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Copyright and Fair Use
BEST PRACTICES for TEACHERS & STUDENTS

                Spiro Bolos
           New Trier High School
          boloss@newtrier.k12.il.us
“We’re changing what it would mean to
be a creator just at the time that
technology is enabling anybody to be a
creator. So, just when it matters most,
the law steps in and destroys the
opportunity...”

                  — Prof. Lawrence Lessig
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    ?
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COORDINATORS
• The Media Education Lab
  (Renee Hobbs, Temple University)

• The Program on Information
  Justice and Intellectual Property
  (Peter Jaszi, Washington College of Law:
  American University)

• The Center for Social Media
  (Patricia Aufderheide, School of
  Communication: American University)
SIGNATORIES
• Action Coalition for Media Education
• Media Education Foundation
• National Association for Media
  Literacy Education

• National Council of Teachers of English
• Visual Communication Studies
  Division of the International
  Communication Association
LEGAL
ADVISORY BOARD
• Jamie B. Bischoff
• Robert W. Clarida
• Kenneth D. Crews
• Michael J. Madison
• Jennifer Urban
FUNDED BY:
The MacArthur and Ford Foundations
What is copyright?
“To promote the Progress of Science
  and useful Arts, by securing for limited
  Times to Authors and Inventors the
  exclusive Right to their respective
  Writings and Discoveries” (section 8).
What is fair use?
“Fair use is the right to use copyrighted
  material without permission or
  payment under some circumstances
  — especially when the cultural or
  social benefits of the use are
  predominant” (1; emphasis added).
“In fact, as the Supreme Court has pointed
  out, fair use keeps copyright from
  violating the First Amendment” (5).
The Four Factors

1. The Nature of the Use
2. The Nature of the Work Used
3. The Extent of the Use
4. Its Economic Impact (6)
Professor Eric Faden, Bucknell University




“A Fair(y) Use Tale”
“...a flexibility that works to the
   advantage of users” (6).
COMMON MYTHS
“Fair use is too unclear
and complicated for me;
it’s better left to lawyers
   and administrators.”
“Educators know best what they
need to use of existing copyrighted
culture to construct their own lessons
and materials....Once they know, they can
tell their lawyers and administrators”

                    (15; emphasis added).
“Educators can rely on
    ‘rules of thumb’
for fair use guidance.”
“The guidelines are negotiated resolutions
of conflicts regarding fair use, and yet they
are often presented as standards to which
one must adhere in order to remain within
the law.”

                                   — Kenneth Crews
  “The Law of Fair Use and the Illusion of Fair-Use Guidelines”
“...in fact the guidelines bear little
relationship, if any, to the law
of fair use” (emphasis added).
these guidelines were "not intended to limit the
types of copying permitted under the standards
of fair use under judicial decision and which are
stated in Section 107 of the Copyright Revision
Bill. There may be instances in which copying
which does not fall within the guidelines stated
[above] may nonetheless be permitted under the
criterion of fair use."
“Rather than following a specific
  formula, lawyers and judges
  decide whether an unlicensed use of
  copyrighted material is ‘fair’ according
  to the ‘rule of reason’” (6; emphasis
  added).
“School system rules are
the last word of fair use
     by educators.”
“[I]f you need to exercise your fair use
rights to get your work done well, in
ways your system’s rules don’t
foresee...the code may help you change
the rules!” (15)
“Fair use is just for critiques,
commentaries or parodies.”
“Transformativeness, a key value
in fair use law, can involve modifying
material or putting material in a new
context, or both” (15; emphasis added).
“If I’m not making
 any money off it,
    it’s fair use.”
“...some more public uses may be
unfair even if no money is
exchanged” (16; emphasis added).
“Employing fair use is too much trouble;
  I don’t want to fill out any forms.”
...
“But, if you choose, you may...still claim
fair use if your request is refused or
ignored. In some cases, courts have
found that asking permission and then
being rejected has actually enhanced
fair use claims” (16).
“Fair use could get me sued.”
1. “That’s very, very unlikely” (17)
2. “Cease and Desist” letter
Case Studies




 Seeking       Repurposing    Angry Email
Permission    Google Images    Response
   4:49            5:49           5:04
Best Practices
1. The use of the copyrighted work is
   transformative.
2. The kind and the amount of the copyrighted
   work used is appropriate to accomplish
   the legitimate purpose.
3. The author of the copyrighted work is
   cited, whenever possible.
All forms of media
print
images
web sites
moving-image media
sound media

   WNYC’s
analog
digital
newspaper clippings
        =
    digital files
However...
“When a user’s copy was
obtained illegally or in bad
 faith, that fact may affect
    fair use analysis.” (9)
SOURCE = irrelevant
Recorded
over-the-air
 broadcast
Personal copy
of newspaper
Personal DVD
Rented media
Borrowed media
Labels = irrelevant
eg., “licensed for home [or private or
educational or noncommercial] use only”
Thanks.
www.mediaeducationlab.com
www.centerforsocialmedia.org
       spirobolos.blogspot.com
• Copyright Criminals: http://
  www.copyrightcriminals.com

• “Copyright and Fair Use Guidelines for
  Teachers”: http://www.halldavidson.net/
  chartshort.html

• Creative Commons Logos: http://
  www.creativecommons.se/images/
  highquality.jpg
• Supreme Court: http://www.flickr.com/
  photos/vgm8383/2044910536/

• U.S. Constitution: http://www.archives.gov/
  exhibits/charters/charters_downloads.html

• Courtroom Gavel: http://www.flickr.com/
  photos/63126465@N00/117048243

• Flexibility: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
  khalid-almasoud/474399662/
• Robin Williams: http://images.starpulse.com/
  Photos/Previews/Dead-Poets-Society-04.jpg

• Edward James Olmos: http://
  pantskicker.com/wp-content/uploads/
  2008/01/0standanddeliverbwcrop.jpg

• Michelle Pfeiffer: http://
  images.allmoviephoto.com/
  1995_Dangerous_Minds/
  1995_Dangerous_Minds_036.jpg
• The Wire: http://www.hbo.com/thewire/img/
  episodeguide/season04/ep38_04.jpg

• Hilary Swank: http://
  www.independentcritics.com/images/
  freedom%20writers%20SPLASH.jpg

• Kevin Kline: http://videodetective.com/
  photos/633/026626_27.jpg
• Jack Black: http://fraser.typepad.com/
  a_girl_a_gun/images/
  School_of_Rock_01.jpg

• Kindergarten Cop: http://
  i153.photobucket.com/albums/s229/
  longjohnjohn05/arnold1.jpg

• Crews, Kenneth: “The Law of Fair Use and
  the Illusion of Fair-Use Guidelines,” The
  Ohio State Law Journal 62 (2001): 602–700
• Parthenon Detail Replica: http://
  www.flickr.com/photos/brent_nashville/
  2455550267/

• “in y’own mix”: ∫pirøbølo∫, Copyright
  Criminals Contest. http://ccmixter.org/
  copyrightcriminals/people/spirobolos

• “The Next Step”: Trifonic, Copyright
  Criminals Contest. http://ccmixter.org/files/
  trifonic/4163
• Time Magazine (Obama cover): http://
  www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/
  3142216126/sizes/l/

• Reel-to-reel: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
  dmitry/531285082/

• “HITECH” photo: http://www.flickr.com/
  photos/tsevis/2282944393/in/
  set-72157608680934688
• “Klutz Clippings”: http://www.flickr.com/
  photos/tantrum_dan/2344581860/

• “VHS’sss”: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
  33917831@N00/1018612301/

• Newspaper article: http://www.flickr.com/
  photos/44789431@N00/52308403/

• DVDs: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
  23327787@N08/2348565675/
• Blockbuster Video: http://www.flickr.com/
  photos/40736030@N00/51415142/

• Yo-Yo Ma: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
  21651009@N00/2606693331/

• Apollo 13 DVD: http://www.flickr.com/
  photos/clith/153418933/

• Pirate: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
  83135223@N00/285200741/

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Copyright And Fair Use

  • 1. Copyright and Fair Use BEST PRACTICES for TEACHERS & STUDENTS Spiro Bolos New Trier High School boloss@newtrier.k12.il.us
  • 2. “We’re changing what it would mean to be a creator just at the time that technology is enabling anybody to be a creator. So, just when it matters most, the law steps in and destroys the opportunity...” — Prof. Lawrence Lessig
  • 3. ? ?
  • 4. !"#$%%&'()*'*#+'(,' -,.&/"0)(' -,#123",#')$3' $//"4*+ !2#+*+'5&'()*'6,)#'78'9'':$()*/"#*';8'<$-=/()2/'!,2#+$(",#
  • 6. • The Media Education Lab (Renee Hobbs, Temple University) • The Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property (Peter Jaszi, Washington College of Law: American University) • The Center for Social Media (Patricia Aufderheide, School of Communication: American University)
  • 8. • Action Coalition for Media Education • Media Education Foundation • National Association for Media Literacy Education • National Council of Teachers of English • Visual Communication Studies Division of the International Communication Association
  • 10. • Jamie B. Bischoff • Robert W. Clarida • Kenneth D. Crews • Michael J. Madison • Jennifer Urban
  • 11. FUNDED BY: The MacArthur and Ford Foundations
  • 13. “To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries” (section 8).
  • 14. What is fair use?
  • 15. “Fair use is the right to use copyrighted material without permission or payment under some circumstances — especially when the cultural or social benefits of the use are predominant” (1; emphasis added).
  • 16. “In fact, as the Supreme Court has pointed out, fair use keeps copyright from violating the First Amendment” (5).
  • 17. The Four Factors 1. The Nature of the Use 2. The Nature of the Work Used 3. The Extent of the Use 4. Its Economic Impact (6)
  • 18. Professor Eric Faden, Bucknell University “A Fair(y) Use Tale”
  • 19. “...a flexibility that works to the advantage of users” (6).
  • 21. “Fair use is too unclear and complicated for me; it’s better left to lawyers and administrators.”
  • 22. “Educators know best what they need to use of existing copyrighted culture to construct their own lessons and materials....Once they know, they can tell their lawyers and administrators” (15; emphasis added).
  • 23. “Educators can rely on ‘rules of thumb’ for fair use guidance.”
  • 24. “The guidelines are negotiated resolutions of conflicts regarding fair use, and yet they are often presented as standards to which one must adhere in order to remain within the law.” — Kenneth Crews “The Law of Fair Use and the Illusion of Fair-Use Guidelines”
  • 25. “...in fact the guidelines bear little relationship, if any, to the law of fair use” (emphasis added).
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30. these guidelines were "not intended to limit the types of copying permitted under the standards of fair use under judicial decision and which are stated in Section 107 of the Copyright Revision Bill. There may be instances in which copying which does not fall within the guidelines stated [above] may nonetheless be permitted under the criterion of fair use."
  • 31. “Rather than following a specific formula, lawyers and judges decide whether an unlicensed use of copyrighted material is ‘fair’ according to the ‘rule of reason’” (6; emphasis added).
  • 32. “School system rules are the last word of fair use by educators.”
  • 33. “[I]f you need to exercise your fair use rights to get your work done well, in ways your system’s rules don’t foresee...the code may help you change the rules!” (15)
  • 34. “Fair use is just for critiques, commentaries or parodies.”
  • 35. “Transformativeness, a key value in fair use law, can involve modifying material or putting material in a new context, or both” (15; emphasis added).
  • 36. “If I’m not making any money off it, it’s fair use.”
  • 37. “...some more public uses may be unfair even if no money is exchanged” (16; emphasis added).
  • 38. “Employing fair use is too much trouble; I don’t want to fill out any forms.”
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42.
  • 43. ...
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50.
  • 51.
  • 52. “But, if you choose, you may...still claim fair use if your request is refused or ignored. In some cases, courts have found that asking permission and then being rejected has actually enhanced fair use claims” (16).
  • 53. “Fair use could get me sued.”
  • 54. 1. “That’s very, very unlikely” (17) 2. “Cease and Desist” letter
  • 55. Case Studies Seeking Repurposing Angry Email Permission Google Images Response 4:49 5:49 5:04
  • 56. Best Practices 1. The use of the copyrighted work is transformative. 2. The kind and the amount of the copyrighted work used is appropriate to accomplish the legitimate purpose. 3. The author of the copyrighted work is cited, whenever possible.
  • 57. All forms of media
  • 58. print
  • 62. sound media WNYC’s
  • 65. newspaper clippings = digital files
  • 67. “When a user’s copy was obtained illegally or in bad faith, that fact may affect fair use analysis.” (9)
  • 75. eg., “licensed for home [or private or educational or noncommercial] use only”
  • 78. • Copyright Criminals: http:// www.copyrightcriminals.com • “Copyright and Fair Use Guidelines for Teachers”: http://www.halldavidson.net/ chartshort.html • Creative Commons Logos: http:// www.creativecommons.se/images/ highquality.jpg
  • 79. • Supreme Court: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/vgm8383/2044910536/ • U.S. Constitution: http://www.archives.gov/ exhibits/charters/charters_downloads.html • Courtroom Gavel: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/63126465@N00/117048243 • Flexibility: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ khalid-almasoud/474399662/
  • 80. • Robin Williams: http://images.starpulse.com/ Photos/Previews/Dead-Poets-Society-04.jpg • Edward James Olmos: http:// pantskicker.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2008/01/0standanddeliverbwcrop.jpg • Michelle Pfeiffer: http:// images.allmoviephoto.com/ 1995_Dangerous_Minds/ 1995_Dangerous_Minds_036.jpg
  • 81. • The Wire: http://www.hbo.com/thewire/img/ episodeguide/season04/ep38_04.jpg • Hilary Swank: http:// www.independentcritics.com/images/ freedom%20writers%20SPLASH.jpg • Kevin Kline: http://videodetective.com/ photos/633/026626_27.jpg
  • 82. • Jack Black: http://fraser.typepad.com/ a_girl_a_gun/images/ School_of_Rock_01.jpg • Kindergarten Cop: http:// i153.photobucket.com/albums/s229/ longjohnjohn05/arnold1.jpg • Crews, Kenneth: “The Law of Fair Use and the Illusion of Fair-Use Guidelines,” The Ohio State Law Journal 62 (2001): 602–700
  • 83. • Parthenon Detail Replica: http:// www.flickr.com/photos/brent_nashville/ 2455550267/ • “in y’own mix”: ∫pirøbølo∫, Copyright Criminals Contest. http://ccmixter.org/ copyrightcriminals/people/spirobolos • “The Next Step”: Trifonic, Copyright Criminals Contest. http://ccmixter.org/files/ trifonic/4163
  • 84. • Time Magazine (Obama cover): http:// www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/ 3142216126/sizes/l/ • Reel-to-reel: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ dmitry/531285082/ • “HITECH” photo: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/tsevis/2282944393/in/ set-72157608680934688
  • 85. • “Klutz Clippings”: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/tantrum_dan/2344581860/ • “VHS’sss”: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ 33917831@N00/1018612301/ • Newspaper article: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/44789431@N00/52308403/ • DVDs: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ 23327787@N08/2348565675/
  • 86. • Blockbuster Video: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/40736030@N00/51415142/ • Yo-Yo Ma: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ 21651009@N00/2606693331/ • Apollo 13 DVD: http://www.flickr.com/ photos/clith/153418933/ • Pirate: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ 83135223@N00/285200741/