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Critical Thinking
Part 1- Definition &
historical evolution
Part 4- How to think
critically?
Part 3- What are the 4
stages of CT?
Explore-Learn-Grow
Part 2- Critical Thinking
(CT) skills & process
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What is critical thinking (CT)?
2Part 1- Definition & historical evolution
* Critical thinking is a type of
thinking that questions
assumptions.
* It is a way of deciding whether
a claim is always true,
sometimes true, partly true, or
false.
3Part 1- Definition & historical evolution
Critical thinking in history
500-300 BCE
* Buddha's Teachings
* mainly in the kalama sutta and the
Abhidharma
* Abhidharma are ancient Buddhist
texts which contain detailed scholastic
and scientific reworkings of doctrinal
material appearing in the Buddhist
Sutras
4Part 1- Definition & historical evolution
Critical thinking in history
500-300 BC
* Socrates and greek philosophers
(Thucydides, Epicurus)
* "Critical" derives from κριτικός kritikos,
which means discerning judgment
* Probing questions were used to determine
whether claims to knowledge based on
authority could be rationally justified with
clarity and logical consistency.
5Part 1- Definition & historical evolution
Critical thinking in history
500-300 BC 1605
* Francis Baron, English philosopher,
statesman, scientist and jurist
* Author of the first book on Critical
Thinking "The Advancement of
Learning"
* Documented various form of human
irrationality and the need to establish
new habits of thoughts through
education
6Part 1- Definition & historical evolution
Critical thinking in history
500-300 BC 1605 1923
* Frankfurt School of Critical Social Theory
* Trace its earliest roots back to Felix Weil who
financed the Institut.
* Founded in 1923 by Carl Grünberg, a Marxist legal
and political professor at the University of Vienna, as an
adjunct of the University of Frankfurt
* Attempted to amend Marxist theory for applicability in
20th-century Germany
* Later: Jurgen Habermas (book cover)
Click on the screen
7Part 2- Critical thinking skills & process
FROM:
An unconscious mixture
of high quality and low quality
thinking:
* Spontaneous
* Subconscious
* Uncontrolled
* Impulsive
* Unanalyzed
* Self validating
The essence of critical thinking is to move:
TO:
stops and assesses ourselves
before going forward, rigorously
applying intellectual standards to
our thinking:
* Probing
* Disciplined
* Seeks the truth
* Self assessing
* Self correcting
7Part 2- Critical thinking skills & process
Key critical thinking skills
* Precision for data gathering
& analysing
* Active listening and empathy
* Accuracy for attention to details
* Patience to check and recheck
accuracy of data & inconsistency
* Reasoning: significance for and
logic for synthetic thinking
* Breath of thinking outside the 9-dots
* Problem solving, brainstorming solutions
* Decision making: clarity of purpose and context
* Evaluating: Fairness to evaluate consequences, risks
and opportunities
* Open-mind
9Part 2- Critical thinking skills & process
* Assess information and data
* Represent data graphically
* Activated ignorance: actively using false information
* Activated knowledge: using true info that leads us to
more knowledge
* Distinguish between information, inferences and
assumptions
* Think across points of view
* Organize your thoughts, the validated data, inferences,
...
Reasoning. Think with a purpose, examine & probe
again:
10Part 2- Critical thinking skills & process
1- Questions of fact: require evidence and
reasoning within a system, a correct answer, lead
to knowledge
2- Questions of preference: call for stating a
subjective preference, a subjective opinion, cannot
be assessed
3- Questions of judgment: require evidence and
reasoning within multiple systems, better and worse
answers, require reasoned judgment
Questioning. Ask Questions that Lead to Good Thinking:
11Part 2- Critical thinking skills & process
1- Identify and extract
facts & data
4- Probe, ask open
question, question the
problem
5- Challenge assumptions
and the "unsaid"
2- Validate and select
relevant proven data
3- Seek for additional
information and data if
required
7- Make informed decision,
evalaute consequences, risks
and opportunities
6- Identify potential
solutions and alternative
QuestioningData-driven reasoning +
12Part 3- 4 development stages
for critical thinking skills
Stage 1
the unreflective
thinker
Stage 2
the challenged
thinker
Stage 3
the beginning
thinker
Stage 4
the practicing
thinker
* We do not notice we are continually making
assumptions, forming concepts and opinions, and
thinking within points of view.
* We confused facts, unvalidated data, their
analysis and inferences
* Our egocentric tendencies at this stage play a
dominant role in our thinking.
* We lack the skills and motivation to notice how
self-centered and prejudiced we are.
13Part 3- 4 development stages
for critical thinking skills
Stage 1
the unreflective
thinker
Stage 2
the challenged
thinker
Stage 3
the beginning
thinker
Stage 4
the practicing
thinker
Reasoning and evaluating,we begin to notice that:
* we make questionable assumptions
* use false, incomplete, or misleading information
* make inferences that do not follow from the
evidence we have
* fail to recognize important implications and
problems we have
* form faulty concepts
* reason with prejudiced points of view
* think egocentrically and irrationally
14Part 3- 4 development stages
for critical thinking skills
Stage 1
the unreflective
thinker
Stage 2
the challenged
thinker
Stage 3
the beginning
thinker
Stage 4
the practicing
thinker
We are beginning to:
* analyze the logic of situations and problems
* express clear and precise questions
* check for accuracy & relevance
* distinguish between data & conclusions
* recognize assumptions
* identify prejudicial and biased beliefs
* notice when our viewpoint is biased by our selfish
interests
15Part 3- 4 development stages
for critical thinking skills
Stage 1
the unreflective
thinker
Stage 2
the challenged
thinker
Stage 3
the beginning
thinker
Stage 4
the practicing
thinker
* Using wasted time
* Solve a problem a day (at least)
* Keep an intellectual journal
* Practice intellectual strategies
* Take important decisions when required
* Reshape your character
* Deal with your ego
* Redefine the way you see things
* Get in touch with your emotions
* Analyze group influences on your life
16Part 4- How & where is CT being applied?
Critical thinking helps students determine:
* what we learn
* how we learn
* what we think is important to learn
* what effort we should expend
* what we think is true
* what we think is false
* how things should be viewed
* whether our learning is of high or low quality
* whether our learning is deep or superficial
Students in schools, colleges & universities
17Part 4- How & where is CT being applied?
Airline Pilots
18Part 4- How & where is CT being applied?
During the assessment
process:
* Systematically collects,
verifies, analyzes and
communicates data
* Two step process- Collection
and Verification of data &
Analysis of data
* Establishes a data base
about client needs, health
problems, responses, related
experiences, health practices,
values. lifestyle, &
expectations
Hospitals nurses
19Part 4- How & where is CT being applied?
Business
Critical thinking in summary 20
CT is directed thinking about thinking in order to make it better
by applying the following Intellectual Standards
Clarity Could you elaborate further? Could you give me an example?
Accuracy How could we check on that? How could we find out if it is true?
Precision Could you be more specific? Could you give me more details?
Relevance How does that relate to the question and problem?
Depth What factors make this a difficult problem? How complex is it?
Breadth
Do we need to look at this from another perspective?
Do we need to consider another point of view?
Logic Does all this make sense together? Does it follow evidences?
Significance Is this the most important problem to consider?
Is this the central idea to focus on?
Fairness Do I have any vested interest in this issue?
21Critical thinking in summary
Critical Thinking: Today's Number One Skill
Click on the screen
* wikipedia.com
* www.criticalthinking.org
* www.csus.edu
* www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/758.ppt
* www2.bakersfieldcollege.edu (CT in nursing)
* Paul, ; and Elder, L The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts
and Tools. Dillon Beach: Foundation for Critical Thinking Press, 2008
* Dauer, F Critical Thinking: An Introduction to Reasoning, 1989
* Moore, BN and Parker, R (2012) Critical Thinking. 10th ed. Published
by McGraw-Hill
Sources and References 22
In the note section of this slide
Participant Notes 23

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Critical thinking

  • 1. Critical Thinking Part 1- Definition & historical evolution Part 4- How to think critically? Part 3- What are the 4 stages of CT? Explore-Learn-Grow Part 2- Critical Thinking (CT) skills & process Do you know your Happiness Score? Get your Life Satisfaction Report. Free, no registration required. I Contact
  • 2. What is critical thinking (CT)? 2Part 1- Definition & historical evolution * Critical thinking is a type of thinking that questions assumptions. * It is a way of deciding whether a claim is always true, sometimes true, partly true, or false.
  • 3. 3Part 1- Definition & historical evolution Critical thinking in history 500-300 BCE * Buddha's Teachings * mainly in the kalama sutta and the Abhidharma * Abhidharma are ancient Buddhist texts which contain detailed scholastic and scientific reworkings of doctrinal material appearing in the Buddhist Sutras
  • 4. 4Part 1- Definition & historical evolution Critical thinking in history 500-300 BC * Socrates and greek philosophers (Thucydides, Epicurus) * "Critical" derives from κριτικός kritikos, which means discerning judgment * Probing questions were used to determine whether claims to knowledge based on authority could be rationally justified with clarity and logical consistency.
  • 5. 5Part 1- Definition & historical evolution Critical thinking in history 500-300 BC 1605 * Francis Baron, English philosopher, statesman, scientist and jurist * Author of the first book on Critical Thinking "The Advancement of Learning" * Documented various form of human irrationality and the need to establish new habits of thoughts through education
  • 6. 6Part 1- Definition & historical evolution Critical thinking in history 500-300 BC 1605 1923 * Frankfurt School of Critical Social Theory * Trace its earliest roots back to Felix Weil who financed the Institut. * Founded in 1923 by Carl Grünberg, a Marxist legal and political professor at the University of Vienna, as an adjunct of the University of Frankfurt * Attempted to amend Marxist theory for applicability in 20th-century Germany * Later: Jurgen Habermas (book cover)
  • 7. Click on the screen
  • 8. 7Part 2- Critical thinking skills & process FROM: An unconscious mixture of high quality and low quality thinking: * Spontaneous * Subconscious * Uncontrolled * Impulsive * Unanalyzed * Self validating The essence of critical thinking is to move: TO: stops and assesses ourselves before going forward, rigorously applying intellectual standards to our thinking: * Probing * Disciplined * Seeks the truth * Self assessing * Self correcting
  • 9. 7Part 2- Critical thinking skills & process Key critical thinking skills * Precision for data gathering & analysing * Active listening and empathy * Accuracy for attention to details * Patience to check and recheck accuracy of data & inconsistency * Reasoning: significance for and logic for synthetic thinking * Breath of thinking outside the 9-dots * Problem solving, brainstorming solutions * Decision making: clarity of purpose and context * Evaluating: Fairness to evaluate consequences, risks and opportunities * Open-mind
  • 10. 9Part 2- Critical thinking skills & process * Assess information and data * Represent data graphically * Activated ignorance: actively using false information * Activated knowledge: using true info that leads us to more knowledge * Distinguish between information, inferences and assumptions * Think across points of view * Organize your thoughts, the validated data, inferences, ... Reasoning. Think with a purpose, examine & probe again:
  • 11. 10Part 2- Critical thinking skills & process 1- Questions of fact: require evidence and reasoning within a system, a correct answer, lead to knowledge 2- Questions of preference: call for stating a subjective preference, a subjective opinion, cannot be assessed 3- Questions of judgment: require evidence and reasoning within multiple systems, better and worse answers, require reasoned judgment Questioning. Ask Questions that Lead to Good Thinking:
  • 12. 11Part 2- Critical thinking skills & process 1- Identify and extract facts & data 4- Probe, ask open question, question the problem 5- Challenge assumptions and the "unsaid" 2- Validate and select relevant proven data 3- Seek for additional information and data if required 7- Make informed decision, evalaute consequences, risks and opportunities 6- Identify potential solutions and alternative QuestioningData-driven reasoning +
  • 13. 12Part 3- 4 development stages for critical thinking skills Stage 1 the unreflective thinker Stage 2 the challenged thinker Stage 3 the beginning thinker Stage 4 the practicing thinker * We do not notice we are continually making assumptions, forming concepts and opinions, and thinking within points of view. * We confused facts, unvalidated data, their analysis and inferences * Our egocentric tendencies at this stage play a dominant role in our thinking. * We lack the skills and motivation to notice how self-centered and prejudiced we are.
  • 14. 13Part 3- 4 development stages for critical thinking skills Stage 1 the unreflective thinker Stage 2 the challenged thinker Stage 3 the beginning thinker Stage 4 the practicing thinker Reasoning and evaluating,we begin to notice that: * we make questionable assumptions * use false, incomplete, or misleading information * make inferences that do not follow from the evidence we have * fail to recognize important implications and problems we have * form faulty concepts * reason with prejudiced points of view * think egocentrically and irrationally
  • 15. 14Part 3- 4 development stages for critical thinking skills Stage 1 the unreflective thinker Stage 2 the challenged thinker Stage 3 the beginning thinker Stage 4 the practicing thinker We are beginning to: * analyze the logic of situations and problems * express clear and precise questions * check for accuracy & relevance * distinguish between data & conclusions * recognize assumptions * identify prejudicial and biased beliefs * notice when our viewpoint is biased by our selfish interests
  • 16. 15Part 3- 4 development stages for critical thinking skills Stage 1 the unreflective thinker Stage 2 the challenged thinker Stage 3 the beginning thinker Stage 4 the practicing thinker * Using wasted time * Solve a problem a day (at least) * Keep an intellectual journal * Practice intellectual strategies * Take important decisions when required * Reshape your character * Deal with your ego * Redefine the way you see things * Get in touch with your emotions * Analyze group influences on your life
  • 17. 16Part 4- How & where is CT being applied? Critical thinking helps students determine: * what we learn * how we learn * what we think is important to learn * what effort we should expend * what we think is true * what we think is false * how things should be viewed * whether our learning is of high or low quality * whether our learning is deep or superficial Students in schools, colleges & universities
  • 18. 17Part 4- How & where is CT being applied? Airline Pilots
  • 19. 18Part 4- How & where is CT being applied? During the assessment process: * Systematically collects, verifies, analyzes and communicates data * Two step process- Collection and Verification of data & Analysis of data * Establishes a data base about client needs, health problems, responses, related experiences, health practices, values. lifestyle, & expectations Hospitals nurses
  • 20. 19Part 4- How & where is CT being applied? Business
  • 21. Critical thinking in summary 20 CT is directed thinking about thinking in order to make it better by applying the following Intellectual Standards Clarity Could you elaborate further? Could you give me an example? Accuracy How could we check on that? How could we find out if it is true? Precision Could you be more specific? Could you give me more details? Relevance How does that relate to the question and problem? Depth What factors make this a difficult problem? How complex is it? Breadth Do we need to look at this from another perspective? Do we need to consider another point of view? Logic Does all this make sense together? Does it follow evidences? Significance Is this the most important problem to consider? Is this the central idea to focus on? Fairness Do I have any vested interest in this issue?
  • 22. 21Critical thinking in summary Critical Thinking: Today's Number One Skill
  • 23. Click on the screen
  • 24. * wikipedia.com * www.criticalthinking.org * www.csus.edu * www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/758.ppt * www2.bakersfieldcollege.edu (CT in nursing) * Paul, ; and Elder, L The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools. Dillon Beach: Foundation for Critical Thinking Press, 2008 * Dauer, F Critical Thinking: An Introduction to Reasoning, 1989 * Moore, BN and Parker, R (2012) Critical Thinking. 10th ed. Published by McGraw-Hill Sources and References 22
  • 25. In the note section of this slide Participant Notes 23