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Concept and Assessment
Methodology of GP and comparison
with CP
Acknowledgement
• Most of the information presented here is
obtained from the Asian Productivity
Organisation (APO)
http://www.apo-tokyo.org/gp/52training_man.htm
Green Productivity
• Green Productivity (GP) is a strategy for enhancing a
business’s productivity and environmental performance at
the same time, for overall socio-economic development.
• It is the application of appropriate techniques,
technologies, and management systems to produce
environmentally compatible goods and services.
• Launched in 1994 in line with the 1992 Earth Summit
recommendations that both economic development and
environmental protection would be key strategies for
sustainable development.
• APO introduced GP as a practical way to answer the
challenge of sustainable development.
Relationship between Productivity & Environment
What is productivity?What is productivity?
bb As an integrated conceptAs an integrated concept
Output x SatisfactionOutput x Satisfaction
PRODUCTIVITY =PRODUCTIVITY =
Input x SacrificesInput x Sacrifices
•• as objectiveas objective Social conceptSocial concept
•• as a meansas a means Technical conceptTechnical concept
Productivity is, above all, an attitude of mind. It seeks to continually improve
what already exists. It is based on the belief that one can do things better today
than yesterday and better tomorrow than today.
Multi-Factor Productivity
MULTI - FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY AND GP
Raw materials productivity = Output (value or unit or value added)
Raw material used
Labour productivity = Output
number of employees (number
of hours worked)
Variables for quantification of GP that can be factored in are:
water, energy, materials (chemicals, auxiliaries, packaging etc.),
technology, capital.
Productivity = Output/Input = Value of goods or services/Cost of resources consumed.
GP ensures profitability and enhances Quality of Life
Ensures profitability
Enhances Quality of Life
Reduces environmental
impact
 Traditional focus of productivity
was ensuring cost effectiveness
through cost reduction.
 The quality drive and customer
satisfaction was the next focus
 Programs to improve productivity
by influencing the internal
organization of an industry emerged.
The most popular have been Kaizen,
TQM, TPM etc.
Productivity
The next step required integration of
"Environment" into these productivity
improvement programs.
Quality
Cost
Environment
Productivity Practices
TRIPLE FOCUS OF GP
Environment
(Sustainable Development)
Quality
(Voice of Customer )
Profitability
(Factor Inputs)
GP
Environmental
Compliance
Environmental
Compliance
 Pollution Prevention
 Source reduction
 End-of-pipe controls
 Pollution Prevention
 Source reduction
 End-of-pipe controls
Integrated people based
approach
Integrated people based
approach
 production-environment
integration
 team work
 safe and healthy working
conditions.
 production-environment
integration
 team work
 safe and healthy working
conditions.
Information driven
improvement
Information driven
improvement
measurement
reporting
disclosure
measurement
reporting
disclosure
Productivity
improvement
Productivity
improvement
Continuous
improvement cycle
Continuous
improvement cycle
Distinguishing characteristics of GP
Conventional Versus GP Practices
RAW MATERIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS
PRODUCT
WASTES
GASEOUS
LIQUID
SOLID
TREATMENT
&/DISPOSAL
RAW MATERIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS PRODUCT
REMAINDER LESS
WASTES
GASEOUS
LIQUID
SOLID
TREATMENT
&/DISPOSAL
RECYCLE/
REUSE
BY- PRODUCT
CONVENTIONAL PRACTICES
GP PRACTICES
GREEN PRODUCTIVITY MULTI SECTOR COVERAGE
GREEN PRODUCTIVITY
SMEs form the backbone of
the production-consumption
process. They play a crucial role
in the sustainability of development
Industry
(Large
Enterprises)
Services CommunityAgriculture
SMEs SMEs SMEs
SMEsSMEsSMEs
GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF GP
 Accountability
 Polluter Pays
 Precautionary Approach
 Profitability
 Competitive Advantage
 People-Building
ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES GUIDING GP
•ACCOUNTABILITY
•POLLUTER PAYS
•PRECAUTIONARY APPROACH
PRODUCTIVITY PRINCIPLES GUIDING GP
•Profitability
 Competitive Advantage
 People-Building
Green
Productivity
EXTERNAL FORCES
Green
Productivity
External Forces
Internal Forces
Regulations
Customer
requirement
Consumer
Demand
Market
Opportunities
Market
Image
Evolving global
and industrial
standards
Resource Pricing and
Availability
DRIVING FORCES OF GREEN PRODUCTIVITY
Driving Forces of Green Productivity
INTERNAL FORCES
Internal
Efficiency Worker Health
and Safety
Manifold Benefits of GP
GPGP
SOCIETY
SOCIETY
Quality of Life
Quality of Life
BUSINESS
BUSINESS
To supply goods
and services
produced in a
sustainable manner
Products
PUSH DEMAND
for environmentally friendly
products
PULL ON
THE MARKET
PUSH
to improve resource
efficiency and hence
profitability
GP enhances Quality of Life
GP METHODOLOGY
Overview and Methodological Framework of GP Methodology
Guiding Principles of GP
GP Methodology
GP TechniquesGP Tools
Introduction to GP Methodology
The Vicious Cycle of Bad Quality
Introduction to GP Methodology
The Conversion Process
Need to look at the process carefully to understand the improvements
KAIZEN Vs. Innovation
Introduction to GP Methodology
Continuous Improvement Through PDCA
Introduction to GP Methodology
Commitment and Involvement of Top Management
The top management plays a critical role in the success of the GP Programme
•Identify Team Leader
•Review objectives and Targets
•Review and approve the implementation plan
•Identify barriers for implementation and means to
overcome
•Incorporate appropriate changes in management system
for continuous improvement
 Attitudinal barriers
 Information related
barriers
 Technical
 Financial barriers
Barriers
Barriers to Commitment of Top Management
• Awareness programs
• Visits to Industries that have
successfully implemented GP
Means of achieving commitment of
Top Management
Getting StartedGetting Started
PlanningPlanningPlanning
Generation and
Evaluation
of GP Options
Generation and
Evaluation of
GP Options
Generation and
Evaluation of
GP Options
Sustaining GPSustaining GP
Monitoring and
Review
Monitoring and
Review
Implementation
of GP Options
Implementation of
GP Options
Implementation of
GP Options
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Overview of GP Methodology
Cp gp day04 session 14 - concept and assessment methodology of gp and comparison2012
Team Formation
•Team Should be dynamic and involving in
nature
•Member should be drawn as per need analysis
• Can be a core team and sub-teams in large
organizations
•Core team to supervise the overall GP program
and sub team to assist core team on specific tasks.
•A dynamic, open minded and versatile person
should be a Team Leader
For a Large Organization For an SME
Sub
Team 1
Sub
Team 2
Sub
Team 4
External
Consultant
External
Consultant
Top
Management
Core
Team
Overlap of the circles indicate the extent of common interaction
Dept. 1 Dept 2 Dept 4 Note: In the case of SMEs Top
Management will have more
participation in the Core Team
Note: In large organizations, finance, administration
section, utilities and stores are also depts.
Core
Team
Top
Management
A Sample GP Team for an SME
Cp gp day04 session 14 - concept and assessment methodology of gp and comparison2012
Hides
receiving
and Storage
Pickling /
Tanning
Liming /
Deliming
Soaking
and
Unhairing
Finishing
Product
Storage and
Inspection
Lime Storage
1
2
3
4
5
6
material
Administrative
block
Laboratories,
Utilities
Pollution
ControlFacility
Illustration of Walk-through for a Tannery
Walk-through Survey
Information Collection
Walk-Through
Review Existing Documents
One-to-one meetings
Organized Information
easy to access, update and use
Carry out Updates
Information Collection
Review Existing Documents
One-to-One Meetings to aid
Information Collection
Collection Of Field Data
Estimating Water Consumption
Install Water Meter
• Cost / investment
• Needed time period to order,
procure, install and test
• Could get damaged during use
Using Available Information
• Amount of fabric processed in a batch
• Number of batches in a day
• Ratio of fabric to water (Material Liquor
Ratio)
• Wastewater measured by bucket and
timer
• Moisture in fabric was accounted for
using calculations based on weight of
fabric before and after dyeing processConclusion:
Same purpose achieved in lesser amount of time, easily and
without any major investments
Assigning Cost to Waste Streams:
A Way to Set Objectives and Targets
Cost components typically associated in waste streams are:
• Cost of raw materials in the waste
• Cost of product in the waste
• Cost of treatment of waste to comply with regulatory
requirements
• Cost of waste transportation
• Cost of waste disposal
$
Identification of Problems and Causes
 Process
 Water
 Chemicals
 Energy
 Labor
 Costs
 Waste Generation
 Production
 Capacity Utilization
 Product Quality
 Market demand
Problems could be with the
And, causes could be
so many...!!
How to identify?
WHERE DO WE STAND ?
Identification of Problems
MC Panel
Buffing /
Polishing
Raw
Material
Storage
solutions,
metal
Plating Section
Finished product
storage
Proposed ETP
Bad Practice
Bad
Practice
Office
Water
Solid waste
Energy
Solid waste
frombuffing
spills over to
material
storage
Practice
Area of material and solid waste
spillage. Chokes the drains leading
to ETP
Drain lines
to ETP
Eco-maps to identify problem areas
Problem 1
Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 3
Cause 1
Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3
Problem 1
Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4
?
?
?
Why?
How?
Common
Causes?
Common
Problems?
Problem 5
Identification of Causes
Prioritizing Problems to set
Objectives and Targets
Setting Objectives and Targets
Objectives and Targets should
be SMART:
 Specific,
 Measurable,
 Attainable,
 Relevant and
 Trackable
Generation of GP Options
Review existing GP options
Generate new GP options
Generation of GP Options
Review existing GP options
Generate new GP options
Collect Option
specific Information
Collect Option
specific Information
Screening of GP
Options
Screening of GP
Options
Evaluation of GP
Options
Evaluation of GP
Options
Hierarchy of Tasks in Generation and
Evaluation of GP Options
Reviewing options
already implemented or
thought of in the past.
Reviewing options
already implemented or
thought of in the past.
Generating
New GP
Options
Generating
New GP
Options
Ways of Generation of GP Options
XX

Reviewing GP Options
Generation of New GP Options
GP
Options
Brainstorming
Ishikawa diagram
GP Techniques
GP Tools
To Evaluation
Section
• Economical
• Technically
sound
• High returns
SCREENSCREEN
• High Cost
• High Risk
• Complicated
Technology
GP Options
Screening of GP Options
Technical Feasibility
Short term / Long term
Cost / Returns
Risk
Quantity
Scale of implementation
Cumulative Impacts
Evaluation of Options
GP Options
New Equipment
New Material / chemical
Change of Supplier
Modification in existing process
Change in operating practices
Suppliers, Installation space,
Cost (capital, operating),
personpower requirement
Suppliers, Installation space,
Cost (capital, operating),
personpower requirement
Suppliers, Quantity, Cost, effects
on other processes, safety sheets,
transport
Suppliers, Quantity, Cost, effects
on other processes, safety sheets,
transport
New Suppliers, reliability, costs,
effect on market, other clients of
the new supplier
New Suppliers, reliability, costs,
effect on market, other clients of
the new supplier
Installation, fabrication,
commissioning requirements,
costs
Installation, fabrication,
commissioning requirements,
costs
Effects of new practice, changes
due to new practice, time
scheduling
Effects of new practice, changes
due to new practice, time
scheduling
Option Specific Information required
Collection of Option Specific Information
GUIDELINE OF IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
•STATING OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS
•NATURE OF OPTIONS/REUSE, PROCESS CHANGE ETC.
•ACTION NEEDED FOR IMPLEMENTATION
•RESPONSIBLE PERSON OR DEPARTMENT
•TIMING AND WAY OF IMPLEMENTATION
Implementation of Selected Options
• Trial and small scale implementation
• Regular meetings and trouble shooting sessions
• Follow-up and Accountability
• Allocate resources and schedule the pilot implementation
• Management support needed
• Review and refinement of options
Training, Awareness Building and Developing Competence
 Assessing training needs
 Selecting suitable programs, methods and material
 Preparing a training plan (5W1H))
 Implementing training programs
 Tracking and recording training programs
 Evaluating training effectiveness
 Improving training program as needed
Ways of Training and Development
• Off-the-Job Training (Seminars & Lectures)
• On-the-Job Training
• Video presentations and Posters
• Operation Manuals and work instructions
• Field Visits
Monitoring and Evaluation of Results
• Parameters affecting the end results
• Performance indicators for the end result
• Appraise the performance of the option
against the targets
$$
Effectivity of GP
Financial Viability
G P
Management Review
Corrective Actions
Internal
External
Update GP documents
Incorporate Changes into Organization’s
system of management
Identification of New / Additional Problem
Areas for Continuous Improvement
Discussion
Comparison between CP and GP

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Cp gp day04 session 14 - concept and assessment methodology of gp and comparison2012

  • 1. Concept and Assessment Methodology of GP and comparison with CP
  • 2. Acknowledgement • Most of the information presented here is obtained from the Asian Productivity Organisation (APO) http://www.apo-tokyo.org/gp/52training_man.htm
  • 3. Green Productivity • Green Productivity (GP) is a strategy for enhancing a business’s productivity and environmental performance at the same time, for overall socio-economic development. • It is the application of appropriate techniques, technologies, and management systems to produce environmentally compatible goods and services. • Launched in 1994 in line with the 1992 Earth Summit recommendations that both economic development and environmental protection would be key strategies for sustainable development. • APO introduced GP as a practical way to answer the challenge of sustainable development.
  • 5. What is productivity?What is productivity? bb As an integrated conceptAs an integrated concept Output x SatisfactionOutput x Satisfaction PRODUCTIVITY =PRODUCTIVITY = Input x SacrificesInput x Sacrifices •• as objectiveas objective Social conceptSocial concept •• as a meansas a means Technical conceptTechnical concept Productivity is, above all, an attitude of mind. It seeks to continually improve what already exists. It is based on the belief that one can do things better today than yesterday and better tomorrow than today.
  • 6. Multi-Factor Productivity MULTI - FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY AND GP Raw materials productivity = Output (value or unit or value added) Raw material used Labour productivity = Output number of employees (number of hours worked) Variables for quantification of GP that can be factored in are: water, energy, materials (chemicals, auxiliaries, packaging etc.), technology, capital. Productivity = Output/Input = Value of goods or services/Cost of resources consumed.
  • 7. GP ensures profitability and enhances Quality of Life Ensures profitability Enhances Quality of Life Reduces environmental impact
  • 8.  Traditional focus of productivity was ensuring cost effectiveness through cost reduction.  The quality drive and customer satisfaction was the next focus  Programs to improve productivity by influencing the internal organization of an industry emerged. The most popular have been Kaizen, TQM, TPM etc. Productivity The next step required integration of "Environment" into these productivity improvement programs. Quality Cost Environment Productivity Practices
  • 9. TRIPLE FOCUS OF GP Environment (Sustainable Development) Quality (Voice of Customer ) Profitability (Factor Inputs)
  • 10. GP Environmental Compliance Environmental Compliance  Pollution Prevention  Source reduction  End-of-pipe controls  Pollution Prevention  Source reduction  End-of-pipe controls Integrated people based approach Integrated people based approach  production-environment integration  team work  safe and healthy working conditions.  production-environment integration  team work  safe and healthy working conditions. Information driven improvement Information driven improvement measurement reporting disclosure measurement reporting disclosure Productivity improvement Productivity improvement Continuous improvement cycle Continuous improvement cycle Distinguishing characteristics of GP
  • 11. Conventional Versus GP Practices RAW MATERIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS PRODUCT WASTES GASEOUS LIQUID SOLID TREATMENT &/DISPOSAL RAW MATERIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS PRODUCT REMAINDER LESS WASTES GASEOUS LIQUID SOLID TREATMENT &/DISPOSAL RECYCLE/ REUSE BY- PRODUCT CONVENTIONAL PRACTICES GP PRACTICES
  • 12. GREEN PRODUCTIVITY MULTI SECTOR COVERAGE GREEN PRODUCTIVITY SMEs form the backbone of the production-consumption process. They play a crucial role in the sustainability of development Industry (Large Enterprises) Services CommunityAgriculture SMEs SMEs SMEs SMEsSMEsSMEs
  • 13. GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF GP  Accountability  Polluter Pays  Precautionary Approach  Profitability  Competitive Advantage  People-Building
  • 14. ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES GUIDING GP •ACCOUNTABILITY •POLLUTER PAYS •PRECAUTIONARY APPROACH
  • 15. PRODUCTIVITY PRINCIPLES GUIDING GP •Profitability  Competitive Advantage  People-Building
  • 16. Green Productivity EXTERNAL FORCES Green Productivity External Forces Internal Forces Regulations Customer requirement Consumer Demand Market Opportunities Market Image Evolving global and industrial standards Resource Pricing and Availability DRIVING FORCES OF GREEN PRODUCTIVITY
  • 17. Driving Forces of Green Productivity INTERNAL FORCES Internal Efficiency Worker Health and Safety
  • 19. GPGP SOCIETY SOCIETY Quality of Life Quality of Life BUSINESS BUSINESS To supply goods and services produced in a sustainable manner Products PUSH DEMAND for environmentally friendly products PULL ON THE MARKET PUSH to improve resource efficiency and hence profitability GP enhances Quality of Life
  • 21. Overview and Methodological Framework of GP Methodology Guiding Principles of GP GP Methodology GP TechniquesGP Tools
  • 22. Introduction to GP Methodology The Vicious Cycle of Bad Quality
  • 23. Introduction to GP Methodology The Conversion Process Need to look at the process carefully to understand the improvements
  • 25. Continuous Improvement Through PDCA Introduction to GP Methodology
  • 26. Commitment and Involvement of Top Management The top management plays a critical role in the success of the GP Programme •Identify Team Leader •Review objectives and Targets •Review and approve the implementation plan •Identify barriers for implementation and means to overcome •Incorporate appropriate changes in management system for continuous improvement
  • 27.  Attitudinal barriers  Information related barriers  Technical  Financial barriers Barriers Barriers to Commitment of Top Management
  • 28. • Awareness programs • Visits to Industries that have successfully implemented GP Means of achieving commitment of Top Management
  • 29. Getting StartedGetting Started PlanningPlanningPlanning Generation and Evaluation of GP Options Generation and Evaluation of GP Options Generation and Evaluation of GP Options Sustaining GPSustaining GP Monitoring and Review Monitoring and Review Implementation of GP Options Implementation of GP Options Implementation of GP Options I II III IV V VI Overview of GP Methodology
  • 31. Team Formation •Team Should be dynamic and involving in nature •Member should be drawn as per need analysis • Can be a core team and sub-teams in large organizations •Core team to supervise the overall GP program and sub team to assist core team on specific tasks. •A dynamic, open minded and versatile person should be a Team Leader
  • 32. For a Large Organization For an SME Sub Team 1 Sub Team 2 Sub Team 4 External Consultant External Consultant Top Management Core Team Overlap of the circles indicate the extent of common interaction Dept. 1 Dept 2 Dept 4 Note: In the case of SMEs Top Management will have more participation in the Core Team Note: In large organizations, finance, administration section, utilities and stores are also depts. Core Team Top Management A Sample GP Team for an SME
  • 34. Hides receiving and Storage Pickling / Tanning Liming / Deliming Soaking and Unhairing Finishing Product Storage and Inspection Lime Storage 1 2 3 4 5 6 material Administrative block Laboratories, Utilities Pollution ControlFacility Illustration of Walk-through for a Tannery Walk-through Survey
  • 35. Information Collection Walk-Through Review Existing Documents One-to-one meetings Organized Information easy to access, update and use Carry out Updates Information Collection
  • 37. One-to-One Meetings to aid Information Collection
  • 38. Collection Of Field Data Estimating Water Consumption Install Water Meter • Cost / investment • Needed time period to order, procure, install and test • Could get damaged during use Using Available Information • Amount of fabric processed in a batch • Number of batches in a day • Ratio of fabric to water (Material Liquor Ratio) • Wastewater measured by bucket and timer • Moisture in fabric was accounted for using calculations based on weight of fabric before and after dyeing processConclusion: Same purpose achieved in lesser amount of time, easily and without any major investments
  • 39. Assigning Cost to Waste Streams: A Way to Set Objectives and Targets Cost components typically associated in waste streams are: • Cost of raw materials in the waste • Cost of product in the waste • Cost of treatment of waste to comply with regulatory requirements • Cost of waste transportation • Cost of waste disposal $
  • 40. Identification of Problems and Causes  Process  Water  Chemicals  Energy  Labor  Costs  Waste Generation  Production  Capacity Utilization  Product Quality  Market demand Problems could be with the And, causes could be so many...!! How to identify? WHERE DO WE STAND ?
  • 42. MC Panel Buffing / Polishing Raw Material Storage solutions, metal Plating Section Finished product storage Proposed ETP Bad Practice Bad Practice Office Water Solid waste Energy Solid waste frombuffing spills over to material storage Practice Area of material and solid waste spillage. Chokes the drains leading to ETP Drain lines to ETP Eco-maps to identify problem areas
  • 43. Problem 1 Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 3 Cause 1 Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 ? ? ? Why? How? Common Causes? Common Problems? Problem 5 Identification of Causes
  • 44. Prioritizing Problems to set Objectives and Targets
  • 45. Setting Objectives and Targets Objectives and Targets should be SMART:  Specific,  Measurable,  Attainable,  Relevant and  Trackable
  • 46. Generation of GP Options Review existing GP options Generate new GP options Generation of GP Options Review existing GP options Generate new GP options Collect Option specific Information Collect Option specific Information Screening of GP Options Screening of GP Options Evaluation of GP Options Evaluation of GP Options Hierarchy of Tasks in Generation and Evaluation of GP Options
  • 47. Reviewing options already implemented or thought of in the past. Reviewing options already implemented or thought of in the past. Generating New GP Options Generating New GP Options Ways of Generation of GP Options XX  Reviewing GP Options
  • 48. Generation of New GP Options GP Options Brainstorming Ishikawa diagram GP Techniques GP Tools
  • 49. To Evaluation Section • Economical • Technically sound • High returns SCREENSCREEN • High Cost • High Risk • Complicated Technology GP Options Screening of GP Options
  • 50. Technical Feasibility Short term / Long term Cost / Returns Risk Quantity Scale of implementation Cumulative Impacts Evaluation of Options
  • 51. GP Options New Equipment New Material / chemical Change of Supplier Modification in existing process Change in operating practices Suppliers, Installation space, Cost (capital, operating), personpower requirement Suppliers, Installation space, Cost (capital, operating), personpower requirement Suppliers, Quantity, Cost, effects on other processes, safety sheets, transport Suppliers, Quantity, Cost, effects on other processes, safety sheets, transport New Suppliers, reliability, costs, effect on market, other clients of the new supplier New Suppliers, reliability, costs, effect on market, other clients of the new supplier Installation, fabrication, commissioning requirements, costs Installation, fabrication, commissioning requirements, costs Effects of new practice, changes due to new practice, time scheduling Effects of new practice, changes due to new practice, time scheduling Option Specific Information required Collection of Option Specific Information
  • 52. GUIDELINE OF IMPLEMENTATION PLAN •STATING OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS •NATURE OF OPTIONS/REUSE, PROCESS CHANGE ETC. •ACTION NEEDED FOR IMPLEMENTATION •RESPONSIBLE PERSON OR DEPARTMENT •TIMING AND WAY OF IMPLEMENTATION
  • 53. Implementation of Selected Options • Trial and small scale implementation • Regular meetings and trouble shooting sessions • Follow-up and Accountability • Allocate resources and schedule the pilot implementation • Management support needed • Review and refinement of options
  • 54. Training, Awareness Building and Developing Competence  Assessing training needs  Selecting suitable programs, methods and material  Preparing a training plan (5W1H))  Implementing training programs  Tracking and recording training programs  Evaluating training effectiveness  Improving training program as needed
  • 55. Ways of Training and Development • Off-the-Job Training (Seminars & Lectures) • On-the-Job Training • Video presentations and Posters • Operation Manuals and work instructions • Field Visits
  • 56. Monitoring and Evaluation of Results • Parameters affecting the end results • Performance indicators for the end result • Appraise the performance of the option against the targets
  • 57. $$ Effectivity of GP Financial Viability G P Management Review
  • 58. Corrective Actions Internal External Update GP documents Incorporate Changes into Organization’s system of management
  • 59. Identification of New / Additional Problem Areas for Continuous Improvement