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CRYOGENICROCKET
ENGINE
Contents
 Cryogenics – (word) Origin
 History
 Introduction
 Construction
 Working
 Advantages – Disadvantages
 Applications of Cryogenics
 Daily Uses
 India’s achievements
 Future projects by India
 Conclusion
Cryogenics - Origin
 Cryogenics originated from two Greek words “kyros” which
means cold or freezing and “genes” which means born or
produced.
 Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the
production of the same. Liquefied gases like liquid nitrogen and
liquid oxygen are used in many cryogenic applications.
 A cryogenic rocket engine is a rocket engine that uses a cryogenic
fuel or oxidizer, that is, its fuel or oxidizer(or both) are gases
liquefied and stored at very low temperatures.
 Oxygen remains a liquid only at temperatures below minus 183 °
Celsius and hydrogen at below minus 253 ° Celsius.
HISTORY
 Space travel was developed by the Russians and the
Americans. Russian’s were the first to reach space.
 During World war II , cryogenics advanced . Metals
frozen to low temp. showed more resistance to wear.
 1st operational cryogenic engine – used in 1950’s
the RL-10(in V2 Rocket).
.
Introduction
 A cryogenic engine is a rocket engine that uses
a cryogenic fuel or oxidizer , that is, its fuel or oxidizer
are gasses liquefied and stored at very low
temperatures.
 Rocket engines need high mass flow rate of both
oxidizer and fuel to generate a sufficient thrust.
 The liquid oxygen (LOX) oxidizer and liquid hydrogen
(LH2) fuel combination is one of the most widely used.
Construction
 The major components of a cryogenic rocket engine
are:
a) Combustion chamber
b) Pyrotechnic igniters'
c) Fuel injector
d) Fuel turbo-pumps
e) Gas turbine
f) Control valves
g) Regulators
h) The fuel tanks
i) Rocket engine nozzle
Working
 It involves a complicated ‘staged combustion cycle' to increase the engine
efficiency.
 Hydrogen is partially burnt with a little oxygen in a gas generator. The hot
gases drive a turbo-pump and are then injected at high pressure into the
thrust chamber where the rest of oxygen is introduced and full combustion
takes place.
 Before going to the gas generator, the incredibly chilly liquid hydrogen is
used to cool the thrust chamber where temperatures rise to over 3,0000 °
Celsius when the engine is fired.
COMBUSTION IN THRUST CHAMBER
COMBUSTION IN THRUST
CHAMBER
 The thrust chamber is the key subassembly of a rocket engine.
Here the liquid propellants are metered, injected, atomized,
vaporized, mixed, and burned to form hot reaction gas
products, which in turn are accelerated and ejected at high
velocity.
 A rocket thrust chamber assembly has an injector, a
combustion chamber, a supersonic nozzle, and mounting
provisions.
 All have to withstand the extreme heat of combustion and the
various forces, including the transmission of the thrust force
to the vehicle. There is an ignition system if non-
spontaneously ignitable propellants are used.
Advantages
 High Energy per unit mass:
Propellants like oxygen and hydrogen in liquid form give very high
amounts of energy per unit mass due to which the amount of fuel to be
carried aboard the rockets decreases.
 Clean Fuels
Hydrogen and oxygen are extremely clean fuels. When they combine, they
give out only water. This water is thrown out of the nozzle in form of very
hot vapour. Thus the rocket is nothing but a high burning steam engine
 Economical
Use of oxygen and hydrogen as fuels is very economical, as liquid oxygen
costs less than gasoline.
Disadvantages
 Highly reactive gases
 Leakage
 Hydrogen Embrittlement
 Cryogenic fuels
 Liquid nitrogen: used in cryotherapy, as a coolant, cryonic preservatio
 Frozen food: Cryogenic gases are used in transportation of large masses
of frozen food.
 Blood banking: Certain rare blood groups are stored at low temperatures,
such as −165 °C.
Applications of Cryogenics
 All rocket engines burn their fuel to generate thrust . If any other engine
can generate enough thrust, that can also be used as a rocket engine
 There are a lot of plans for new engines that the NASA scientists are still
working with. One of them is the “ Xenon ion Engine”.
This engine accelerate ions or atomic particles to extremely high speeds to
create thrust more efficiently. NASA's Deep Space-1 spacecraft will be
the first to use ion engines for propulsion.
 There are some alternative solutions like Nuclear thermal rocket engines,
Solar thermal rockets, the electric rocket etc.
The next generation of the Rocket
Engines
Future projects By India
 The ISRO proposed to launch Chandrayan-II in 2017.
 Development of Semi-cryogenic by LPSC of ISRO in
Mahendragiri with
the success of
GSLV-D5.
India’s Achievement
 Successful launch of GSLV-D5
on January 5th 2014.
 Reason for previous failure :
The GSLV D5 rocket had a
leak in its liquid tank .
 After toiling 20 years India
developed the C.E-20 ,C.E-7.5
Cryogenic engine.
Conclusion
 Currently only the
United States (SSME , J2 , RL-10 , RS-68 , RS-83)
Russia ( (RD-0120 , RD-0146)
China( YF-50t , YF-73 ,YF-75 , YF-77)
France
Japan(LE-7 / 7A , LE-5 / 5A / 5B) and
India (CE-7.5 , CE-20) have mastered cryogenic rocket
technology .
 Finally the world of cryogenics is quite a lot useful and
References :
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/solar tree
 http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/solar energy
 http://books.google.co.in/books?id=wm6uAIiuCc8C&
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/renewablesenergies
 http://library.thinkquest.org/
.
Any Questions..?
Cryogenic rocket engine

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Cryogenic rocket engine

  • 2. Contents  Cryogenics – (word) Origin  History  Introduction  Construction  Working  Advantages – Disadvantages  Applications of Cryogenics  Daily Uses  India’s achievements  Future projects by India  Conclusion
  • 3. Cryogenics - Origin  Cryogenics originated from two Greek words “kyros” which means cold or freezing and “genes” which means born or produced.  Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same. Liquefied gases like liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen are used in many cryogenic applications.  A cryogenic rocket engine is a rocket engine that uses a cryogenic fuel or oxidizer, that is, its fuel or oxidizer(or both) are gases liquefied and stored at very low temperatures.  Oxygen remains a liquid only at temperatures below minus 183 ° Celsius and hydrogen at below minus 253 ° Celsius.
  • 4. HISTORY  Space travel was developed by the Russians and the Americans. Russian’s were the first to reach space.  During World war II , cryogenics advanced . Metals frozen to low temp. showed more resistance to wear.  1st operational cryogenic engine – used in 1950’s the RL-10(in V2 Rocket). .
  • 5. Introduction  A cryogenic engine is a rocket engine that uses a cryogenic fuel or oxidizer , that is, its fuel or oxidizer are gasses liquefied and stored at very low temperatures.  Rocket engines need high mass flow rate of both oxidizer and fuel to generate a sufficient thrust.  The liquid oxygen (LOX) oxidizer and liquid hydrogen (LH2) fuel combination is one of the most widely used.
  • 6.
  • 7. Construction  The major components of a cryogenic rocket engine are: a) Combustion chamber b) Pyrotechnic igniters' c) Fuel injector d) Fuel turbo-pumps e) Gas turbine f) Control valves g) Regulators h) The fuel tanks i) Rocket engine nozzle
  • 8.
  • 9. Working  It involves a complicated ‘staged combustion cycle' to increase the engine efficiency.  Hydrogen is partially burnt with a little oxygen in a gas generator. The hot gases drive a turbo-pump and are then injected at high pressure into the thrust chamber where the rest of oxygen is introduced and full combustion takes place.  Before going to the gas generator, the incredibly chilly liquid hydrogen is used to cool the thrust chamber where temperatures rise to over 3,0000 ° Celsius when the engine is fired.
  • 11. COMBUSTION IN THRUST CHAMBER  The thrust chamber is the key subassembly of a rocket engine. Here the liquid propellants are metered, injected, atomized, vaporized, mixed, and burned to form hot reaction gas products, which in turn are accelerated and ejected at high velocity.  A rocket thrust chamber assembly has an injector, a combustion chamber, a supersonic nozzle, and mounting provisions.  All have to withstand the extreme heat of combustion and the various forces, including the transmission of the thrust force to the vehicle. There is an ignition system if non- spontaneously ignitable propellants are used.
  • 12. Advantages  High Energy per unit mass: Propellants like oxygen and hydrogen in liquid form give very high amounts of energy per unit mass due to which the amount of fuel to be carried aboard the rockets decreases.  Clean Fuels Hydrogen and oxygen are extremely clean fuels. When they combine, they give out only water. This water is thrown out of the nozzle in form of very hot vapour. Thus the rocket is nothing but a high burning steam engine  Economical Use of oxygen and hydrogen as fuels is very economical, as liquid oxygen costs less than gasoline.
  • 13. Disadvantages  Highly reactive gases  Leakage  Hydrogen Embrittlement
  • 14.  Cryogenic fuels  Liquid nitrogen: used in cryotherapy, as a coolant, cryonic preservatio  Frozen food: Cryogenic gases are used in transportation of large masses of frozen food.  Blood banking: Certain rare blood groups are stored at low temperatures, such as −165 °C. Applications of Cryogenics
  • 15.  All rocket engines burn their fuel to generate thrust . If any other engine can generate enough thrust, that can also be used as a rocket engine  There are a lot of plans for new engines that the NASA scientists are still working with. One of them is the “ Xenon ion Engine”. This engine accelerate ions or atomic particles to extremely high speeds to create thrust more efficiently. NASA's Deep Space-1 spacecraft will be the first to use ion engines for propulsion.  There are some alternative solutions like Nuclear thermal rocket engines, Solar thermal rockets, the electric rocket etc. The next generation of the Rocket Engines
  • 16. Future projects By India  The ISRO proposed to launch Chandrayan-II in 2017.  Development of Semi-cryogenic by LPSC of ISRO in Mahendragiri with the success of GSLV-D5.
  • 17. India’s Achievement  Successful launch of GSLV-D5 on January 5th 2014.  Reason for previous failure : The GSLV D5 rocket had a leak in its liquid tank .  After toiling 20 years India developed the C.E-20 ,C.E-7.5 Cryogenic engine.
  • 18. Conclusion  Currently only the United States (SSME , J2 , RL-10 , RS-68 , RS-83) Russia ( (RD-0120 , RD-0146) China( YF-50t , YF-73 ,YF-75 , YF-77) France Japan(LE-7 / 7A , LE-5 / 5A / 5B) and India (CE-7.5 , CE-20) have mastered cryogenic rocket technology .  Finally the world of cryogenics is quite a lot useful and
  • 19. References :  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/solar tree  http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/solar energy  http://books.google.co.in/books?id=wm6uAIiuCc8C&  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/renewablesenergies  http://library.thinkquest.org/