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© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Build your first Serverless
ledger-based app
with QLDB & NodeJS
Dario Pizzuto – Solutions Architect
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Agenda
• Modern app develompent
• What’s a ledger?
• Amazon QLDB
• QLDB Hands on
• Demo: Architecture overview & source code
• Other resources
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
What do our customers want in a
modern application?
Scales to
millions of users
Global availability Responds
in milliseconds
Handles
petabytes of data
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
What is the best way to build a
modern application?
Modular
services
Architectural
patterns
1
As serverless
as possible
Operational
model
2
Automated,
Abstracted &
Standardized
Developer
Agility
3
Programmatic
Guardrails
Management &
Governance
4
Decoupled &
Purpose built
Data
management
5
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Traditional three-tier application architecture
Web servers
Presentation layers
Application servers
Business logic
Database servers
Data layer
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Modern application architecture
Presentation
Business logic
Data
Queues/messages
Events Events
APIs
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Decoupling data along with business logic
Massive data volume?
One size does
not fit all.
What are the data needs of each modular service?
Data warehousing?
High speed rendering?
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Serverless reduces the operational load
No infrastructure provisioning,
no management
Pay
for value
Automatic
scaling
Highly
available
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
What is a ledger?
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Ledger technologies
• built-in immutable journal that stores an accurate
and sequenced entry of every data change
• append-only
• cryptographically verifiable
Ledgers
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Need for a ledger with centralized trust
Manufacturers
Track distribution of a
recalled product
HR & payroll
Track changes to an
individual’s profile
Healthcare
Verify and track hospital
equipment inventory
DMV
Track vehicle title history
• Owned by a single, trusted authority
• Addresses core need of an immutable and
verifiable transactional log
• Fast—doesn’t require consent from members
to commit transactions
Centralized
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Why consider purpose-built databases?
Scale AvailabilityPerformance
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Purpose-built databases at AWS
Aurora RDS DynamoDB DocumentDB TimestreamNeptuneElastiCache QLDB Managed
Cassandra
Relational Key value Document In-memory Graph Time series Ledger Wide column
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
How Amazon QLDB works
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Amazon QLDB: the journal is the database
• QLDB’s journal has structural similarity to a database log
• All writes go to the journal—the journal determines state
• Journal handles concurrency, sequencing, cryptographic
verifiability, and availability
• Accessible history of all transactions, document versions,
document metadata
blockAdreess hash data metadata
{strandId:"IiPT4AnNe
WpE6YdoFiAK0U",seq
uenceNo:136}
{{s6ytAZivsX2ukJNSwB
VvYZ5KjnFQRJHRDrU0
UKbYVRY=}}
{Manufacturer:"Tesla",Mod
el:"Model
S",Year:2012,VIN:1234567
89,Owner:"Traci Russell"}
{id:"Cxlp6cA36YOHylSC
hJ7dzW",version:0,txTi
me:2019-10-
28T12:19:50.098Z,txId:
"JUJglL39zof3a0LKTXN
RgX"}
{strandId:"IiPT4AnNeW
pE6YdoFiAK0U",seque
nceNo:139}
{{1fWeNgIm59pgnkdB
ol83exdL+t/BAvVfICrX
8N9cYN4=}}
{Manufacturer:"Tesla",Mode
l:"Model
S",Year:2012,VIN:1234567
89,Owner:"Ronnie Nash"}
{id:"Cxlp6cA36YOHylSC
hJ7dzW",version:1,txTi
me:2019-10-
28T12:20:25.979Z,txId:"
1nmeGu0dy4nI3KHcsfC
4tr"}
Manufacturer Model Year VIN Owner
Tesla Model S 2012 123456789 Ronnie Nash
history() #function to query document history
User #standard user data, the default
tx1
tx2
tx3
tx4
tx5
tx6
tx7
tx8
Journal
blockAddress hash data metadata
{strandId:"IiPT4A
nNeWpE6YdoFiA
K0U",sequenceN
o:139}
{{1fWeNgIm59pg
nkdBol83exdL+t/
BAvVfICrX8N9cY
N4=}}
{Manufacturer:"Tesla",M
odel:"Model
S",Year:2012,VIN:12345
6789,Owner:"Ronnie
Nash"}
{id:"Cxlp6cA36YOHyl
SChJ7dzW",version:1,
txTime:2019-10-
28T12:20:25.979Z,txI
d:"1nmeGu0dy4nI3K
HcsfC4tr"}
Committed #includes metadata
select * from _ql_committed_cars
select * from cars
SELECT * FROM history(cars)
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
WritingReading
Amazon QLDB—Journal First Database
ID Manufacturer Model Year VIN Owner
1 Tesla Model S 2012 123456789 Robert Dennison
History
User/Current
INSERT… UPDATE… DELETE… UPDATE… UPDATE… UPDATE…
SEQUENCE
NUMBER: 789
SEQUENCE
NUMBER: 790
SEQUENCE
NUMBER: 791
SEQUENCE
NUMBER: 793
SEQUENCE
NUMBER: 792
SEQUENCE
NUMBER: --
Journal
ledger
Application data
Amazon Quantum
Ledger Database
Writing
ID Version Start Manufacturer Model Year VIN Owner
1 0 7/16/2012 Tesla Model S 2012 123456789 Traci Russell
1 1 8/03/2013 Tesla Model S 2012 123456789 Ronnie Nash
1 2 9/02/2016 Tesla Model S 2012 123456789 Robert Dennison
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Transactions (ACID)
Isolation Level Potential Issues
Serializable
Snapshot Isolation
Repeatable read
Read committed
Read uncommitted
—
Potential write skew
Phantom reads
Phantom reads/non-repeatable reads
Phantom reads/non-repeatable reads/dirty reads
HIGHESTTOLOWEST
• Amazon QLDB supports the highest level of isolation
• There is no other mode for QLDB
• There is no risk that you’ll see phantom reads, write skew,
dirty reads, or other issues
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Easy to use - Amazon Ion & PartiQL
Amazon Ion
/* Ion supports comments. */
vehicle = {
‘VIN’ : ‘KM8SRDHF6EU074761’ ,
‘MfgDate’: `2017-03-01T` ,
‘Type’: ‘Truck’ ,
‘Mfgr’: ‘Ford’ ,
‘Model’: ‘F150’
‘Color”: ‘Black’ ,
‘Specs’: {
‘EngSize’ : 3.3 ,(decimal)
‘CurbWeight’: 4878 , (int)
‘HP’: 327 ,(int)
‘BatterySize’ : NULL.int ,
}
}
PartiQL
INSERT INTO cars
{ 'Manufacturer':'Tesla',
'Model':'Model S',
'Year': 2012,
'VIN': 123456789,
'Owner':'Traci Russell'
}
UPDATE cars SET owner = 'Ronnie
Nash'
WHERE VIN = 123456789
SELECT * FROM cars
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Serverless, scalable, highly available
Region
Availability Zone 1 Availability Zone 2
Journals Journals
Availability Zone 3
Journals
Multiple copies per AZ
providing strong
durability
Multi-AZ for
high availability
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
UPDATE… DELETE… UPDATE… UPDATE… UPDATE…
Immutable
INSERT…
SEQUENCE
NUMBER: 789
SEQUENCE
NUMBER: 790
SEQUENCE
NUMBER: 791
SEQUENCE
NUMBER: 793
SEQUENCE
NUMBER: 792
SEQUENCE
NUMBER: --
Records cannot be altered
• The journal is append only and sequenced
• There is no API or other method to alter committed data
• All operations, including deletes, are written to the journal
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Cryptographic verification
Entries
Block
QLDB SQL
Metadata
journal
Record
hash
Hash chaining using sha-256
Digest
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Amazon QLDB
Journal-first
The journal is the
database
ACID Transactions
Fully serializable isolation
Easy to use
Familiar SQL operators
Highly scalable
Serverless, highly available
Immutable
Append-only, sequenced
Cryptographically verifiable
Hash-chaining provide data integrity
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
QLDB hands on
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
High Level Architecture
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
High level architecture
AWS Cloud
AWS
AppSync
Amazon
Cognito
AWS Amplify
Web-App
GraphQL
Resolvers
AWS Lambda Amazon
QLDB
Users
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Demo & code
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
AWS Training & Certification
https://www.aws.training: Free on-demand courses to help you build new cloud skills
Video: Amazon Quantum Ledger Database (QLDB) Service Introduction
https://www.aws.training/Details/Video?id=40817
e-Learning: Amazon Quantum Ledger Database (QLDB) Service Primer
https://www.aws.training/Details/eLearning?id=41760
For more info on AWS T&C visit: https://aws.amazon.com/it/training/
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
One more thing…
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
AWS Europe (Milan) Region
On April, 28th AWS expanded its global footprint with the opening of the AWS Infrastructure Region in Italy. The new
Region AWS Europe (Milano) brings advanced cloud technologies that enable opportunities for innovation,
entrepreneurship, and digital transformation. For additional information about services and characteristics of an AWS
Region, you can check the website: aws.amazon.com/local/italy/milan/
© 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential
Thanks!
dpizzuto@amazon.com

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Crea la tua prima serverless ledger-based app con QLDB e NodeJS

  • 1. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Build your first Serverless ledger-based app with QLDB & NodeJS Dario Pizzuto – Solutions Architect
  • 2. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Agenda • Modern app develompent • What’s a ledger? • Amazon QLDB • QLDB Hands on • Demo: Architecture overview & source code • Other resources
  • 3. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential What do our customers want in a modern application? Scales to millions of users Global availability Responds in milliseconds Handles petabytes of data
  • 4. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential What is the best way to build a modern application? Modular services Architectural patterns 1 As serverless as possible Operational model 2 Automated, Abstracted & Standardized Developer Agility 3 Programmatic Guardrails Management & Governance 4 Decoupled & Purpose built Data management 5
  • 5. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Traditional three-tier application architecture Web servers Presentation layers Application servers Business logic Database servers Data layer
  • 6. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Modern application architecture Presentation Business logic Data Queues/messages Events Events APIs
  • 7. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Decoupling data along with business logic Massive data volume? One size does not fit all. What are the data needs of each modular service? Data warehousing? High speed rendering?
  • 8. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Serverless reduces the operational load No infrastructure provisioning, no management Pay for value Automatic scaling Highly available
  • 9. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential What is a ledger?
  • 10. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Ledger technologies • built-in immutable journal that stores an accurate and sequenced entry of every data change • append-only • cryptographically verifiable Ledgers
  • 11. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Need for a ledger with centralized trust Manufacturers Track distribution of a recalled product HR & payroll Track changes to an individual’s profile Healthcare Verify and track hospital equipment inventory DMV Track vehicle title history • Owned by a single, trusted authority • Addresses core need of an immutable and verifiable transactional log • Fast—doesn’t require consent from members to commit transactions Centralized
  • 12. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Why consider purpose-built databases? Scale AvailabilityPerformance
  • 13. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Purpose-built databases at AWS Aurora RDS DynamoDB DocumentDB TimestreamNeptuneElastiCache QLDB Managed Cassandra Relational Key value Document In-memory Graph Time series Ledger Wide column
  • 14. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential How Amazon QLDB works
  • 15. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Amazon QLDB: the journal is the database • QLDB’s journal has structural similarity to a database log • All writes go to the journal—the journal determines state • Journal handles concurrency, sequencing, cryptographic verifiability, and availability • Accessible history of all transactions, document versions, document metadata blockAdreess hash data metadata {strandId:"IiPT4AnNe WpE6YdoFiAK0U",seq uenceNo:136} {{s6ytAZivsX2ukJNSwB VvYZ5KjnFQRJHRDrU0 UKbYVRY=}} {Manufacturer:"Tesla",Mod el:"Model S",Year:2012,VIN:1234567 89,Owner:"Traci Russell"} {id:"Cxlp6cA36YOHylSC hJ7dzW",version:0,txTi me:2019-10- 28T12:19:50.098Z,txId: "JUJglL39zof3a0LKTXN RgX"} {strandId:"IiPT4AnNeW pE6YdoFiAK0U",seque nceNo:139} {{1fWeNgIm59pgnkdB ol83exdL+t/BAvVfICrX 8N9cYN4=}} {Manufacturer:"Tesla",Mode l:"Model S",Year:2012,VIN:1234567 89,Owner:"Ronnie Nash"} {id:"Cxlp6cA36YOHylSC hJ7dzW",version:1,txTi me:2019-10- 28T12:20:25.979Z,txId:" 1nmeGu0dy4nI3KHcsfC 4tr"} Manufacturer Model Year VIN Owner Tesla Model S 2012 123456789 Ronnie Nash history() #function to query document history User #standard user data, the default tx1 tx2 tx3 tx4 tx5 tx6 tx7 tx8 Journal blockAddress hash data metadata {strandId:"IiPT4A nNeWpE6YdoFiA K0U",sequenceN o:139} {{1fWeNgIm59pg nkdBol83exdL+t/ BAvVfICrX8N9cY N4=}} {Manufacturer:"Tesla",M odel:"Model S",Year:2012,VIN:12345 6789,Owner:"Ronnie Nash"} {id:"Cxlp6cA36YOHyl SChJ7dzW",version:1, txTime:2019-10- 28T12:20:25.979Z,txI d:"1nmeGu0dy4nI3K HcsfC4tr"} Committed #includes metadata select * from _ql_committed_cars select * from cars SELECT * FROM history(cars)
  • 16. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential WritingReading Amazon QLDB—Journal First Database ID Manufacturer Model Year VIN Owner 1 Tesla Model S 2012 123456789 Robert Dennison History User/Current INSERT… UPDATE… DELETE… UPDATE… UPDATE… UPDATE… SEQUENCE NUMBER: 789 SEQUENCE NUMBER: 790 SEQUENCE NUMBER: 791 SEQUENCE NUMBER: 793 SEQUENCE NUMBER: 792 SEQUENCE NUMBER: -- Journal ledger Application data Amazon Quantum Ledger Database Writing ID Version Start Manufacturer Model Year VIN Owner 1 0 7/16/2012 Tesla Model S 2012 123456789 Traci Russell 1 1 8/03/2013 Tesla Model S 2012 123456789 Ronnie Nash 1 2 9/02/2016 Tesla Model S 2012 123456789 Robert Dennison
  • 17. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Transactions (ACID) Isolation Level Potential Issues Serializable Snapshot Isolation Repeatable read Read committed Read uncommitted — Potential write skew Phantom reads Phantom reads/non-repeatable reads Phantom reads/non-repeatable reads/dirty reads HIGHESTTOLOWEST • Amazon QLDB supports the highest level of isolation • There is no other mode for QLDB • There is no risk that you’ll see phantom reads, write skew, dirty reads, or other issues
  • 18. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Easy to use - Amazon Ion & PartiQL Amazon Ion /* Ion supports comments. */ vehicle = { ‘VIN’ : ‘KM8SRDHF6EU074761’ , ‘MfgDate’: `2017-03-01T` , ‘Type’: ‘Truck’ , ‘Mfgr’: ‘Ford’ , ‘Model’: ‘F150’ ‘Color”: ‘Black’ , ‘Specs’: { ‘EngSize’ : 3.3 ,(decimal) ‘CurbWeight’: 4878 , (int) ‘HP’: 327 ,(int) ‘BatterySize’ : NULL.int , } } PartiQL INSERT INTO cars { 'Manufacturer':'Tesla', 'Model':'Model S', 'Year': 2012, 'VIN': 123456789, 'Owner':'Traci Russell' } UPDATE cars SET owner = 'Ronnie Nash' WHERE VIN = 123456789 SELECT * FROM cars
  • 19. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Serverless, scalable, highly available Region Availability Zone 1 Availability Zone 2 Journals Journals Availability Zone 3 Journals Multiple copies per AZ providing strong durability Multi-AZ for high availability
  • 20. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential UPDATE… DELETE… UPDATE… UPDATE… UPDATE… Immutable INSERT… SEQUENCE NUMBER: 789 SEQUENCE NUMBER: 790 SEQUENCE NUMBER: 791 SEQUENCE NUMBER: 793 SEQUENCE NUMBER: 792 SEQUENCE NUMBER: -- Records cannot be altered • The journal is append only and sequenced • There is no API or other method to alter committed data • All operations, including deletes, are written to the journal
  • 21. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Cryptographic verification Entries Block QLDB SQL Metadata journal Record hash Hash chaining using sha-256 Digest
  • 22. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Amazon QLDB Journal-first The journal is the database ACID Transactions Fully serializable isolation Easy to use Familiar SQL operators Highly scalable Serverless, highly available Immutable Append-only, sequenced Cryptographically verifiable Hash-chaining provide data integrity
  • 23. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential QLDB hands on
  • 24. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential High Level Architecture
  • 25. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential High level architecture AWS Cloud AWS AppSync Amazon Cognito AWS Amplify Web-App GraphQL Resolvers AWS Lambda Amazon QLDB Users
  • 26. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Demo & code
  • 27. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential AWS Training & Certification https://www.aws.training: Free on-demand courses to help you build new cloud skills Video: Amazon Quantum Ledger Database (QLDB) Service Introduction https://www.aws.training/Details/Video?id=40817 e-Learning: Amazon Quantum Ledger Database (QLDB) Service Primer https://www.aws.training/Details/eLearning?id=41760 For more info on AWS T&C visit: https://aws.amazon.com/it/training/
  • 28. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential One more thing…
  • 29. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential AWS Europe (Milan) Region On April, 28th AWS expanded its global footprint with the opening of the AWS Infrastructure Region in Italy. The new Region AWS Europe (Milano) brings advanced cloud technologies that enable opportunities for innovation, entrepreneurship, and digital transformation. For additional information about services and characteristics of an AWS Region, you can check the website: aws.amazon.com/local/italy/milan/
  • 30. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential Thanks! dpizzuto@amazon.com