is Smart Property?
 Register assets to blockchain via unique key
 Real-time GPS ‘LoJack’ tracking for any asset
 Blockchain becomes an inventory, tracking,
and exchange mechanism for hard assets
 Smart Property example projects
 Blocktrace ledger tracks diamonds
 Provenance.org tracks supply chain authenticity
 OpenBazaar decentralized Craigslist exchange
 Factom-HealthNautica medical billing and claims
 Drug and equipment inventory, including origin
and servicing records
13
https://openbazaar.org/, http://www.edgelogic.net/blocktrace, Provenance: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SqIUBn80pg4
http://cointelegraph.com/news/114053/factoms-latest-partnership-takes-on-us-healthcare
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Smart Property - Intangible
 Notary Service, Attestation
 Register contracts, agreements, wills (Proof of Existence, Factom)
 Register, protect, and transact IP (Monegraph, Ascribe)
 How it works
 Hash + timestamp + blockchain record
14
http://www.proofofexistence.com/
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
What are Smart Contracts?
15
 Agreements between parties posted to the
blockchain for automated execution
 Human-human interaction
 Technological-entity operation
 Patterns of interaction in society
 Software models most world systems now
 Software services can encode these patterns
(smart contracts as decentralized SaaS) to
facilitate the patterns of human interaction
 Example: Starbucks facilitates the pattern of
coffee for tokens exchange
 Code Projects: Ethereum, Etherparty, Eris
Woods, G.; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2CNayXbRKI, http://financialcryptography.com/mt/archives/001555.html,
https://eng.erisindustries.com/smart%20contracts/2014/12/17/dennys-smart-contracting/ ,
http://forum.ethereum.org/discussion/1402/how-to-get-started-your-first-dapp-under-one-hour,
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Smart Contract examples
16
 Bet on high temperature
 Intermediary removed
 Mortgage interest-rate resets
 Inheritance pay-out
 Age 21 or death of benefactor
 Blockchain-based Greek tax receipts in
Ricardian Contracts (Yanis Varoufakis)
 Peer-to-peer insurance
 Dynamis http://www.dynamisapp.com
 BitSilk https://twitter.com/bitsilk
 Mediation and legal services
 Precedent http://www.precedentcoin.com
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Ethereum-Development-Tutorial
Weather Bet (Ethereum)
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Smart Contract
Law Firm?
17
http://www.robotandhwang.com/attorneys/
 “Law is something to be
radically reshaped by
the emergence of
technology, it is about
the management and
manipulation of data on
an entirely new scale”
- Richard Susskind
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Agenda
 Introduction
 Part I
 Smart Property and Smart Contracts
 Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen
 Part II
 Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust
 Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI
 Design Space of Digital Society
 Conclusion
18
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Technologically-binding vs. Legally-binding
 Different frameworks
 Technologically-binding: Inexorably
executing code contracts (Lessig: "code
is law") that cannot be breached, and
will proceed unstoppably even if
conditions have changed
 Legally-binding: Discretionary
compliance, semantic flexibility of
human-partied contracts
 Key shift: Auto-executing code
could become prevalent not
anecdotal (mortgage industry)
19
Primavera De Filippi on Ethereum: Freenet or Skynet?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=slhuidzccpI
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Cryptolaw
 Intersection of technological (inexorable,
uninfringeable) and legal frameworks (flexible)
 Separate legal system needed for smart
contracts?
 Smart contract regulation: impossible to enforce smart
contracts with current law
 Example: a decentralized program already launched
and running is difficult to control, regulate, or sue for
damages
 Smart contracts impact not just contract law, but
more broadly social contracts within society
 What kind of social contracts do we humans want with
technological entities?
20
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Cryptolaw: Two modes of Smart Contracts
 As with blockchain applications, two types
(enterprise and individual)
1. Compliant legal contracts with mutual assent,
consideration, capacity, and legality
 Features such as: kill switch, consumer protection,
assurity funds escrowed, identity transparency
2. ‘A-compliant’: operating in ‘a-legalilty’ outside of
current regulation
 Involved parties, are you transacting with a
legal entity?
 A. human-human B. human-entity C. entity-entity
 Technological entities (DOAs) could become new
form of legal entity like a corporation
21
DAO: Distributed Autonomous Organization
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2CNayXbRKI
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Cryptolaw and Societal Design Implications
 Emerging that we need new ways of building societal
shared trust through:
1. Transparency
2. Legal frameworks that are still relevant, but perhaps
enacted at the level of the contract (not federal/state)
 Not lawlessness, legal framework as a selectable parameter
like jurisdiction (like Creative Commons license drop-downs)
3. More becomes ‘legal’ since monitoring is impossible
 More tolerance of existing patterns of interaction in society
 Result: Less deception; more truth, transparency, disclosure,
acknowledgment
 Everyone in the system is taking part consensually
 Result: more self-determination of societal participants
22
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Cryptocitizen Sensibility
 A new relationship with authority and
responsibility-taking; embodying what it is
to be a ‘Cryptocitizen’ ranging from
 Digital wallet security practices like backing up
our money, to…
 Self-authority responsibility-taking
 Governance services vs. being governed
 Trend: happened with news media,
entertainment, stock-trading, health services;
now happening with money, economics,
governance and legal services
 Blockchain technology is liberty-
enhancing, promulgating Cryptocitizen
sensibilities for authority-taking
23
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Agenda
 Introduction
 Part I
 Smart Property and Smart Contracts
 Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen
 Part II
 Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust
 Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI
 Design Space of Digital Society
 Conclusion
24
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Smartnetworks
 Smart property and smart contracts
are just one manifestation of
blockchain technology
 Blockchains shift communications
networks from dumb to smart
 What is being created is
smartnetworks, communications
networks that confer a truth state of
reality, wherein trust is built, such
that there are new possibilities for us
as individual agents and societies
 Builds societal shared trust
25
Source: http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2015/01/blockchain-consensus-models-increase.html
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Levels of Information (Modulated by Quality)
 Levels of information
1. ‘Dumb,’ unenhanced, unmodulated data: initial default
2. Socially-recommended data: data elements enriched
by social network peer or expert recommendation
3. Consensus-validated data: recommendation based on
group consensus, a formal structure of agents forming
a consensus about a reality state; not just a peer
recommendation, an actual truth state of the world
 The affirmed quality of information builds trust
 This quality of information has a higher level of trust
associated with it; high-resolution modulation regarding
the quality, authenticity, and provenance of information
 Impersonalizes and scales trust:
 Trusting systems not people
26
Source: http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2015/01/blockchain-consensus-models-increase.html
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Consensus Trust improves Effectiveness
 What consensus trust enables is
several things including effectiveness
 Building shared societal trust enables the
interrelation of participation, transparency,
and importantly, effectiveness
 Argument: everyone wants transparency,
but not everyone wants to participate, for
example in voting and decision-making
 Transparency and possibility is effectiveness
 Examples:
 Delegative democracy (Liquid Democracy)
 Futarchy (two-step prediction market voting)
 Reinventing Organizations
 Reweaving our Human Fabric
27
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Consensus Trust enables the Qualitative
 Blockchains as an equality technology for
illiberty eradication; blockchain neutrality
 Access the qualitative, the intangibles within
a system fluctuating, regressing over time:
 Cliometrics (Turchin) to measure inequality in
historical political systems; measure liberty, choice,
autonomy, authority-taking, and equality
 Complexity math to measure and impute utility
functions, quality of time spent in different activities
(fractal behavior, power laws, high coefficients,
nearest neighbors, Eigenvalues)
 How? Participants trusting the system are more
willing to share data about qualitative variables
 Directly or via QS/smarthome data feeds
28
Turchin, P., http://aeon.co/magazine/society/peter-turchin-wealth-poverty/; Swan, M. Cognitive Applications of Blockchain Technology;
Swan, M. Blockchain Thinking: The Brain as a DAC (Decentralized Autonomous Organization); Swan, M. Illiberty Eradication
http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2014/03/illiberty-in-biohacking-personal-data.html
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Consensus Trust empowers Entities
 Allows a fuller empowerment in the interaction
 Any interaction is a discovery and exchange
 Consensus is not just about information quality,
assurance, and validation, it is about the
relation between entities in a network, the
interaction structure and quality
 You-me in this conversation, or
 Intelligent entities who do not know each other in a
digital society interacting on a smartnetwork
 Expands what is possible in interactions, an
abundance mentality of injecting empowerment
and acknowledgement into interactions,
assents, confirmations, exchanges
29
Swan, M. "Blockchain Thinkers and Smart Contracts to take over the World?", March 20–21, 2015, The Work of Cognition and Neuroethics
in Science Fiction, Center for Cognition and Neuroethics, Flint MI
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Derrida: Ontology of Joycean Consensus
30
Derrida. Ulysses Gramophone: Hear Say Yes In Joyce. Pp. 267, 296.
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
 Affirmation is not solo, “saying yes” is dependent
upon another to hear it and acknowledge receipt
 The affirmation relation is liberty-enhancing and
totalization-resisting, the affirming and acknowledging
parties, and the yes itself, remain distinct
 “The two responses refer to each other without having any
relationship between them. The two sign yet prevent the
signature from gathering itself together [totalizing].”
 The yes “addresses itself to some other which it does not constitute”
 The yes avoids its own totalization, “The yes, by responding and
countersigning, does not let itself be counted or discounted [totalized].”
 Well-formed consensus: preserve the integrity of
entities in a network of ad-hoc relations
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Agenda
 Introduction
 Part I
 Smart Property and Smart Contracts
 Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen
 Part II
 Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust
 Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI
 Design Space of Digital Society
 Conclusion
31
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Smartnetwork Applications: Friendly AI
 Argument…
1. Digital intelligences will be
running on consensus-managed
smartnetworks
2. Good reputational standing is
required to conduct operations
 Resource access, fund-raising,
services-providing, contracts
3. Consensus only validates and
records bonafide transactions
from ‘good’ agents
4. Therefore all agents ‘good’
32
Swan, M. Cognitive Applications of Blockchain Technology. Cognitive Science 2015: The Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society:
Mind, Technology, and Society, Pasadena CA, July 2015. submitted. Swan, M. Blockchain Thinking: The Brain as a DAC (Decentralized
Autonomous Organization). Texas Bitcoin Conference, Austin TX, March 27-29, 2015. accepted.
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Smartnetwork Tyranny?
 Do decentralized trust networks result in
the tyranny of a monolithic morality?
Smartnetwork operations coordinated by
consensus models could be …
A. …positive, an enforcement mechanism for
cooperative bonafide players in a moral
society, including friendly AI
B. … terrifying (or at least potentially liberty-
circumscribing or normalizing) that any
one entity might be dependent on the
monolithic crowd to conduct even the
simplest of network operations
33
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Pluralistic Morality
34
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
 Need a system with universality and global
scale that simultaneously celebrates and
incorporates the richness of agent diversity
 One idea: use the decentralization attribute of
blockchains to establish reputation communities
 Peer-vouched reputation: community peers (geographical or
otherwise) vouch for our reputation and can be rewarded if
they vouch correctly (reinforcing feedback system)
 Potential applications: decentralized credit bureaus, open-
source FICO scores
 ‘Local’ reputation communities and global
infrastructure are thus included in one liberty-
enhancing tyranny-avoiding model
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Reputation and Identity
 Constructs of identity
 Social (forgive-forget, redemption, reinvention,
memory=imperfect)
 Technological (on-demand memory of all artifacts forever)
 Fourth-person perspective: connected world’s continuous
witnessing (QS gadgetry, IRC, Facebook, Gorgon Stare)
 Identity: something intrinsic or 3rd party-bestowed?
35
Antonopoulos, AM and Ellis, C. (2014). Let’s Talk Bitcoin #160: The Philosophy of Identity.
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Post-Entity Reputation
 Digital identity might become so distributed,
portable, copiable, open-sourceable, sharable,
malleable, and shardable, that it no longer
makes sense to think in terms of entities
 How to enable smartnetwork operations in a
post-entity society, perhaps one in which
‘ephemeral instances of capability and creativity’
have replaced identity-bounded entities?
 Reputation could still matter
 Even if not a full-fledged identity-entity, any instance,
any measurable quantum, any participation no matter
how ephemeral could still have a reputation
36
Swan, M. "Blockchain Thinkers and Smart Contracts to take over the World?", March 20–21, 2015, The Work of Cognition and Neuroethics
in Science Fiction, Center for Cognition and Neuroethics, Flint MI
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Reputation as Background of Collaboration
 More granular reputations, measuring…
 Multiple levels like actor, action, and intention
 Line-item credit for contributions and new ideas
 Composite reputations for group collaborations
 Blockchains facilitate, automate, and make
unobtrusive such tracking, especially ‘quiet
background tracking’
 Preserves focus on collaborative participation, comfortable
that credit/contribution-tracking is occurring
 Example: Stross’ Accelerando – distributed trust
networks and reputation markets, blockchain models
have digital copies “watching over their originals from
the consensus cyberspace of the [smart] city”
37
Swan, M. "Blockchain Thinkers and Smart Contracts to take over the World?", March 20–21, 2015, The Work of Cognition and Neuroethics
in Science Fiction, Center for Cognition and Neuroethics, Flint MI
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Blockchain Philosophy
38
 Liberty-enhancing
 Participative, inclusive, expansive,
transparent, effective, global-scale
 Equality technology
 A flexible structure accommodative of
diverse value systems
 Eradicates illiberty
 Authority: shifts locus to individual
 Already: news, entertainment content,
stock-trading, quantified self
 Now: currency, economics, government
 Decentralization effects
 Abundance mindset
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Agenda
 Introduction
 Part I
 Smart Property and Smart Contracts
 Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen
 Part II
 Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust
 Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI
 Design Space of Digital Society
 Conclusion
39
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society 40
Future of Diverse Smartnetwork Entities
Connected Car
Autonomous Car
Smart Contract
DAOs/DACs
Enhanced Human
IOT/M2M
Smartnetworks
Whole Brain
Emulations
Hybrid
Classic Human
Source: http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2015/01/blockchain-thinking-transition-to.html
http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/brain-as-a-dac-swan
Neocortical
Column Arrays
Deep-Learners
Machine Learning
Algorithms
Simulated
Minds
High-frequency
Trading Networks
Real-time Bidding
Arrays
Brain-computer
Interfaces
Digital Mindfile
Uploads
Artificial Life
Synthetic BiologyDesigned
Life
Cellular
Automata
Supercomputers AIs
Expert Systems Autonomic Computing
Natural Language
Processors
Brain Scans
Animals
Personal
Robotics
Smarthome
Networks
Facilitation
Agents
Smart Advocates
Neural
Interfaces
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Design Space of Digital Society
 Design requirement: not just pluralistic human morality
but environments for diverse entity interaction
 Need a universal framework for coordinating activity
(with a focus on capacity not morphology), for a variety
of ‘intelligent’ or ‘capable’ agents to be in interaction
coordinated by smartnetworks, consensus mechanisms,
and blockchains
 Resource exchange transactions
 Collaborations (intelligence or other resource shards contributed
to projects; post-entity interaction)
 Confirmation, advocation, and assurity of reality environment
 Smart contracts as independent third-party advocates
 Digital intelligences can confirm reality environment
41
Source: Swan, M. We Should Consider The Future World As One Of Multi-Species Intelligence. Response to The Edge Question
2015: What do you think about machines that think? John Brockman, Ed., 2015.
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Agenda
 Introduction
 Part I
 Smart Property and Smart Contracts
 Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen
 Part II
 Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust
 Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI
 Design Space of Digital Society
 Conclusion
42
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Summary - 1
43
 Blockchains are an important new form of
information technology, a decentralized
infrastructure and organizational system that is
universal, global, secure, and granular
 Two categories of blockchain applications
 Compliant enterprise applications improving the existing
world (better horse) and brave new world applications
aimed at individuals (car)
 Smart property and smart contracts could
significantly shift the registration, handling, and
transacting of physical and intellectual property;
agreements, contracts, records, and governance
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Summary - 2
44
 Cryptolaw is the intersection of technological
(inexorable) and legal frameworks (flexible)
 Growing sensibility of the Cryptocitizen in self-
authority responsibility-taking
 Smartnetworks as communications networks that
confer a reality truth state and societal shared trust
 Smartnetworks as a checks-and-balances system
for orchestrating cooperative bonafide players in
moral societies, including sponsoring friendly AI
and inclusive and pluralistic morality models
 Digital society design that considers both human
plurality and interaction amongst diverse entities
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
May 27, 2015
Blockchain Society
Thesis
45
Philosophically, blockchain
technology invites a new level of
thinking about the possibilities for
societal design and the sensibilities
of the emerging Cryptocitizen
http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
Phoenix AZ, May 27, 2015
Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga
Melanie Swan
Kingston University London
melanie@BlockchainStudies.org
www.BlockchainStudies.org
Cryptocitizen:
Smart Contracts, Pluralistic
Morality, and Blockchain Society
Thank you! Questions?

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Cryptocitizen: Smart Contracts, Pluralistic Morality, and Blockchain Society

  • 1. Phoenix AZ, May 27, 2015 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Melanie Swan Kingston University London melanie@BlockchainStudies.org www.BlockchainStudies.org Cryptocitizen: Smart Contracts, Pluralistic Morality, and Blockchain Society
  • 2. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Thesis 1 Blockchain technology is not just about cryptocurrencies, registering wills and IP on blockchains, and bank transfers taking less than 3 days to settle, philosophically blockchains invite a new level of thinking about the sensibility of the Cryptocitizen and possibilities for societal design http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 3. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Agenda  Introduction  Part I  Smart Property and Smart Contracts  Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen  Part II  Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust  Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI  Design Space of Digital Society  Conclusion 2
  • 4. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society 3 Melanie Swan, Blockchain Scholar  Founder, Institute for Blockchain Studies  Singularity University Instructor, EDGE Contributor IEET Affiliate Scholar  Swan, M. Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy. Sebastopol CA: O'Reilly Media, 2015.  Swan, M. We Should Consider The Future World As One Of Multi-Species Intelligence. Response to The Edge Question 2015: What do you think about machines that think? John Brockman, Ed., 2015.  Swan, M. Cognitive Applications of the Brain as a DAC. Cognitive Science 2015: The Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society: Mind, Technology, and Society, Pasadena CA, July 2015. submitted.  Swan, M. Philosophy of Big Data: Expanding the Human-Data Relation with Big Data Science Services. IEEE BigDataService 2015, Redwood City CA, Mar 31-Apr 2, 2015.  Swan, M. Blockchain Thinking: The Brain as a DAC (Decentralized Autonomous Corporation). Texas Bitcoin Conference, Austin TX, March 27-29, 2015.  Swan, M. Machine ethics interfaces: An ethics of perception of nanorobot-aided cognition. Journal of Responsible Innovation. submitted. Traditional Markets, Science, Arts Background New Vision http://melanieswan.com/publications.htm, http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 5. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society 4 Blockchain (non-technical overview of blockchain possibilities)  What people are saying…  #mindblowing – SD  Instrumental – SG  Intriguing - JH  Great to read your book! Willing to transform your ideas to real life – AW  I find it amazing … a good mix of explanation about state-of-the-art products as well as visionary ideas. I was waiting for awhile for this kind of book – JM  A compelling and unique overview of the possibilities – DC  Thank you for helping bring about a new era in finance – JW http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 6. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Bitcoin-FinTech-Blockchain Growth 5 https://angel.co/bitcoin, http://thefinanser.co.uk/fsclub/2015/02/the-fintech-scene-is-so-hot-its-boiling.html http://thenextweb.com/insider/2015/04/16/bitcoin-is-the-worlds-most-dangerous-idea/ Silicon Valley Bank: Global investment in FinTech is set to double from $10 billion in 2014 to $19.7 billion in 2015, and reach $46.1 billion by 2020
  • 7. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Gartner Emerging Technology Hype Cycle 6 http://thenextweb.com/insider/2015/04/16/bitcoin-is-the-worlds-most-dangerous-idea/ Cryptocurrencies added July 2014
  • 8. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society What is a Blockchain? 7 http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491  A decentralized database/transaction ledger  A giant ‘interactive Google doc spreadsheet’ that anyone can view on-demand and administrators (miners) continually verify and update to confirm that each transaction is valid  A shared truth state in a distributed system  Etymology: blocks (batches) of transactions posted sequentially to a ledger, referencing the prior block (chain)  Implication: secure network where any transaction can be independently confirmed as unique and valid without a centralized intermediary (implies greater scale possible)
  • 9. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Two modes: Improvement and Revolution 8 https://twitter.com/matteastwood/status/594603199685926913/photo/1
  • 10. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Two modes of Blockchain Apps: Enterprise (Improvement) and Individual (Revolution) 9 http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-consensus-protocols Charts per: http://www.ofnumbers.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Permissioned-distributed-ledgers.pdf Individual (revolution) • Permissionless ledgers; public • Censorship-resistant (pseudonymous) • ‘Brave new world’ apps • Anonymous validators (network vulnerable to anonymous attack) Enterprise (improvement) • Permissioned ledgers; private • Identity known/confirmed, legally-compliant • ‘Reinvent the existing world’ efficiency improvement, eliminate intermediaries • Decentralized SaaS Stellar
  • 11. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Enterprise Blockchain Apps by Sector (selected) 10 http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491 Crucial Blockchain Properties • Cryptoledger • Decentralized network • Trustless counterparties • Independent consensus-confirmed transactions • Permanent record • Public records repository • Notarization time- stamping hashes • Universal format • Accessibility Government & Legal • Transnational orgs • Personalized governance services • Voting, propositions • P2P bonds • Tele-attorney services • IP registration and exchange • Tax receipts • Notary service and document registry Economics and Markets • Currency • Payments & Remittance • Banking & Finance • Clearing & Settlement • Insurance • FinTech • Trading & Derivatives • QA & Internal Audit • Crowdfunding IOT • Agricultural & drone sensor networks • Smarthome networks • Integrated smartcity, connected car, smarthome sensors • Self-driving car • Personalized robots, robotic companions • Personalized drones • Digital assistants • Communication (messaging) • Large-scale coordination • Entity ingress/egress • Transaction security • Universal format • Large-scale multi- data-stream integration • Privacy and security Real-time accessibility Health • Universal EMR • Health databanks • QS Data Commons • Big health data stream analytics • Digital health wallet • Smart property • HealthToken • Personal development contracts • Large-scale infrastructural element for coordination • Checks-and- balances system for ‘good-player’ access • Community supercomputing • Crowd analysis • P2P resourcenets • Film, dataviz • AI: blockchain advocates, friendly AI, blockchain learners, digital mindfile services Science, Art, AI Example: Smarthome IOT blockchains privately monitor physical and mental status
  • 12. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Agenda  Introduction  Part I  Smart Property and Smart Contracts  Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen  Part II  Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust  Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI  Design Space of Digital Society  Conclusion 11
  • 13. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Smart Property and Smart Contracts  Implications: a future of cryptographically- activated assets and actions…  …physical and intellectual property might be registered and transacted via blockchains as smart property, and  …agreements, contractual relationships, societal record-keeping, and governance might be enacted through code-based smart contracts 12
  • 14. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society What is Smart Property?  Register assets to blockchain via unique key  Real-time GPS ‘LoJack’ tracking for any asset  Blockchain becomes an inventory, tracking, and exchange mechanism for hard assets  Smart Property example projects  Blocktrace ledger tracks diamonds  Provenance.org tracks supply chain authenticity  OpenBazaar decentralized Craigslist exchange  Factom-HealthNautica medical billing and claims  Drug and equipment inventory, including origin and servicing records 13 https://openbazaar.org/, http://www.edgelogic.net/blocktrace, Provenance: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SqIUBn80pg4 http://cointelegraph.com/news/114053/factoms-latest-partnership-takes-on-us-healthcare
  • 15. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Smart Property - Intangible  Notary Service, Attestation  Register contracts, agreements, wills (Proof of Existence, Factom)  Register, protect, and transact IP (Monegraph, Ascribe)  How it works  Hash + timestamp + blockchain record 14 http://www.proofofexistence.com/
  • 16. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society What are Smart Contracts? 15  Agreements between parties posted to the blockchain for automated execution  Human-human interaction  Technological-entity operation  Patterns of interaction in society  Software models most world systems now  Software services can encode these patterns (smart contracts as decentralized SaaS) to facilitate the patterns of human interaction  Example: Starbucks facilitates the pattern of coffee for tokens exchange  Code Projects: Ethereum, Etherparty, Eris Woods, G.; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2CNayXbRKI, http://financialcryptography.com/mt/archives/001555.html, https://eng.erisindustries.com/smart%20contracts/2014/12/17/dennys-smart-contracting/ , http://forum.ethereum.org/discussion/1402/how-to-get-started-your-first-dapp-under-one-hour,
  • 17. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Smart Contract examples 16  Bet on high temperature  Intermediary removed  Mortgage interest-rate resets  Inheritance pay-out  Age 21 or death of benefactor  Blockchain-based Greek tax receipts in Ricardian Contracts (Yanis Varoufakis)  Peer-to-peer insurance  Dynamis http://www.dynamisapp.com  BitSilk https://twitter.com/bitsilk  Mediation and legal services  Precedent http://www.precedentcoin.com http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491 https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Ethereum-Development-Tutorial Weather Bet (Ethereum)
  • 18. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Smart Contract Law Firm? 17 http://www.robotandhwang.com/attorneys/  “Law is something to be radically reshaped by the emergence of technology, it is about the management and manipulation of data on an entirely new scale” - Richard Susskind
  • 19. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Agenda  Introduction  Part I  Smart Property and Smart Contracts  Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen  Part II  Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust  Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI  Design Space of Digital Society  Conclusion 18
  • 20. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Technologically-binding vs. Legally-binding  Different frameworks  Technologically-binding: Inexorably executing code contracts (Lessig: "code is law") that cannot be breached, and will proceed unstoppably even if conditions have changed  Legally-binding: Discretionary compliance, semantic flexibility of human-partied contracts  Key shift: Auto-executing code could become prevalent not anecdotal (mortgage industry) 19 Primavera De Filippi on Ethereum: Freenet or Skynet? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=slhuidzccpI
  • 21. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Cryptolaw  Intersection of technological (inexorable, uninfringeable) and legal frameworks (flexible)  Separate legal system needed for smart contracts?  Smart contract regulation: impossible to enforce smart contracts with current law  Example: a decentralized program already launched and running is difficult to control, regulate, or sue for damages  Smart contracts impact not just contract law, but more broadly social contracts within society  What kind of social contracts do we humans want with technological entities? 20
  • 22. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Cryptolaw: Two modes of Smart Contracts  As with blockchain applications, two types (enterprise and individual) 1. Compliant legal contracts with mutual assent, consideration, capacity, and legality  Features such as: kill switch, consumer protection, assurity funds escrowed, identity transparency 2. ‘A-compliant’: operating in ‘a-legalilty’ outside of current regulation  Involved parties, are you transacting with a legal entity?  A. human-human B. human-entity C. entity-entity  Technological entities (DOAs) could become new form of legal entity like a corporation 21 DAO: Distributed Autonomous Organization https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2CNayXbRKI
  • 23. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Cryptolaw and Societal Design Implications  Emerging that we need new ways of building societal shared trust through: 1. Transparency 2. Legal frameworks that are still relevant, but perhaps enacted at the level of the contract (not federal/state)  Not lawlessness, legal framework as a selectable parameter like jurisdiction (like Creative Commons license drop-downs) 3. More becomes ‘legal’ since monitoring is impossible  More tolerance of existing patterns of interaction in society  Result: Less deception; more truth, transparency, disclosure, acknowledgment  Everyone in the system is taking part consensually  Result: more self-determination of societal participants 22 http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 24. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Cryptocitizen Sensibility  A new relationship with authority and responsibility-taking; embodying what it is to be a ‘Cryptocitizen’ ranging from  Digital wallet security practices like backing up our money, to…  Self-authority responsibility-taking  Governance services vs. being governed  Trend: happened with news media, entertainment, stock-trading, health services; now happening with money, economics, governance and legal services  Blockchain technology is liberty- enhancing, promulgating Cryptocitizen sensibilities for authority-taking 23
  • 25. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Agenda  Introduction  Part I  Smart Property and Smart Contracts  Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen  Part II  Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust  Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI  Design Space of Digital Society  Conclusion 24
  • 26. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Smartnetworks  Smart property and smart contracts are just one manifestation of blockchain technology  Blockchains shift communications networks from dumb to smart  What is being created is smartnetworks, communications networks that confer a truth state of reality, wherein trust is built, such that there are new possibilities for us as individual agents and societies  Builds societal shared trust 25 Source: http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2015/01/blockchain-consensus-models-increase.html
  • 27. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Levels of Information (Modulated by Quality)  Levels of information 1. ‘Dumb,’ unenhanced, unmodulated data: initial default 2. Socially-recommended data: data elements enriched by social network peer or expert recommendation 3. Consensus-validated data: recommendation based on group consensus, a formal structure of agents forming a consensus about a reality state; not just a peer recommendation, an actual truth state of the world  The affirmed quality of information builds trust  This quality of information has a higher level of trust associated with it; high-resolution modulation regarding the quality, authenticity, and provenance of information  Impersonalizes and scales trust:  Trusting systems not people 26 Source: http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2015/01/blockchain-consensus-models-increase.html
  • 28. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Consensus Trust improves Effectiveness  What consensus trust enables is several things including effectiveness  Building shared societal trust enables the interrelation of participation, transparency, and importantly, effectiveness  Argument: everyone wants transparency, but not everyone wants to participate, for example in voting and decision-making  Transparency and possibility is effectiveness  Examples:  Delegative democracy (Liquid Democracy)  Futarchy (two-step prediction market voting)  Reinventing Organizations  Reweaving our Human Fabric 27 http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 29. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Consensus Trust enables the Qualitative  Blockchains as an equality technology for illiberty eradication; blockchain neutrality  Access the qualitative, the intangibles within a system fluctuating, regressing over time:  Cliometrics (Turchin) to measure inequality in historical political systems; measure liberty, choice, autonomy, authority-taking, and equality  Complexity math to measure and impute utility functions, quality of time spent in different activities (fractal behavior, power laws, high coefficients, nearest neighbors, Eigenvalues)  How? Participants trusting the system are more willing to share data about qualitative variables  Directly or via QS/smarthome data feeds 28 Turchin, P., http://aeon.co/magazine/society/peter-turchin-wealth-poverty/; Swan, M. Cognitive Applications of Blockchain Technology; Swan, M. Blockchain Thinking: The Brain as a DAC (Decentralized Autonomous Organization); Swan, M. Illiberty Eradication http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2014/03/illiberty-in-biohacking-personal-data.html
  • 30. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Consensus Trust empowers Entities  Allows a fuller empowerment in the interaction  Any interaction is a discovery and exchange  Consensus is not just about information quality, assurance, and validation, it is about the relation between entities in a network, the interaction structure and quality  You-me in this conversation, or  Intelligent entities who do not know each other in a digital society interacting on a smartnetwork  Expands what is possible in interactions, an abundance mentality of injecting empowerment and acknowledgement into interactions, assents, confirmations, exchanges 29 Swan, M. "Blockchain Thinkers and Smart Contracts to take over the World?", March 20–21, 2015, The Work of Cognition and Neuroethics in Science Fiction, Center for Cognition and Neuroethics, Flint MI
  • 31. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Derrida: Ontology of Joycean Consensus 30 Derrida. Ulysses Gramophone: Hear Say Yes In Joyce. Pp. 267, 296. http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491  Affirmation is not solo, “saying yes” is dependent upon another to hear it and acknowledge receipt  The affirmation relation is liberty-enhancing and totalization-resisting, the affirming and acknowledging parties, and the yes itself, remain distinct  “The two responses refer to each other without having any relationship between them. The two sign yet prevent the signature from gathering itself together [totalizing].”  The yes “addresses itself to some other which it does not constitute”  The yes avoids its own totalization, “The yes, by responding and countersigning, does not let itself be counted or discounted [totalized].”  Well-formed consensus: preserve the integrity of entities in a network of ad-hoc relations
  • 32. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Agenda  Introduction  Part I  Smart Property and Smart Contracts  Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen  Part II  Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust  Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI  Design Space of Digital Society  Conclusion 31
  • 33. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Smartnetwork Applications: Friendly AI  Argument… 1. Digital intelligences will be running on consensus-managed smartnetworks 2. Good reputational standing is required to conduct operations  Resource access, fund-raising, services-providing, contracts 3. Consensus only validates and records bonafide transactions from ‘good’ agents 4. Therefore all agents ‘good’ 32 Swan, M. Cognitive Applications of Blockchain Technology. Cognitive Science 2015: The Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society: Mind, Technology, and Society, Pasadena CA, July 2015. submitted. Swan, M. Blockchain Thinking: The Brain as a DAC (Decentralized Autonomous Organization). Texas Bitcoin Conference, Austin TX, March 27-29, 2015. accepted.
  • 34. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Smartnetwork Tyranny?  Do decentralized trust networks result in the tyranny of a monolithic morality? Smartnetwork operations coordinated by consensus models could be … A. …positive, an enforcement mechanism for cooperative bonafide players in a moral society, including friendly AI B. … terrifying (or at least potentially liberty- circumscribing or normalizing) that any one entity might be dependent on the monolithic crowd to conduct even the simplest of network operations 33 http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 35. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Pluralistic Morality 34 http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491  Need a system with universality and global scale that simultaneously celebrates and incorporates the richness of agent diversity  One idea: use the decentralization attribute of blockchains to establish reputation communities  Peer-vouched reputation: community peers (geographical or otherwise) vouch for our reputation and can be rewarded if they vouch correctly (reinforcing feedback system)  Potential applications: decentralized credit bureaus, open- source FICO scores  ‘Local’ reputation communities and global infrastructure are thus included in one liberty- enhancing tyranny-avoiding model
  • 36. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Reputation and Identity  Constructs of identity  Social (forgive-forget, redemption, reinvention, memory=imperfect)  Technological (on-demand memory of all artifacts forever)  Fourth-person perspective: connected world’s continuous witnessing (QS gadgetry, IRC, Facebook, Gorgon Stare)  Identity: something intrinsic or 3rd party-bestowed? 35 Antonopoulos, AM and Ellis, C. (2014). Let’s Talk Bitcoin #160: The Philosophy of Identity.
  • 37. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Post-Entity Reputation  Digital identity might become so distributed, portable, copiable, open-sourceable, sharable, malleable, and shardable, that it no longer makes sense to think in terms of entities  How to enable smartnetwork operations in a post-entity society, perhaps one in which ‘ephemeral instances of capability and creativity’ have replaced identity-bounded entities?  Reputation could still matter  Even if not a full-fledged identity-entity, any instance, any measurable quantum, any participation no matter how ephemeral could still have a reputation 36 Swan, M. "Blockchain Thinkers and Smart Contracts to take over the World?", March 20–21, 2015, The Work of Cognition and Neuroethics in Science Fiction, Center for Cognition and Neuroethics, Flint MI
  • 38. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Reputation as Background of Collaboration  More granular reputations, measuring…  Multiple levels like actor, action, and intention  Line-item credit for contributions and new ideas  Composite reputations for group collaborations  Blockchains facilitate, automate, and make unobtrusive such tracking, especially ‘quiet background tracking’  Preserves focus on collaborative participation, comfortable that credit/contribution-tracking is occurring  Example: Stross’ Accelerando – distributed trust networks and reputation markets, blockchain models have digital copies “watching over their originals from the consensus cyberspace of the [smart] city” 37 Swan, M. "Blockchain Thinkers and Smart Contracts to take over the World?", March 20–21, 2015, The Work of Cognition and Neuroethics in Science Fiction, Center for Cognition and Neuroethics, Flint MI
  • 39. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Blockchain Philosophy 38  Liberty-enhancing  Participative, inclusive, expansive, transparent, effective, global-scale  Equality technology  A flexible structure accommodative of diverse value systems  Eradicates illiberty  Authority: shifts locus to individual  Already: news, entertainment content, stock-trading, quantified self  Now: currency, economics, government  Decentralization effects  Abundance mindset http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 40. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Agenda  Introduction  Part I  Smart Property and Smart Contracts  Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen  Part II  Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust  Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI  Design Space of Digital Society  Conclusion 39
  • 41. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society 40 Future of Diverse Smartnetwork Entities Connected Car Autonomous Car Smart Contract DAOs/DACs Enhanced Human IOT/M2M Smartnetworks Whole Brain Emulations Hybrid Classic Human Source: http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2015/01/blockchain-thinking-transition-to.html http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/brain-as-a-dac-swan Neocortical Column Arrays Deep-Learners Machine Learning Algorithms Simulated Minds High-frequency Trading Networks Real-time Bidding Arrays Brain-computer Interfaces Digital Mindfile Uploads Artificial Life Synthetic BiologyDesigned Life Cellular Automata Supercomputers AIs Expert Systems Autonomic Computing Natural Language Processors Brain Scans Animals Personal Robotics Smarthome Networks Facilitation Agents Smart Advocates Neural Interfaces
  • 42. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Design Space of Digital Society  Design requirement: not just pluralistic human morality but environments for diverse entity interaction  Need a universal framework for coordinating activity (with a focus on capacity not morphology), for a variety of ‘intelligent’ or ‘capable’ agents to be in interaction coordinated by smartnetworks, consensus mechanisms, and blockchains  Resource exchange transactions  Collaborations (intelligence or other resource shards contributed to projects; post-entity interaction)  Confirmation, advocation, and assurity of reality environment  Smart contracts as independent third-party advocates  Digital intelligences can confirm reality environment 41 Source: Swan, M. We Should Consider The Future World As One Of Multi-Species Intelligence. Response to The Edge Question 2015: What do you think about machines that think? John Brockman, Ed., 2015.
  • 43. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Agenda  Introduction  Part I  Smart Property and Smart Contracts  Cryptolaw and the Cryptocitizen  Part II  Smartnetworks and Consensus Trust  Pluralistic Morality and Enacting Friendly AI  Design Space of Digital Society  Conclusion 42
  • 44. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Summary - 1 43  Blockchains are an important new form of information technology, a decentralized infrastructure and organizational system that is universal, global, secure, and granular  Two categories of blockchain applications  Compliant enterprise applications improving the existing world (better horse) and brave new world applications aimed at individuals (car)  Smart property and smart contracts could significantly shift the registration, handling, and transacting of physical and intellectual property; agreements, contracts, records, and governance http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 45. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Summary - 2 44  Cryptolaw is the intersection of technological (inexorable) and legal frameworks (flexible)  Growing sensibility of the Cryptocitizen in self- authority responsibility-taking  Smartnetworks as communications networks that confer a reality truth state and societal shared trust  Smartnetworks as a checks-and-balances system for orchestrating cooperative bonafide players in moral societies, including sponsoring friendly AI and inclusive and pluralistic morality models  Digital society design that considers both human plurality and interaction amongst diverse entities http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 46. May 27, 2015 Blockchain Society Thesis 45 Philosophically, blockchain technology invites a new level of thinking about the possibilities for societal design and the sensibilities of the emerging Cryptocitizen http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  • 47. Phoenix AZ, May 27, 2015 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Melanie Swan Kingston University London melanie@BlockchainStudies.org www.BlockchainStudies.org Cryptocitizen: Smart Contracts, Pluralistic Morality, and Blockchain Society Thank you! Questions?