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Covid-19
Coronavirus disease 2019, or Covid-19, is one contagious disease and
the cause of which is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
(SARS-Cov-2). The first case which was known and identified was done
in the year 2019 in December. It’s worldwide spread since then has led
to this ongoing pandemic. Though the symptoms of coronavirus are
variable, but mostly they are inclusive of loss of taste and smell,
breathing difficulties, fatigue, headache, cough, and fever. Noticeable
symptoms do not occur in at least one third of people. Those people
who are symptomatic are classed as between mild and moderate (81%),
severe-with more than fifty percent lung involvement found on imaging
(14%), and critical symptoms like multi-organ dysfunction, shock, and
respiratory failure (5%). Several methods for testing have been
developed including RT-PCR and for which https://go.csagroup.org/ is
one leading player in the market. There are even some other testing
methods in the market.
Origin of the Word
During the initial days of this outbreak which
originated in Wuhan, the references to the disease
and the virus were ‘’Wuhan coronavirus’’ and
‘’coronavirus’’ respectively. Sometimes this disease is
even called ‘’Wuhan pneumonia.’’ History has
witnessed many geographical locations being used for
naming diseases like Spanish Flu, Zika Virus, and
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. These two official
names, SARS-CoV-2 have been issued in February
2020 by the World Health Organization.
History
Those reports of this virus which were the earliest came in quite in the latter part of the 1920s
decade. A respiratory infection, quite an acute one amongst domesticated chickens, was reported by
North America. This respiratory infection amongst chickens occurred in North Dakota. In new-born
chicks, the characterization of the infection was done by listlessness and gasping with mortality rate as
high as forty to ninety percent. The discovery of coronavirus in human beings was done somewhere in
the decade of 1960s. The methods used for this were two different ones, one was used in United
Kingdom and the other in the United States. The standard techniques of cultivation, which had been
done on adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, and some other known viruses which were common cold ones.
The successful cultivation of this novel virus by researchers was done by it’s serial passing through the
organ culture of the trachea of human embryo. This new method of cultivation was introduced in the
laboratory. The intranasal inoculation of the of this isolated virus was done into them and which was
not only a cause of cold but which was even inactivated indicating the presence of one lipid envelope.
The comparison of the structures of 229E, BB14, and IBV was done by a Scottish virologist in the year
1967. the use of electron microscopy revealed that their distinctive spikes which were club-like and
their general shape related these three viruses morphologically. The research group of the National
Institute of Health isolated another member from this new virus group making the use of organ
culture and one of these samples was named OC43 (OC i.e. organ culture). Like IBV, 229E, and BB14,
this novel virus, OC43 was distinguishable due to its club-like spikes under the electron microscopic
observation. The establishment of the morphological relation of the cold viruses, which were IBV-like
novel ones, was done to the virus of mouse hepatitis. Coronavirus was the name given to this new
virus group due to their distinctive appearance morphologically. Human coronaviruses OC43 and 229E
were studied on a continuous basis in the subsequent decades. The BB14 strain of coronavirus was
lost. Many other human and animal coronaviruses have been identified within the last few decades.
Microbiology: Structure
Coronaviruses are roughly spherical and large projections which have
unique surfaces. Their size highly varies but the average diameters
remains between eighty to one hundred and twenty millimeters. The
diameter of their extreme sizes is fifty to two hundred millimeters.
Several protein molecules are embedded in the envelope it is enclosed
in. the neucleocapsid, membrane biproteins, and nucleocapsid are
protective of the virus when it is not inside it’s host cell. One lipid bilayer
is used for making that viral bilayer in the spike, envelope, and
membrane are anchored. That feature which are the most distinguishing
ones of coronaviruses are spikes. These are responsible for its surface
which is halo- or corona-like. As far as the infection is concerned,
MuscleBlaze https://www.muscleblaze.com/ and JustHer
https://justher.in/ are some of the s1 protein brands available in India.
Microbiology: Genome
Single-stranded positive-sense genomes are the contents of
coronaviruses. For coronaviruses, the genome size ranges
from twenty-six point four to thirty-one point seven kilobases.
Both those frames which are open reading ones, 1b and 1a,
are in occupation of the genome’s first two-thirds and encode
pp1ab which is even known as replicase polyprotein. There
are four major proteins which are structural ones:
nucleocapsid, membrane, envelope, and spike. The accessory
proteins’ reading frames are interspersed between these four
reading frames. The total accessory proteins and how they
function depends on specific coronaviruses and is unique.
Microbiology: Replication Cycle: Cell Entry,
Genome Translation, Replicase-transcriptase,
and Assembly and Release
Cell Entry: The attachment of the spike protein which is viral to the receptor of the host cell which is complementary to the
spike protein which is viral is what starts the infection. The cleaving of the host cell’s protease is what follows the attachment
and then the spike protein, which is receptor-attached, gets activated. Depending on the availability of the protease of the
host cell, activation and cleavage give allowance to the virus for entering that host cell through the viral envelope’s direct
fusion or endocytosis with lipid bilayer or host membrane.
Genome Translation: Upon it’s entry inside the larger organism cell, the particle of the virus becomes uncoated and the virus
particle’s genome makes it’s entry into the cell’s cytoplasm. The RNA genome of coronavirus has one five inches long
methylated cap and one polyadenylated tail of three inches, which gives it allowance for acting like one RNA messenger and
so that the ribosomes of the host cell directly translate it. The initial frames which are overlapping besides being open
reading ones, ORF1a, and even ORF1b, and which are the virus genome’s, into both these polyproteins which are large
besides being overlapping, pp1ab and pp1a.
Replicase-transcriptase: the formation of the replicase-transcriptase complex, which is a multi-protein one, involves the
coalescence of several nonstructural proteins. The main protein of replicase-transcriptase is RdRp or RNA-dependent RNA-
polymerase. It’s direct involvement in RNA’s transcription and replication of the RNA from one strand of RNA has been
established. Replication: The primary function of the complex is the replication of the genome which is viral. Transcription:
The complex transcribes the viral genome and then follows the direct mediation of the negative-sense molecules, which are
subgenomic RNA ones, to the corresponding mRNAs which are positive sense ones.
Assembly and Release: The replicated RNA which is the positive-sense genomic one becomes the progeny viruses’ genome.
The gene transcripts from the third and last of the virus’s genome are the mRNAs following the overlapping initially of the
reading frame. The translation of these mRNAs by the ribosomes of the host is done into not only those proteins which are
structural ones but even many accessory ones. The occurring of the RNA translation takes place in the endoplastic
reticulums. The three structural proteins which are viral, M, E, and S, move along and into the pathway, which is a secretory
one, of the intermediate one of Golgi.
Microbiology: Replication
Cycle: Transmission
Viruses are shed into this environment by infected carriers. As far as the determination
of the species range, infectivity, and tissue tropism is concerned, the interaction of the
cell receptor which is complementary with the spike protein of the coronavirus plays
quite an important role. The main target of coronaviruses are epithelial cells. Their
transmission from one host to a different one, depending upon the species of
coronavirus, takes place either through a fecal-oral route, fomite, or aerosol. Epithilial
cells in one’s respiratory tract get infected by human coronaviruses, while in the case
of animals, the digestive tract’s epithelial cells get infected generally. SARS
coronavirus, as an example, can cause infection in the epithelial cells which are in the
lungs of humans. This could occur through the aerosol route when it is bound to the
receptor of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 or ACE2. TGEV or the transmissible
coronavirus of the gastroenteritis causes infection in the digestive tract’s epithelial
cells through the fecal-oral route when it is bound with the receptor of alanine
aminopeptidase or APN.
Classification
The subfamily of Orthocoronavirinae form coronaviruses and it is one of the two subfamilies
from the family of Coronavindae, realm Riboviria and order Nidovirales. The four genera they
may be divided into are: Deltacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, and
Alphacoronavirus.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQzEJVHlNks
Genus: Alphacoronavirus: Species: Scotophilus Bat Coronavirus 512, Rhinophus bat Coronavirus
HKU2, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, Miniopterus bay coronavirus HKUB, Miniopterus bat
coronavirus 1, Human coronavirus NL63, Human coronavirus 229E, (Canine Coronavirus, Feline
Coronavirus, TGEV), Alphacoronavirus 1
Genus: Betacoronavirus: Species: Betacoronavirus 1 (Bovine Coronavirus, Human Coronavirus
OC43), Hedgehog Coronavirus 1, Human Coronavirus HKU1, Middle-east respiratory syndrome-
related coronavirus, Murine coronavirus, Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5, Rousettus bat
coronavirus HKU9, Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-
2), Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4
Genus: Gammacoronavirus: Species: Avian coronavirus, Beluga whale coronavirus SW1
Genus: Deltacoronavirus Species: Bulbul coronavirus HKU11, Porcine coronavirus HKU15
Origin
According to estimates, the MCRA or Most Common Recent Ancestor of all the
coronaviruses, existed not earlier than 8000 BCE. Although the placement of this
common ancestor has been placed by some models as far as fifty-five million or even
more years which implies coevolution, long-term one, with avian and bat species. The
origin of quite a few human coronaviruses has been traced to bats. Bovine
coronaviruses of the subgenus Embecovirus and species Betacoronavirus 1, unlike
other beta ones, is believed to have it’s origins not in bats but in rodents. The
emergence of MERS-CoV in human beings from bats was intermediated through camel
hosts. Although MERS-CoV is related to several species of bat coronavirus as
mentioned earlier, it’s divergence from these many centuries back has appeared. In
the decade of the 1950s, the divergence of OC43, the human coronavirus, into those
genotypes which were present ones, began. Phylogenetically, murine coronavirus or
the virus of mouse hepatitis, which causes infection in the nervous system, the central
one, of mice besides their liver, is related to bovine coronavirus and the human
coronavirus OC43. HKU1, the human coronavirus, originates from rodents too like the
viruses mentioned above.
Infection in Humans
The risk factor of coronaviruses varies significantly. Some may prove to be fatal for thirty percent infected
people, like MERS-CoV, while others like common cold, are relatively not so harmful. Colds with symptoms
which are major ones like sore throat due to swollen adenoids. Pneumonia can be caused by coronaviruses
(pneumonia which is either secondary bacterial or direct viral) and bronchitis (either secondary bacterial or
direct viral). The discovery of coronavirus in humans took place in 2003. The cause of the Severe Acute
Respiratory Syndrome, SARS-CoV, was discovered in the year 2003. It’s pathogenesis is unique since it is the
cause of infections in both the lower and upper respiratory tracts. The known species of coronaviruses are
six, with the subdivision of one species into two strains which are different ones, the total number of strains
of human coronaviruses stands at seven.
Four coronaviruses, in humans, produce generally mild symptoms, even though the contention is that they
may have been more aggressive previously.
1. Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), B-Cov
2. Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), B-CoV
3. Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a-CoV
4. Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), aCoV
Three coronaviruses, human ones, produce symptoms which are potentially severe:
1. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), B-CoV (identified in 2003)
2. Middle East respiratory syndrome related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), B-CoV (identified in 2012)
3. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B-CoV (identified in 2019)
Infection in Humans:
Common Cold
Although rhinoviruses are the usual cause of common colds,
in about fifteen percent cases, it is caused by coronavirus.
Human coronaviruses which are inclusive of HCoV-NL63,
HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-OC43, are in continuous
circulation amongst the population of humans in both
children and adults all over the world and they produce
symptoms of common cold which are mild generally. The four
coronaviruses, mild ones, are incidental seasonally and occur
during the months of winter and in climates which are
temperate. There is absence of any preponderance with
regard to seasons of tropical climates.
Infection in Humans: Severe
Acute Respiratory Syndrome
(SARS)
In the year 2003 and after a year of the outbreak of
SARS in Asia, and some secondary cases in other parts
of the world, a press release was issued by the World
Health Organization (WHO) which stated that the
agent which caused SARS was one novel coronavirus
the identification of which was done by many
laboratories. SARS Coronavirus is the official name
given to it.
Infection in Humans: Middle
East Respiratory Syndrome
(MERS)
The identification of one new variant of coronavirus was done in September of 2012.
Novel Coronavirus 2012 was the name given to it initially, but it is now known as
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The World Health
Organization’s global alert was issued soon after. The WHO’s September 2012 update
remained unable to pass with ease from one person to another one. However in mid-
2013, a human-to-human transmission case was confirmed in France by it’s Social
Affairs and Health Ministry. In addition, human-to-human transmission cases were
reported through the Tunisian Health Ministry. Two cases which were reported
involved people who inherited this disease from their deceased father, who contracted
it after visiting Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Despite this, it was apparent that the virus
remained contained amongst humans, since all infected people are not transmitters of
the virus. In mid-2015, the Korean Republicans became victims of this pandemic due
to a person visiting four different hospitals in Seoul for treating his illness. Due to this,
one of the largest MERS-CoV outbreaks occurred outside of the Middle Eastern region.
Infection in Humans:
Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19)
and Coronavirus HuPn-2018
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19): In the last month of 2019, the
Chinese city of Wuhan reported an outbreak of pneumonia. Though it’s
interim name was 2019n-nCov, the International Committee on
Taxonomy of Viruses later renamed it SARS-CoV-2. The statistics as of
July 2021 shows forty-one lakh thirty-six thousand eight hundred and
twenty-three deaths and nineteen crore twenty-six lakhs twenty-three
thousand three hundred and twenty-eight confirmed cases of covid. The
new Betacoronavirus strain of Wuhan is a new one belonging to group
2B and it’s genetic similarity with SARS-CoV. Is seventy percent. The
suspicion that this virus may have originated from bats stems from it’s
ninety-six percent similarity to the bat coronavirus.
Coronavirus HuPn-2018: When the archived samples of patients of viral
pneumonia was identified in Malaysia during one surveillance study, a
canine coronavirus strain was identified by virologists which infected
human beings in the year 2018.
Infection in Animals
In the 1930s itself it was recognized that pathological
conditions are caused by coronaviruses with regard to
veterinary medicine. The range of animals they infect
include bats, birds, rodents, dogs, cats, camels,
horses, cattle, and swine. Most of the coronaviruses
which are related to animals cause an intestinal tract
infection and the transmission of which takes place
through the fecal-oral route. Significant efforts of
research are focused on how to elucidate the
pathogenesis which is viral of coronaviruses in
animals, especially by those virologists who are
involved in the study of zoonotic and veterinary
diseases.
Infection in Animals: Farm
Animals
Domesticated birds get infected from coronaviruses. Infectious Bronchitis Virus or IBV,
a coronavirus variant, causes avian bronchitis which is infectious. This virus has raised
concerns amongst the poultry industry due to it’s highly infectious nature causing high
mortality besides spreading rapidly and affecting production. It’s effect on production
of both egg and meat is substantial besides economic loss. In chickens, their
respiratory tract is not the only target of infectious bronchitis but even their urogenital
tract. The virus is likely to spread into any internal organ of the chicken’s body. The
turkey coronavirus is another strain of avian coronavirus causing enteritis amongst
turkeys. The other branches of animal husbandry like cattle raising and pig farming
also gets affected by coronavirus. Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus is
related with the bat coronavirus HKU2 causing diarrhea amongst pigs. The Porcine
Epidemic Diarrhea Virus or PDEV, a type of coronavirus, has emerged quite recently
and can cause diarrhea amongst pigs. The Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus or TGEV,
a member of the Alphacoronavirus species, is another cause of the illness in pigs. In
the industry of cattle, bovine coronavirus or BCV a Betacoronavirus species member
which is even related with the HCoV-OC43, causes profuse and severe enteritis
amongst young calves.
Infection in Animals:
Domestic Pets
Domestic pets like ferrets, dogs, and cats get infected by coronavirus
too. The two variations of feline coronavirus belong to the
Alphacoronavirus 1 species. The enteric coronavirus in cats is one
pathogen with minor significance clinically, but when this virus mutates
spontaneously, it may result in high mortality due to the disease of
Feline Infectious Peritonitis or FIP, a disease which has high mortality
rates. The types of coronaviruses which can infect dogs are two in
number. The Canine Respiratory Coronavirus or CRCoV belongs to the
Betacoronavirus 1 species and is related with HCoV-OC43. it causes the
respiratory disease. Similarly the coronavirus types which infects ferrets
are mainly two ones: the ferret enteric one which causes the
gastrointestinal syndrome Epizodic Catarrhal Enteritis and the Ferret
Systemic Coronavirus.
Infection in Animals:
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory animals are likely to get infected by the coronavirus. The Mouse Hepatitis
Virus or MHV belongs to the Murine coronavirus species. It causes the murine illness
which is an epidemic having high mortality rates, particularly amongst laboratory mice
colonies. Before SARS-CoV was discovered, the Mouse Hepatitis Coronavirus remained
the most deeply studied one not only in vitro and in vivo but even from the molecular
perspective. There are a few strains of the Mouse Hepatitis Coronavirus which cause
the demyelinating encephalitis, a progressive disease in the nervous system of mice,
and the use of which has been done as one murine model with regard to multiple
sclerosis. The Sialodacryoadenitis virus or SDAV, a Murine coronavirus strain, is highly
infectious amongst laboratory rats, and the transmission of which through direct
contact and even indirectly through aerosol is possible. The enteric coronavirus
amongst rabbits causes acute diarrhea and gastrointestinal disease amongst young
rabbits in Europe with high mortality rates.
Treatment and Prevention
Many vaccines use different methods against SARS-CoV,
which is the human coronavirus and the development of
which has already been done. The antiviral targets are against
the human coronaviruses and their identification has been
done in the form of entry proteins, polymerases, and viral
proteases. Drugs are being developed for not only targeting
these proteins but even the different stages as far as viral
replication is concerned. Coronavirus in animals, like the
Canine CoV, TGEV, and IBV can be prevented through
vaccinations although the level of their effectiveness remains
limited. During highly contagious animal coronavirus
outbreaks like PEDV, measures like culling may be adopted for
the prevention of transmission amongst herds.
For research-based Powerpoint or Word
presentations on any topic, please
call/SMS/whatsapp on 9653254172 or email at
saifalisanjli@gmail.com
Saif Ali Sajid Amir

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Covid 19

  • 1. Covid-19 Coronavirus disease 2019, or Covid-19, is one contagious disease and the cause of which is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). The first case which was known and identified was done in the year 2019 in December. It’s worldwide spread since then has led to this ongoing pandemic. Though the symptoms of coronavirus are variable, but mostly they are inclusive of loss of taste and smell, breathing difficulties, fatigue, headache, cough, and fever. Noticeable symptoms do not occur in at least one third of people. Those people who are symptomatic are classed as between mild and moderate (81%), severe-with more than fifty percent lung involvement found on imaging (14%), and critical symptoms like multi-organ dysfunction, shock, and respiratory failure (5%). Several methods for testing have been developed including RT-PCR and for which https://go.csagroup.org/ is one leading player in the market. There are even some other testing methods in the market.
  • 2. Origin of the Word During the initial days of this outbreak which originated in Wuhan, the references to the disease and the virus were ‘’Wuhan coronavirus’’ and ‘’coronavirus’’ respectively. Sometimes this disease is even called ‘’Wuhan pneumonia.’’ History has witnessed many geographical locations being used for naming diseases like Spanish Flu, Zika Virus, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. These two official names, SARS-CoV-2 have been issued in February 2020 by the World Health Organization.
  • 3. History Those reports of this virus which were the earliest came in quite in the latter part of the 1920s decade. A respiratory infection, quite an acute one amongst domesticated chickens, was reported by North America. This respiratory infection amongst chickens occurred in North Dakota. In new-born chicks, the characterization of the infection was done by listlessness and gasping with mortality rate as high as forty to ninety percent. The discovery of coronavirus in human beings was done somewhere in the decade of 1960s. The methods used for this were two different ones, one was used in United Kingdom and the other in the United States. The standard techniques of cultivation, which had been done on adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, and some other known viruses which were common cold ones. The successful cultivation of this novel virus by researchers was done by it’s serial passing through the organ culture of the trachea of human embryo. This new method of cultivation was introduced in the laboratory. The intranasal inoculation of the of this isolated virus was done into them and which was not only a cause of cold but which was even inactivated indicating the presence of one lipid envelope. The comparison of the structures of 229E, BB14, and IBV was done by a Scottish virologist in the year 1967. the use of electron microscopy revealed that their distinctive spikes which were club-like and their general shape related these three viruses morphologically. The research group of the National Institute of Health isolated another member from this new virus group making the use of organ culture and one of these samples was named OC43 (OC i.e. organ culture). Like IBV, 229E, and BB14, this novel virus, OC43 was distinguishable due to its club-like spikes under the electron microscopic observation. The establishment of the morphological relation of the cold viruses, which were IBV-like novel ones, was done to the virus of mouse hepatitis. Coronavirus was the name given to this new virus group due to their distinctive appearance morphologically. Human coronaviruses OC43 and 229E were studied on a continuous basis in the subsequent decades. The BB14 strain of coronavirus was lost. Many other human and animal coronaviruses have been identified within the last few decades.
  • 4. Microbiology: Structure Coronaviruses are roughly spherical and large projections which have unique surfaces. Their size highly varies but the average diameters remains between eighty to one hundred and twenty millimeters. The diameter of their extreme sizes is fifty to two hundred millimeters. Several protein molecules are embedded in the envelope it is enclosed in. the neucleocapsid, membrane biproteins, and nucleocapsid are protective of the virus when it is not inside it’s host cell. One lipid bilayer is used for making that viral bilayer in the spike, envelope, and membrane are anchored. That feature which are the most distinguishing ones of coronaviruses are spikes. These are responsible for its surface which is halo- or corona-like. As far as the infection is concerned, MuscleBlaze https://www.muscleblaze.com/ and JustHer https://justher.in/ are some of the s1 protein brands available in India.
  • 5. Microbiology: Genome Single-stranded positive-sense genomes are the contents of coronaviruses. For coronaviruses, the genome size ranges from twenty-six point four to thirty-one point seven kilobases. Both those frames which are open reading ones, 1b and 1a, are in occupation of the genome’s first two-thirds and encode pp1ab which is even known as replicase polyprotein. There are four major proteins which are structural ones: nucleocapsid, membrane, envelope, and spike. The accessory proteins’ reading frames are interspersed between these four reading frames. The total accessory proteins and how they function depends on specific coronaviruses and is unique.
  • 6. Microbiology: Replication Cycle: Cell Entry, Genome Translation, Replicase-transcriptase, and Assembly and Release Cell Entry: The attachment of the spike protein which is viral to the receptor of the host cell which is complementary to the spike protein which is viral is what starts the infection. The cleaving of the host cell’s protease is what follows the attachment and then the spike protein, which is receptor-attached, gets activated. Depending on the availability of the protease of the host cell, activation and cleavage give allowance to the virus for entering that host cell through the viral envelope’s direct fusion or endocytosis with lipid bilayer or host membrane. Genome Translation: Upon it’s entry inside the larger organism cell, the particle of the virus becomes uncoated and the virus particle’s genome makes it’s entry into the cell’s cytoplasm. The RNA genome of coronavirus has one five inches long methylated cap and one polyadenylated tail of three inches, which gives it allowance for acting like one RNA messenger and so that the ribosomes of the host cell directly translate it. The initial frames which are overlapping besides being open reading ones, ORF1a, and even ORF1b, and which are the virus genome’s, into both these polyproteins which are large besides being overlapping, pp1ab and pp1a. Replicase-transcriptase: the formation of the replicase-transcriptase complex, which is a multi-protein one, involves the coalescence of several nonstructural proteins. The main protein of replicase-transcriptase is RdRp or RNA-dependent RNA- polymerase. It’s direct involvement in RNA’s transcription and replication of the RNA from one strand of RNA has been established. Replication: The primary function of the complex is the replication of the genome which is viral. Transcription: The complex transcribes the viral genome and then follows the direct mediation of the negative-sense molecules, which are subgenomic RNA ones, to the corresponding mRNAs which are positive sense ones. Assembly and Release: The replicated RNA which is the positive-sense genomic one becomes the progeny viruses’ genome. The gene transcripts from the third and last of the virus’s genome are the mRNAs following the overlapping initially of the reading frame. The translation of these mRNAs by the ribosomes of the host is done into not only those proteins which are structural ones but even many accessory ones. The occurring of the RNA translation takes place in the endoplastic reticulums. The three structural proteins which are viral, M, E, and S, move along and into the pathway, which is a secretory one, of the intermediate one of Golgi.
  • 7. Microbiology: Replication Cycle: Transmission Viruses are shed into this environment by infected carriers. As far as the determination of the species range, infectivity, and tissue tropism is concerned, the interaction of the cell receptor which is complementary with the spike protein of the coronavirus plays quite an important role. The main target of coronaviruses are epithelial cells. Their transmission from one host to a different one, depending upon the species of coronavirus, takes place either through a fecal-oral route, fomite, or aerosol. Epithilial cells in one’s respiratory tract get infected by human coronaviruses, while in the case of animals, the digestive tract’s epithelial cells get infected generally. SARS coronavirus, as an example, can cause infection in the epithelial cells which are in the lungs of humans. This could occur through the aerosol route when it is bound to the receptor of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 or ACE2. TGEV or the transmissible coronavirus of the gastroenteritis causes infection in the digestive tract’s epithelial cells through the fecal-oral route when it is bound with the receptor of alanine aminopeptidase or APN.
  • 8. Classification The subfamily of Orthocoronavirinae form coronaviruses and it is one of the two subfamilies from the family of Coronavindae, realm Riboviria and order Nidovirales. The four genera they may be divided into are: Deltacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, and Alphacoronavirus. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQzEJVHlNks Genus: Alphacoronavirus: Species: Scotophilus Bat Coronavirus 512, Rhinophus bat Coronavirus HKU2, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, Miniopterus bay coronavirus HKUB, Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1, Human coronavirus NL63, Human coronavirus 229E, (Canine Coronavirus, Feline Coronavirus, TGEV), Alphacoronavirus 1 Genus: Betacoronavirus: Species: Betacoronavirus 1 (Bovine Coronavirus, Human Coronavirus OC43), Hedgehog Coronavirus 1, Human Coronavirus HKU1, Middle-east respiratory syndrome- related coronavirus, Murine coronavirus, Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5, Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9, Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV- 2), Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4 Genus: Gammacoronavirus: Species: Avian coronavirus, Beluga whale coronavirus SW1 Genus: Deltacoronavirus Species: Bulbul coronavirus HKU11, Porcine coronavirus HKU15
  • 9. Origin According to estimates, the MCRA or Most Common Recent Ancestor of all the coronaviruses, existed not earlier than 8000 BCE. Although the placement of this common ancestor has been placed by some models as far as fifty-five million or even more years which implies coevolution, long-term one, with avian and bat species. The origin of quite a few human coronaviruses has been traced to bats. Bovine coronaviruses of the subgenus Embecovirus and species Betacoronavirus 1, unlike other beta ones, is believed to have it’s origins not in bats but in rodents. The emergence of MERS-CoV in human beings from bats was intermediated through camel hosts. Although MERS-CoV is related to several species of bat coronavirus as mentioned earlier, it’s divergence from these many centuries back has appeared. In the decade of the 1950s, the divergence of OC43, the human coronavirus, into those genotypes which were present ones, began. Phylogenetically, murine coronavirus or the virus of mouse hepatitis, which causes infection in the nervous system, the central one, of mice besides their liver, is related to bovine coronavirus and the human coronavirus OC43. HKU1, the human coronavirus, originates from rodents too like the viruses mentioned above.
  • 10. Infection in Humans The risk factor of coronaviruses varies significantly. Some may prove to be fatal for thirty percent infected people, like MERS-CoV, while others like common cold, are relatively not so harmful. Colds with symptoms which are major ones like sore throat due to swollen adenoids. Pneumonia can be caused by coronaviruses (pneumonia which is either secondary bacterial or direct viral) and bronchitis (either secondary bacterial or direct viral). The discovery of coronavirus in humans took place in 2003. The cause of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS-CoV, was discovered in the year 2003. It’s pathogenesis is unique since it is the cause of infections in both the lower and upper respiratory tracts. The known species of coronaviruses are six, with the subdivision of one species into two strains which are different ones, the total number of strains of human coronaviruses stands at seven. Four coronaviruses, in humans, produce generally mild symptoms, even though the contention is that they may have been more aggressive previously. 1. Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), B-Cov 2. Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), B-CoV 3. Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a-CoV 4. Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), aCoV Three coronaviruses, human ones, produce symptoms which are potentially severe: 1. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), B-CoV (identified in 2003) 2. Middle East respiratory syndrome related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), B-CoV (identified in 2012) 3. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B-CoV (identified in 2019)
  • 11. Infection in Humans: Common Cold Although rhinoviruses are the usual cause of common colds, in about fifteen percent cases, it is caused by coronavirus. Human coronaviruses which are inclusive of HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-OC43, are in continuous circulation amongst the population of humans in both children and adults all over the world and they produce symptoms of common cold which are mild generally. The four coronaviruses, mild ones, are incidental seasonally and occur during the months of winter and in climates which are temperate. There is absence of any preponderance with regard to seasons of tropical climates.
  • 12. Infection in Humans: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) In the year 2003 and after a year of the outbreak of SARS in Asia, and some secondary cases in other parts of the world, a press release was issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) which stated that the agent which caused SARS was one novel coronavirus the identification of which was done by many laboratories. SARS Coronavirus is the official name given to it.
  • 13. Infection in Humans: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) The identification of one new variant of coronavirus was done in September of 2012. Novel Coronavirus 2012 was the name given to it initially, but it is now known as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The World Health Organization’s global alert was issued soon after. The WHO’s September 2012 update remained unable to pass with ease from one person to another one. However in mid- 2013, a human-to-human transmission case was confirmed in France by it’s Social Affairs and Health Ministry. In addition, human-to-human transmission cases were reported through the Tunisian Health Ministry. Two cases which were reported involved people who inherited this disease from their deceased father, who contracted it after visiting Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Despite this, it was apparent that the virus remained contained amongst humans, since all infected people are not transmitters of the virus. In mid-2015, the Korean Republicans became victims of this pandemic due to a person visiting four different hospitals in Seoul for treating his illness. Due to this, one of the largest MERS-CoV outbreaks occurred outside of the Middle Eastern region.
  • 14. Infection in Humans: Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) and Coronavirus HuPn-2018 Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19): In the last month of 2019, the Chinese city of Wuhan reported an outbreak of pneumonia. Though it’s interim name was 2019n-nCov, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses later renamed it SARS-CoV-2. The statistics as of July 2021 shows forty-one lakh thirty-six thousand eight hundred and twenty-three deaths and nineteen crore twenty-six lakhs twenty-three thousand three hundred and twenty-eight confirmed cases of covid. The new Betacoronavirus strain of Wuhan is a new one belonging to group 2B and it’s genetic similarity with SARS-CoV. Is seventy percent. The suspicion that this virus may have originated from bats stems from it’s ninety-six percent similarity to the bat coronavirus. Coronavirus HuPn-2018: When the archived samples of patients of viral pneumonia was identified in Malaysia during one surveillance study, a canine coronavirus strain was identified by virologists which infected human beings in the year 2018.
  • 15. Infection in Animals In the 1930s itself it was recognized that pathological conditions are caused by coronaviruses with regard to veterinary medicine. The range of animals they infect include bats, birds, rodents, dogs, cats, camels, horses, cattle, and swine. Most of the coronaviruses which are related to animals cause an intestinal tract infection and the transmission of which takes place through the fecal-oral route. Significant efforts of research are focused on how to elucidate the pathogenesis which is viral of coronaviruses in animals, especially by those virologists who are involved in the study of zoonotic and veterinary diseases.
  • 16. Infection in Animals: Farm Animals Domesticated birds get infected from coronaviruses. Infectious Bronchitis Virus or IBV, a coronavirus variant, causes avian bronchitis which is infectious. This virus has raised concerns amongst the poultry industry due to it’s highly infectious nature causing high mortality besides spreading rapidly and affecting production. It’s effect on production of both egg and meat is substantial besides economic loss. In chickens, their respiratory tract is not the only target of infectious bronchitis but even their urogenital tract. The virus is likely to spread into any internal organ of the chicken’s body. The turkey coronavirus is another strain of avian coronavirus causing enteritis amongst turkeys. The other branches of animal husbandry like cattle raising and pig farming also gets affected by coronavirus. Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus is related with the bat coronavirus HKU2 causing diarrhea amongst pigs. The Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus or PDEV, a type of coronavirus, has emerged quite recently and can cause diarrhea amongst pigs. The Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus or TGEV, a member of the Alphacoronavirus species, is another cause of the illness in pigs. In the industry of cattle, bovine coronavirus or BCV a Betacoronavirus species member which is even related with the HCoV-OC43, causes profuse and severe enteritis amongst young calves.
  • 17. Infection in Animals: Domestic Pets Domestic pets like ferrets, dogs, and cats get infected by coronavirus too. The two variations of feline coronavirus belong to the Alphacoronavirus 1 species. The enteric coronavirus in cats is one pathogen with minor significance clinically, but when this virus mutates spontaneously, it may result in high mortality due to the disease of Feline Infectious Peritonitis or FIP, a disease which has high mortality rates. The types of coronaviruses which can infect dogs are two in number. The Canine Respiratory Coronavirus or CRCoV belongs to the Betacoronavirus 1 species and is related with HCoV-OC43. it causes the respiratory disease. Similarly the coronavirus types which infects ferrets are mainly two ones: the ferret enteric one which causes the gastrointestinal syndrome Epizodic Catarrhal Enteritis and the Ferret Systemic Coronavirus.
  • 18. Infection in Animals: Laboratory Animals Laboratory animals are likely to get infected by the coronavirus. The Mouse Hepatitis Virus or MHV belongs to the Murine coronavirus species. It causes the murine illness which is an epidemic having high mortality rates, particularly amongst laboratory mice colonies. Before SARS-CoV was discovered, the Mouse Hepatitis Coronavirus remained the most deeply studied one not only in vitro and in vivo but even from the molecular perspective. There are a few strains of the Mouse Hepatitis Coronavirus which cause the demyelinating encephalitis, a progressive disease in the nervous system of mice, and the use of which has been done as one murine model with regard to multiple sclerosis. The Sialodacryoadenitis virus or SDAV, a Murine coronavirus strain, is highly infectious amongst laboratory rats, and the transmission of which through direct contact and even indirectly through aerosol is possible. The enteric coronavirus amongst rabbits causes acute diarrhea and gastrointestinal disease amongst young rabbits in Europe with high mortality rates.
  • 19. Treatment and Prevention Many vaccines use different methods against SARS-CoV, which is the human coronavirus and the development of which has already been done. The antiviral targets are against the human coronaviruses and their identification has been done in the form of entry proteins, polymerases, and viral proteases. Drugs are being developed for not only targeting these proteins but even the different stages as far as viral replication is concerned. Coronavirus in animals, like the Canine CoV, TGEV, and IBV can be prevented through vaccinations although the level of their effectiveness remains limited. During highly contagious animal coronavirus outbreaks like PEDV, measures like culling may be adopted for the prevention of transmission amongst herds.
  • 20. For research-based Powerpoint or Word presentations on any topic, please call/SMS/whatsapp on 9653254172 or email at saifalisanjli@gmail.com Saif Ali Sajid Amir