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CPU and Memory
CPU(Central processing unit)
Control Unit
• Decoder – It has necessary circuitry to decode and interpret the meaning of
every instruction supported by the CPU
• Each instruction is accompanied by microcode – very basic direction that
tells the CPU how to execute the instruction
• Control unit obtains instructions from programs stored in main memory,
interpret the instruction, and issues signals that cause other units of the
system to execute them.
ALU
• When the entire CPU is contained on a single tiny silicon chip, it is
called a microprocessor
Instruction set
Registers
• Although the number of registers varies from computer to computer,
there are some registers common to all
computers(MAR,MBR,PC,IR,A,I/OR)
1. MAR – it holds the address of the active memory location.
2. MBR – it holds the contents of the accessed memory word. To store a word
in a memory, the system first transfers it to MBR and then writes it in
memory from MBR.
3. PC – it holds the address of the next instruction for execution.
4. AC(accumulator) – it hold the data on which the system has to operate,
intermediate results, and results of operations performed. In many
computers, there are more than one accumulator registers
5. IR- it holds the current instruction under execution.As soon as the
instruction is stored in this register, its operation and address part are
separated. The system sends the address part to MAR and while it sends
the operation part to control unit.
6. I/O Register – An input device transfers all input information's to this
register. The system transfers all output information to this register and an
output device picks up data for output from here.
Execution of an instruction by CPU

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Cpu and memory

  • 2.
  • 5. • Decoder – It has necessary circuitry to decode and interpret the meaning of every instruction supported by the CPU • Each instruction is accompanied by microcode – very basic direction that tells the CPU how to execute the instruction • Control unit obtains instructions from programs stored in main memory, interpret the instruction, and issues signals that cause other units of the system to execute them.
  • 6. ALU • When the entire CPU is contained on a single tiny silicon chip, it is called a microprocessor
  • 8. Registers • Although the number of registers varies from computer to computer, there are some registers common to all computers(MAR,MBR,PC,IR,A,I/OR)
  • 9.
  • 10. 1. MAR – it holds the address of the active memory location. 2. MBR – it holds the contents of the accessed memory word. To store a word in a memory, the system first transfers it to MBR and then writes it in memory from MBR. 3. PC – it holds the address of the next instruction for execution. 4. AC(accumulator) – it hold the data on which the system has to operate, intermediate results, and results of operations performed. In many computers, there are more than one accumulator registers 5. IR- it holds the current instruction under execution.As soon as the instruction is stored in this register, its operation and address part are separated. The system sends the address part to MAR and while it sends the operation part to control unit. 6. I/O Register – An input device transfers all input information's to this register. The system transfers all output information to this register and an output device picks up data for output from here.
  • 11. Execution of an instruction by CPU