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The Literature Review
Critical reading & writing
  Independent Study Module
          2012-13
Welcome to the session
Starter activity - Unpicking your topic

Spend 3minutes - writing
continuously:
• Why have you chosen          3 minutes
  your research topic?




                               End
Starter activity
Spend 3minutes - writing
continuously:
• How does this link to          3 minutes
  your practice in Term 1
  (PP1)?



                                 End
Session aims:
• Develop your research and professional enquiry skills (links to Module
  Learning Outcomes K&U 1, 2 and 4 and S,Q &A 3 and 4:
    – How to link your practice to theory using your
      reflections
    – Understanding the theoretical frameworks behind
      your practice
What's happening in your classroom
• Talk through this with a partner:
• 10 minutes (5 minutes each way)
       5 minutes       5 minutes
Modelling Activity
•   Describe
•   Inform
•   Confront
•   Reconstruct
                             Add reference
Activity                                 Cues

Describe                                 What did I do?


Inform (Analysis)                        What does this mean?


Confront (Self awareness)                How did I come to be like this?


Reconstruct (Evaluation and Synthesis)   What do my practices say about my assumptions,
                                         values and beliefs?

                                         Where did these ideas come from?

                                         What social practices are expressed in these ideas?

                                         What is it that causes me to maintain my theories

                                         What views of power do they embody?

                                         Whose interests seem to be served by my practices?

                                         What is it that acts to constrain my views of what is
                                         possible in my practice?
Modelling Activity
Read though your starter activity:
• Select a critical incident from PP1 (which
  influenced your ISM topic)
• Using the strategy from last term:
  – Describe
  – Inform

                     End
Modelling Activity
• Alison/Sarah to model the reconstruct section
  to identify theoretical framework
Frameworks for questions:
• What was I trying to achieve?
  Why does this topic matter? gv
• Why did I respond as I did?
• What were the consequences of that for the student/s? Others? Myself?
• How was the student (students) feeling?
• How did I Know this?
• So what is the importance of this?
• So what more do I need to know about this?
• So what have I learnt about this
• What internal factors influenced my decision – making?
• What external factors influenced my decision – making?
• What sources of knowledge did / should have influenced my decision –
  making?
                                 Smyth’s Framework for Reflection on Action
Session aims:
• Develop your research and professional enquiry skills (links to Module
  Learning Outcomes K&U 1, 2 and 4 and S,Q &A 3 and 4:

• What do we want you to learn:
    – a structure for reviewing your reading
    – some ideas of writing critically
Purpose of a literature review
• You as a researcher engaging with the field
• Contextualises where your research fits:
  contextual framework
• Demonstrates you are familiar with the field
• Demonstrates your scholarship ability to
  reflect, evaluate and write critically and
  analytically
                            (Sharp 2012. p.27-28)
Theory & theoretical frameworks
• ‘a set of interrelated abstract propositions about human affairs and
  the social world that explain their regularities and relationships’
  (Brewer 2000, p.192)
• ‘theory at the lowest level can be an ad hoc classification system,
  consisting of categories which organise and summarise empirical
  observations’ (Bowling 2002, p.139).
• ‘It can be a taxonomy which is a descriptive categorical system
  constructed to fit the empirical observations in order to describe
  the relationships between categories’ (Bowling 2002, p. 140).
• Simply ‘refer(s) to the current state of knowledge in a subject
  derived from the published literature – what Wolcott (1992, p. 3–
  52) described as ‘theory first’ rather than ‘theory after’. ‘ (Bell 2010,
  p.105)
                                      Paraphrased from Bell 2010. p.105
Theoretical/ contextual Framework
Example:
• In design and technology why are pupils in key stage 2 more creative than
   those in key stage 3?
What are the theories behind this question?
• Creativity is important in D&T
• Creativity is more evident in key stage 2 (KS2) than key stage 3 (KS3)
• Potentially in a drop in achievement in D&T between KS2 & KS3
What is the context?
• Design and Technology lessons
• Year 6 in key stage 2 and year 7 in key stage 3
Concepts/ definitions:
• Creativity
• Creativity in D&T – what does it look like
• Role of the teacher in developing pupils’ creativity
                                                                  (Hardy 2004)
Theoretical/ contextual Framework
Example:
• How are gifted and talented pupils engaged in design and
   technology?
What are the theories behind this question?
• It is important for G&T pupils to be engaged in D&T
• G&T pupils need to be engaged in ways which are different to other
   pupils
• G&T pupils are not currently been engaged in D&T
What is the context?
• Design and Technology lessons
• Key stage 3 or key stage 4 – TBD
Concepts/ definitions
• Gifted and talented
• Engagement: in learning? In lessons? In careers? In options?
No clear concepts?
• When acceptable conceptual definitions are not
  available, concept synthesis of concept analysis
  needs to be performed in order to develop the
  definition
e.g. literacy in D&T
     dyslexia in D&T
Possible concept:
• Literacy in lessons where practical work is carried
  out – how is this taught and developed?
Critical review of the literature
Use references to:
• Justify and support your arguments
• Allow you to make comparisons with other
  research;
• Express matters better than you could have done;
• Demonstrate your familiarity with your field of
  research.
                    (Blaxter 1996 in Bell 1999. p.92)
Theory in bins
Theory building relies on a few general constructs that
subsume a mountain of particulars. Terms such as ‘stress’ or
‘role conflict’ are typically labels we put on bins containing a
lot of discrete events and behaviours. When we assign a label
to a bin, we may or may not know how all the contents of the
bin fit together, or how this bin relates to another. But any
researcher, no matter how inductive in approach, knows
which bins to start with and what their general contents are
likely to be. Bins come from theory and experience and
(often) from the general objectives of the study envisioned.
Laying out those bins, giving each a descriptive or inferential
name, and getting some clarity about their interrelationships
is what a conceptual framework is all about.
                 Miles and Huberman 1994 in Bell 2010, p. 106 )
Critical reading
•   Don’t just take notes
•   How reliable a source is this?
•   Does this fit with what you already know?
•   Does it contradict other evidence?
Practical task: Subjectivity &
                Objectivity
Using the STEM paper from last week:
• Try and identify words that make it emotive/
  and or opinionated I the literature review
  section, perhaps underlining these words
         Adapted from Judge, Jones and McCreery 2009
This task helps you identify words which show the
author/s opinion and therefore how they have used
their reading to support their views.
What critical thinking/ analysis/writing
           reveals about you
•   willing to question your views;
•   open to the ideas and views of others;
•   just because something is in print does not mean it is true;
•   able to give your (positive and negative) judgements;
•   able to explore the implications of the evidence/literature;
•   self-confident enough to explore the evidence presented;
•   honest in facing your own biases/prejudices;
•   flexible in considering alternatives and opinions;
•   willing to reconsider and revise views where honest
    reflection suggests that change is warranted.
                           Judge, Jones and McCreery 2009. p.44
Reviewing your writing
Personal writing                         Academic writing
Emotional                                                  Logical

Can be intuitive                                  Uses reasoning

Active voice: ‘I find that…’   Passive voice: ‘It was found that…’

Anecdotal                                          Uses evidence

Subjective                                              Objective

Tangents may be important              Keeps to logical sequence

                                                 Wisker, 2009
Critical review of a peer reviewed
               journal article
• A short critical review should have a brief
  introduction, simply providing the subject of the
  research and the author, and outlining the structure
  you will be using.
• The simplest way to structure a critical review is to
  write a paragraph or two about each section of the
  study in turn. Within your discussion of each
  section, you should first sum up the main points such
  as the key findings, or methodology used, to show your
  understanding.
• After this, you could present the strengths and
  weaknesses, as you see them, of the section, with an
  explanation of your thinking, and evidence.
Critical review of a peer reviewed
               journal article
• You should point out the strengths of the study to show you
  are aware of their importance, as in:
   – ‘These results are consistent with the aims of the research...’
   – ‘The findings are clearly presented using diagrams and a graph...’
   – ‘The discussion consistently relates the key findings to research discussed
     earlier...’
• When you identify weaknesses, you should use a
  cautious, objective style. You can use such phrases as:
   – ‘This sample seems fairly small in view of...’
   – ‘It might have been helpful to provide more details of...’
   – ‘There is no explanation for the absence of any literature after 2003. It would
     have been useful to know why this was the case.’
                                      Adapted from Queen Margaret University 2012
References
BELL, J., 1999. Doing your research project: a guide for first-time researchers in education and social
science. 3rd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press.
BELL, J., 2010. Doing your research project: a guide for first-time researchers in education, health and
social science. 5th ed. Maidenhead, Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Open University Press.
HARDY, A., 2004. Questioning styles: observations of differences in practice at key stage 2 and key stage
3. In: Design and Technology Conference Sheffield, 2004. DATA.
JUDGE, B., MCCREERY, E. and JONES, P., 2009. Critical Thinking Skills for Education Students. [online].
SAGE Publications. Available from: http://lib.myilibrary.com?ID=298000 (Accessed 13 January 2013)
QUEEN MARGARET UNIVERSITY, 2012. Planning a Critical Review. Available from:
http://www.qmu.ac.uk/ELS/docs/Critical%20review.pdf (Accessed 13 January 2013)

SHARP, J., 2012. Success with your education research project [online]. Learning Matters. Available
from:http://www.dawsonera.com/depp/reader/protected/external/AbstractView/S9781844456031
(Accessed 13 January 2013)
WISKER, G. 2009. The undergraduate research handbook. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

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Critical writing + first part of session

  • 1. The Literature Review Critical reading & writing Independent Study Module 2012-13
  • 2. Welcome to the session
  • 3. Starter activity - Unpicking your topic Spend 3minutes - writing continuously: • Why have you chosen 3 minutes your research topic? End
  • 4. Starter activity Spend 3minutes - writing continuously: • How does this link to 3 minutes your practice in Term 1 (PP1)? End
  • 5. Session aims: • Develop your research and professional enquiry skills (links to Module Learning Outcomes K&U 1, 2 and 4 and S,Q &A 3 and 4: – How to link your practice to theory using your reflections – Understanding the theoretical frameworks behind your practice
  • 6. What's happening in your classroom • Talk through this with a partner: • 10 minutes (5 minutes each way) 5 minutes 5 minutes
  • 7. Modelling Activity • Describe • Inform • Confront • Reconstruct Add reference
  • 8. Activity Cues Describe What did I do? Inform (Analysis) What does this mean? Confront (Self awareness) How did I come to be like this? Reconstruct (Evaluation and Synthesis) What do my practices say about my assumptions, values and beliefs? Where did these ideas come from? What social practices are expressed in these ideas? What is it that causes me to maintain my theories What views of power do they embody? Whose interests seem to be served by my practices? What is it that acts to constrain my views of what is possible in my practice?
  • 9. Modelling Activity Read though your starter activity: • Select a critical incident from PP1 (which influenced your ISM topic) • Using the strategy from last term: – Describe – Inform End
  • 10. Modelling Activity • Alison/Sarah to model the reconstruct section to identify theoretical framework
  • 11.
  • 12. Frameworks for questions: • What was I trying to achieve? Why does this topic matter? gv • Why did I respond as I did? • What were the consequences of that for the student/s? Others? Myself? • How was the student (students) feeling? • How did I Know this? • So what is the importance of this? • So what more do I need to know about this? • So what have I learnt about this • What internal factors influenced my decision – making? • What external factors influenced my decision – making? • What sources of knowledge did / should have influenced my decision – making? Smyth’s Framework for Reflection on Action
  • 13. Session aims: • Develop your research and professional enquiry skills (links to Module Learning Outcomes K&U 1, 2 and 4 and S,Q &A 3 and 4: • What do we want you to learn: – a structure for reviewing your reading – some ideas of writing critically
  • 14. Purpose of a literature review • You as a researcher engaging with the field • Contextualises where your research fits: contextual framework • Demonstrates you are familiar with the field • Demonstrates your scholarship ability to reflect, evaluate and write critically and analytically (Sharp 2012. p.27-28)
  • 15. Theory & theoretical frameworks • ‘a set of interrelated abstract propositions about human affairs and the social world that explain their regularities and relationships’ (Brewer 2000, p.192) • ‘theory at the lowest level can be an ad hoc classification system, consisting of categories which organise and summarise empirical observations’ (Bowling 2002, p.139). • ‘It can be a taxonomy which is a descriptive categorical system constructed to fit the empirical observations in order to describe the relationships between categories’ (Bowling 2002, p. 140). • Simply ‘refer(s) to the current state of knowledge in a subject derived from the published literature – what Wolcott (1992, p. 3– 52) described as ‘theory first’ rather than ‘theory after’. ‘ (Bell 2010, p.105) Paraphrased from Bell 2010. p.105
  • 16. Theoretical/ contextual Framework Example: • In design and technology why are pupils in key stage 2 more creative than those in key stage 3? What are the theories behind this question? • Creativity is important in D&T • Creativity is more evident in key stage 2 (KS2) than key stage 3 (KS3) • Potentially in a drop in achievement in D&T between KS2 & KS3 What is the context? • Design and Technology lessons • Year 6 in key stage 2 and year 7 in key stage 3 Concepts/ definitions: • Creativity • Creativity in D&T – what does it look like • Role of the teacher in developing pupils’ creativity (Hardy 2004)
  • 17. Theoretical/ contextual Framework Example: • How are gifted and talented pupils engaged in design and technology? What are the theories behind this question? • It is important for G&T pupils to be engaged in D&T • G&T pupils need to be engaged in ways which are different to other pupils • G&T pupils are not currently been engaged in D&T What is the context? • Design and Technology lessons • Key stage 3 or key stage 4 – TBD Concepts/ definitions • Gifted and talented • Engagement: in learning? In lessons? In careers? In options?
  • 18. No clear concepts? • When acceptable conceptual definitions are not available, concept synthesis of concept analysis needs to be performed in order to develop the definition e.g. literacy in D&T dyslexia in D&T Possible concept: • Literacy in lessons where practical work is carried out – how is this taught and developed?
  • 19. Critical review of the literature Use references to: • Justify and support your arguments • Allow you to make comparisons with other research; • Express matters better than you could have done; • Demonstrate your familiarity with your field of research. (Blaxter 1996 in Bell 1999. p.92)
  • 20. Theory in bins Theory building relies on a few general constructs that subsume a mountain of particulars. Terms such as ‘stress’ or ‘role conflict’ are typically labels we put on bins containing a lot of discrete events and behaviours. When we assign a label to a bin, we may or may not know how all the contents of the bin fit together, or how this bin relates to another. But any researcher, no matter how inductive in approach, knows which bins to start with and what their general contents are likely to be. Bins come from theory and experience and (often) from the general objectives of the study envisioned. Laying out those bins, giving each a descriptive or inferential name, and getting some clarity about their interrelationships is what a conceptual framework is all about. Miles and Huberman 1994 in Bell 2010, p. 106 )
  • 21. Critical reading • Don’t just take notes • How reliable a source is this? • Does this fit with what you already know? • Does it contradict other evidence?
  • 22. Practical task: Subjectivity & Objectivity Using the STEM paper from last week: • Try and identify words that make it emotive/ and or opinionated I the literature review section, perhaps underlining these words Adapted from Judge, Jones and McCreery 2009 This task helps you identify words which show the author/s opinion and therefore how they have used their reading to support their views.
  • 23. What critical thinking/ analysis/writing reveals about you • willing to question your views; • open to the ideas and views of others; • just because something is in print does not mean it is true; • able to give your (positive and negative) judgements; • able to explore the implications of the evidence/literature; • self-confident enough to explore the evidence presented; • honest in facing your own biases/prejudices; • flexible in considering alternatives and opinions; • willing to reconsider and revise views where honest reflection suggests that change is warranted. Judge, Jones and McCreery 2009. p.44
  • 24. Reviewing your writing Personal writing Academic writing Emotional Logical Can be intuitive Uses reasoning Active voice: ‘I find that…’ Passive voice: ‘It was found that…’ Anecdotal Uses evidence Subjective Objective Tangents may be important Keeps to logical sequence Wisker, 2009
  • 25. Critical review of a peer reviewed journal article • A short critical review should have a brief introduction, simply providing the subject of the research and the author, and outlining the structure you will be using. • The simplest way to structure a critical review is to write a paragraph or two about each section of the study in turn. Within your discussion of each section, you should first sum up the main points such as the key findings, or methodology used, to show your understanding. • After this, you could present the strengths and weaknesses, as you see them, of the section, with an explanation of your thinking, and evidence.
  • 26. Critical review of a peer reviewed journal article • You should point out the strengths of the study to show you are aware of their importance, as in: – ‘These results are consistent with the aims of the research...’ – ‘The findings are clearly presented using diagrams and a graph...’ – ‘The discussion consistently relates the key findings to research discussed earlier...’ • When you identify weaknesses, you should use a cautious, objective style. You can use such phrases as: – ‘This sample seems fairly small in view of...’ – ‘It might have been helpful to provide more details of...’ – ‘There is no explanation for the absence of any literature after 2003. It would have been useful to know why this was the case.’ Adapted from Queen Margaret University 2012
  • 27. References BELL, J., 1999. Doing your research project: a guide for first-time researchers in education and social science. 3rd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press. BELL, J., 2010. Doing your research project: a guide for first-time researchers in education, health and social science. 5th ed. Maidenhead, Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Open University Press. HARDY, A., 2004. Questioning styles: observations of differences in practice at key stage 2 and key stage 3. In: Design and Technology Conference Sheffield, 2004. DATA. JUDGE, B., MCCREERY, E. and JONES, P., 2009. Critical Thinking Skills for Education Students. [online]. SAGE Publications. Available from: http://lib.myilibrary.com?ID=298000 (Accessed 13 January 2013) QUEEN MARGARET UNIVERSITY, 2012. Planning a Critical Review. Available from: http://www.qmu.ac.uk/ELS/docs/Critical%20review.pdf (Accessed 13 January 2013) SHARP, J., 2012. Success with your education research project [online]. Learning Matters. Available from:http://www.dawsonera.com/depp/reader/protected/external/AbstractView/S9781844456031 (Accessed 13 January 2013) WISKER, G. 2009. The undergraduate research handbook. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Editor's Notes

  1. Up until now you have been presented with the reading to do for the courseWhat has happened before – the historical context
  2. There is no evidence as yet for these theories, they are in fact assumptionsThe context creates parameters – limiting the extent of the research and also, when writing up limiting the transferability of the findings and conclusions
  3. Where on the scale was your writing for your rationale?Can you justify it?What do you think you need to change for this assignment?