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Hangzhou, March 2011
Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Liu Jun, Zhejiang University
Cross-­Cultural	
  
Awareness	
  Training
Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs
Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):
 10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from
their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)
 Expatriates’ difficulties are costly for MNCs, rangi-ng
from $250,000 to $1 million. (Eschbach et al., 2001;
Mervosh & McCleniahan, 1997)
 The percentage of companies offering CCT incre-
ased from 30% to 60% within 10 years. (Black &
Mendenhall, 1990; R. Bennett et al.,2000)
Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):
 10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from
their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)
 Expatriates’ difficulties are costly for MNCs, rangi-ng
from $250,000 to $1 million. (Eschbach et al., 2001;
Mervosh & McCleniahan, 1997)
 The percentage of companies offering CCT incre-
ased from 30% to 60% within 10 years. (Black &
Mendenhall, 1990; R. Bennett et al.,2000)
Have your company faced the same situations as above?
Or have you met any difficulties as an expatriate?
Cross-­‐Cultural	
  Awareness	
  Training
3
14	
  years	
  in	
  Germany
7	
  years	
  in	
  China
Born	
  and	
  grew	
  up	
  
in	
  Indonesia
Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology
Cross-­‐Cultural	
  Awareness	
  Training
3
14	
  years	
  in	
  Germany
7	
  years	
  in	
  China
Born	
  and	
  grew	
  up	
  
in	
  Indonesia
Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology
Dipl.-Psych.,Technical University of Braunschweig
Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management
Dr.Phil.,University of Regensburg
Intercultural Psychology and Strategic Management
Executive Education,INSEAD
HR Management in Asia
The increasing demand for CCT in organizations
CCT
The increasing demand for CCT in organizations
Expatriates’ failure
adjustment and
organizational financial
loss
CCT
The increasing demand for CCT in organizations
Increasing diversity of
workplace
Expatriates’ failure
adjustment and
organizational financial
loss
CCT
The increasing demand for CCT in organizations
Lost opportunities and damaged
relations
Delayed productivity
Increasing diversity of
workplace
Many expatriates leave their
organization within one year after
returning.
Expatriates’ failure
adjustment and
organizational financial
loss
CCT
Expatriate’s early return
from the assignment
The increasing demand for CCT in organizations
Lost opportunities and damaged
relations
Use of multicultural teams
Delayed productivity
Increased organizational
diversity
Increasing diversity of
workplace
Internationalization of the
economy
Many expatriates leave their
organization within one year after
returning.
Culture’s role from corner
shop to world conflict
Expatriates’ failure
adjustment and
organizational financial
loss
CCT
Expatriate’s early return
from the assignment
Definition and Purpose of CCT
Cross-Cultural
Training
Definition and Purpose of CCT
Cross-Cultural
Training
An educative process
focused on promoting
intercultural learning
through the acquisition
of behavioral, cognitive,
and affective
competencies required
for effective interactions
across diverse cultures.
(Landis & Brislin, 1996;
Morris & Robie, 2001).
Definition and Purpose of CCT
Cross-Cultural
Training
An educative process
focused on promoting
intercultural learning
through the acquisition
of behavioral, cognitive,
and affective
competencies required
for effective interactions
across diverse cultures.
(Landis & Brislin, 1996;
Morris & Robie, 2001).
D
evelop
m
eta-
cognitive
strategies
Definition and Purpose of CCT
Cross-Cultural
Training
An educative process
focused on promoting
intercultural learning
through the acquisition
of behavioral, cognitive,
and affective
competencies required
for effective interactions
across diverse cultures.
(Landis & Brislin, 1996;
Morris & Robie, 2001).
D
evelop
m
eta-
cognitive
strategies
Develop self-
maintenance
skills
Definition and Purpose of CCT
Cross-Cultural
Training
An educative process
focused on promoting
intercultural learning
through the acquisition
of behavioral, cognitive,
and affective
competencies required
for effective interactions
across diverse cultures.
(Landis & Brislin, 1996;
Morris & Robie, 2001).
D
evelop
m
eta-
cognitive
strategies
Develop self-
maintenance
skills
Developinterpersonalskills
Definition and Purpose of CCT
Improve an
expatriate’s
probability of
success on
the foreign
assignment
Cross-Cultural
Training
An educative process
focused on promoting
intercultural learning
through the acquisition
of behavioral, cognitive,
and affective
competencies required
for effective interactions
across diverse cultures.
(Landis & Brislin, 1996;
Morris & Robie, 2001).
D
evelop
m
eta-
cognitive
strategies
Develop self-
maintenance
skills
Developinterpersonalskills
Components of typical CCT programs
Components of typical CCT programs
Attribution training
Components of typical CCT programs
Culture awareness
training
Components of typical CCT programs
Cognitive-behavior
modification training
Components of typical CCT programs
Interaction training
Components of typical CCT programs
Language training
Components of typical CCT programs
Didactic training
Components of typical CCT programs
Experimental training
Components of typical CCT programs
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates
CCL
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates
CCL
Work adjustment and general
adjustment to the culture
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates
CCL
Cognitive skill
development
Work adjustment and general
adjustment to the culture
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates
CCL
Cognitive skill
development
Work adjustment and general
adjustment to the culture
Self-confidence and overall
feelings of wellbeing
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates
Increased
performance
CCL
Cognitive skill
development
Work adjustment and general
adjustment to the culture
Self-confidence and overall
feelings of wellbeing
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates
Increased
performance
CCL
Cognitive skill
development
Work adjustment and general
adjustment to the culture
Self-confidence and overall
feelings of wellbeing
Decreased early
return rates
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates
Increased
performance
CCL
Cognitive skill
development
Work adjustment and general
adjustment to the culture
Self-confidence and overall
feelings of wellbeing
Decreased early
return rates
Success
foreign
assignment!
The current CCT “Best Practices”
Design
Delivery
Evaluation
The current CCT “Best Practices”
Design
Delivery
Evaluation
The current CCT “Best Practices”
Design
Delivery
Evaluation
The current CCT “Best Practices”
Design
Delivery
Evaluation
What Are Organizations Not Doing
that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design
Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs
Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone
Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness
of the Destination Country
Guideline 4: MNCs Should Develop a Global Mindset
Guideline 5: Organizations Must Use a Skill-Based Approach When
Designing CCT
Guideline 6: MNCs Should Apply and Use Strategies Based on the Science
Designing CCT Programs
Guideline 7: Scenario-Based Training Should Be Implemented
Guideline (B) : Delivery
Guideline 8: Training Delivery Should Correspond to the Dynamic
Adjustment Process
Guideline 9: The Difficulties Surrounding Repatriation Should Be Addressed
Guideline 10: Multiple Media Strategies Should Be Used to Deliver CCT
Guideline (C) : Evaluation
Guideline 11: Organizations Must Establish Success Criteria for CCT
Programs
Guideline 12: Organizations Must Evaluate Whether the Learning from
CCT has Transferred to the Job
Guideline 13: Organizations Must Assess Whether the Investment in CCT
Yields Positive Organizational Outcomes
Current and Further Research of CCT
Current Status
✓ There is a surge in the amount
of research devoted to cross-
cultural training within these years.
✓ However:
➡ Lack of synthesis in the area of
CCT research.
➡ Recommendations are often limited
because of addressing only one
facet of CCT.
➡ Empirical researches are not
➡ abundant.
Implications for Future
Research
➡ Multicultural Team Training
➡ Adaptability
➡ Culture and Personality:
individual differences
Cross-­‐Cultural	
  Awareness	
  Training
13
International Project References in the Research Areas of
Culture Diversity,Talent Development,and Strategic Change
14	
  years	
  in	
  Germany
Born	
  and	
  grew	
  up	
  
in	
  Indonesia
8	
  years	
  in	
  China
• Building Global Competence for Asian Leaders
• Applying Social Medias (Web 2.0) in Learning & Development.
• International Employability:Development of Intercultural
Competence of German and Chinese Young Professionals.
• Cross-Cultural Learning Behavior:
Effectiveness of the Western Technology Transfer and Learning
Approaches in China.
• Comparative Studies of Chinese-Indonesian Intercultural
Competence and Sensitivity.
• Dynamic Decision Making in Chinese and Multinational Teams.
• Intercultural Perspectives of International Post-Merger
Integration in Europe.
• Intercultural Synergy in Professional Team.
• Complex Problem Solving in Small Groups.
• ...
Thank	
  You
Contact us via …
Mail: hora_t@mac.com
Follow: twitter@htjitra
Website: http://horatjitra.com
Zhejiang	
  University,	
  Hangzhou	
  (China)
Based on: LISA N. LITTRELL, EDUARDO SALAS:
A Review of Cross-Cultural Training: Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs.
Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 2005. p305-334

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Cross-Cultural Awareness Training: Best Practices, Guidelines and Trends

  • 1. Hangzhou, March 2011 Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Liu Jun, Zhejiang University Cross-­Cultural   Awareness  Training Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs
  • 2. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):  10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)  Expatriates’ difficulties are costly for MNCs, rangi-ng from $250,000 to $1 million. (Eschbach et al., 2001; Mervosh & McCleniahan, 1997)  The percentage of companies offering CCT incre- ased from 30% to 60% within 10 years. (Black & Mendenhall, 1990; R. Bennett et al.,2000)
  • 3. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):  10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)  Expatriates’ difficulties are costly for MNCs, rangi-ng from $250,000 to $1 million. (Eschbach et al., 2001; Mervosh & McCleniahan, 1997)  The percentage of companies offering CCT incre- ased from 30% to 60% within 10 years. (Black & Mendenhall, 1990; R. Bennett et al.,2000) Have your company faced the same situations as above? Or have you met any difficulties as an expatriate?
  • 4. Cross-­‐Cultural  Awareness  Training 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology
  • 5. Cross-­‐Cultural  Awareness  Training 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology Dipl.-Psych.,Technical University of Braunschweig Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management Dr.Phil.,University of Regensburg Intercultural Psychology and Strategic Management Executive Education,INSEAD HR Management in Asia
  • 6. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations CCT
  • 7. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Expatriates’ failure adjustment and organizational financial loss CCT
  • 8. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Increasing diversity of workplace Expatriates’ failure adjustment and organizational financial loss CCT
  • 9. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Lost opportunities and damaged relations Delayed productivity Increasing diversity of workplace Many expatriates leave their organization within one year after returning. Expatriates’ failure adjustment and organizational financial loss CCT Expatriate’s early return from the assignment
  • 10. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Lost opportunities and damaged relations Use of multicultural teams Delayed productivity Increased organizational diversity Increasing diversity of workplace Internationalization of the economy Many expatriates leave their organization within one year after returning. Culture’s role from corner shop to world conflict Expatriates’ failure adjustment and organizational financial loss CCT Expatriate’s early return from the assignment
  • 11. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training
  • 12. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required for effective interactions across diverse cultures. (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001).
  • 13. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required for effective interactions across diverse cultures. (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001). D evelop m eta- cognitive strategies
  • 14. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required for effective interactions across diverse cultures. (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001). D evelop m eta- cognitive strategies Develop self- maintenance skills
  • 15. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required for effective interactions across diverse cultures. (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001). D evelop m eta- cognitive strategies Develop self- maintenance skills Developinterpersonalskills
  • 16. Definition and Purpose of CCT Improve an expatriate’s probability of success on the foreign assignment Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required for effective interactions across diverse cultures. (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001). D evelop m eta- cognitive strategies Develop self- maintenance skills Developinterpersonalskills
  • 17. Components of typical CCT programs
  • 18. Components of typical CCT programs Attribution training
  • 19. Components of typical CCT programs Culture awareness training
  • 20. Components of typical CCT programs Cognitive-behavior modification training
  • 21. Components of typical CCT programs Interaction training
  • 22. Components of typical CCT programs Language training
  • 23. Components of typical CCT programs Didactic training
  • 24. Components of typical CCT programs Experimental training
  • 25. Components of typical CCT programs
  • 26. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates
  • 27. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates CCL
  • 28. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates CCL Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture
  • 29. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates CCL Cognitive skill development Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture
  • 30. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates CCL Cognitive skill development Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing
  • 31. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Increased performance CCL Cognitive skill development Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing
  • 32. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Increased performance CCL Cognitive skill development Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing Decreased early return rates
  • 33. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Increased performance CCL Cognitive skill development Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing Decreased early return rates Success foreign assignment!
  • 34. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
  • 35. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
  • 36. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
  • 37. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
  • 38. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness of the Destination Country Guideline 4: MNCs Should Develop a Global Mindset Guideline 5: Organizations Must Use a Skill-Based Approach When Designing CCT Guideline 6: MNCs Should Apply and Use Strategies Based on the Science Designing CCT Programs Guideline 7: Scenario-Based Training Should Be Implemented
  • 39. Guideline (B) : Delivery Guideline 8: Training Delivery Should Correspond to the Dynamic Adjustment Process Guideline 9: The Difficulties Surrounding Repatriation Should Be Addressed Guideline 10: Multiple Media Strategies Should Be Used to Deliver CCT
  • 40. Guideline (C) : Evaluation Guideline 11: Organizations Must Establish Success Criteria for CCT Programs Guideline 12: Organizations Must Evaluate Whether the Learning from CCT has Transferred to the Job Guideline 13: Organizations Must Assess Whether the Investment in CCT Yields Positive Organizational Outcomes
  • 41. Current and Further Research of CCT Current Status ✓ There is a surge in the amount of research devoted to cross- cultural training within these years. ✓ However: ➡ Lack of synthesis in the area of CCT research. ➡ Recommendations are often limited because of addressing only one facet of CCT. ➡ Empirical researches are not ➡ abundant. Implications for Future Research ➡ Multicultural Team Training ➡ Adaptability ➡ Culture and Personality: individual differences
  • 42. Cross-­‐Cultural  Awareness  Training 13 International Project References in the Research Areas of Culture Diversity,Talent Development,and Strategic Change 14  years  in  Germany Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia 8  years  in  China • Building Global Competence for Asian Leaders • Applying Social Medias (Web 2.0) in Learning & Development. • International Employability:Development of Intercultural Competence of German and Chinese Young Professionals. • Cross-Cultural Learning Behavior: Effectiveness of the Western Technology Transfer and Learning Approaches in China. • Comparative Studies of Chinese-Indonesian Intercultural Competence and Sensitivity. • Dynamic Decision Making in Chinese and Multinational Teams. • Intercultural Perspectives of International Post-Merger Integration in Europe. • Intercultural Synergy in Professional Team. • Complex Problem Solving in Small Groups. • ...
  • 43. Thank  You Contact us via … Mail: hora_t@mac.com Follow: twitter@htjitra Website: http://horatjitra.com Zhejiang  University,  Hangzhou  (China) Based on: LISA N. LITTRELL, EDUARDO SALAS: A Review of Cross-Cultural Training: Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs. Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 2005. p305-334