SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Conversational User
Interfaces: Past and Future
Crispin Reedy @crispinTX
2017 goals
1. Provide more UX resources
to UX professionals.
2. Improve brand consistency.
3. Improve “International”
UXPA.
User Experience Professionals
Association (UXPA)
Monthly webinars
User Experience Magazine
The Journal of Usability Studies
Visit www.uxpa.org for more info
about the conference, webinars, and
other UX resources!
Annual Conference in
Toronto, Canada
June 5 – 8, 2017
uxpa2017.org
Conversational User
Interfaces: Past and Future
Crispin Reedy @crispinTX
4© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
• Voice User Interface Designer
• 15+ years in the field
• Former coder; got interested in UX
• President of the Association for Voice
Interaction Design
• Consultant for Versay Solutions
@crispinTX
crispinreedy.com
CUI: Past and Future
• How can chatbots learn from existing VUI
design? What makes these new interfaces
different, and how are they similar? Where
do the Alexas and Siris come into the mix?
We’ll discuss text-based vs. voice-based
conversational user interfaces, and the
landscape of Conversational User
Interfaces, now and into the future.
5© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
Disclaimers
• What, exactly, is a Conversational User
Interface?
– For this discussion we are going broad and
wide.
• Conversation:
– Interactive communication between two or
more people
• Spoken vs. written (chatbots)
• Turntaking vs. one shot
6© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
Flash-forward to 2017….
17© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
“I’m really excited about chat and natural
language because there’s no user interface
you have to deal with.”
- Chatbot writer on support board
“Just this week, Facebook said it was “refocusing” its use of AI
after its bots hit a failure rate of 70 percent,
meaning bots could only get to 30 percent of requests without
some sort of human intervention.”
“I would call it overpromising,” said CP+B executive creative tech director Joe Corr.
“Brands that created bots with a structured request or utility like Domino’s or in retail
were easy. But bots that tried to break out of the utility and be
chatbots became the problem.”
22© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
Chatbots
Voice
Systems
Taxonomy of CUIs
Input Modality
23© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
Chatbots
Voice
Systems
Taxonomy of CUIs
Input Modality
Domain Domain
•Personal Assistants
•Agents
•General Search
•Order Products
•Troubleshooting
•Manage Accounts
•Alexa
•Google Home
•Wildfire
•IVR
•Billing information
•Control-based
24© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
Voice
Systems
Taxonomy of CUIs
Domain
•Alexa
•Google Home
•Wildfire
•IVR
•Troubleshooting
•Manage Accounts
Technology
•What “thing” are you
talking to?
•What else are you
connected to?
(Network, data)
•What kind of speech
technology are you
using?
•What other input and
output modalities are
you coordinating
with?
What Are You Talking To?
25© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
Voice Conversation vs. Chat
Conversation
• Differences
– Written convention vs. spoken convention
– Speech recognition vs. textual understanding
• ASR vs. NLU
• DNN, Machine Learning
– Chatbot implies keyboard; voice interface
could be to almost anything
• This becomes really important:
– Discoverability
– Onboarding
– Coordinating voice with other modalities
Voice Conversation vs. Chat
Conversation
• Commonalities
– Logical structure of a conversation (flow)
– Error recovery
• If caller / user goes off topic
– Prompts elicit expected responses
• Sometimes!
– Conversational maxims
• English is still English! Well, sort of.
UX Still Applies!
• Typical Tools:
– Tasks
– Personas
– “Happy Path” High Level Conversations
(Script)
– Card sorts?
– Read Aloud
– Usability Testing
• Wizard of Oz
– A/B Testing
28© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
Commonalities
Voice Conversational Model: Beginning
NL Level 1:
Open Ended
Question
• Hi, how may I help you
today?
• I’m calling about a
problem with my phone.
• Sure, what kind of
problem are you
having?
• I don’t seem to have
any internet.
• I can help you with that.
Are you calling about
the Apple iPhone 6 that
you have on your plan?
• Yes
NL Level 2:
Identify Problem
Directed Dialog:
ID Phone
Implicit: ID Caller
Chat Conversational Model: Beginning
NL Level 1:
Open Ended
Question
• Hi, how may I help
you today?
• I have a prob w/
phone
• Sure, what kind of
problem?
• No internet connectin
• OK. Is that about the
Apple iPhone 6 you
have on your plan?
• Yep
NL Level 2:
Identify Problem
Directed Dialog:
ID Phone
Implicit: ID Caller
Voice Conversational Model:
Troubleshooting
• So, first let’s check
your settings. What
about Airplane
Mode… do you have
that turned off? If
you need help with
that, say “tell me
more.”
• Tell me more
• Sure. You can find
Airplane Mode under
“Settings.” (call
continues)
Step 1 + Fallback
Chat Conversational Model: Troubleshooting
• Let’s check settings.
Do you have
Airplane Mode
turned off?
• IDK
• OK to check
Airplane Mode, go
to “Settings.”
Step 1 + Fallback
Error Recovery - Voice
• If the recognizer doesn’t get something,
you may have to reprompt.
– How crucial is the information you needed to
collect in order to move the conversation
forward?
• Eg: Alexa doesn’t always reprompt
– Systems can be more directive if failure
continues
34© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
“What color is that light?”
It’s… <noise>
“Sorry, what color?”
“Sorry, what color?”
<silence>
“You can say ‘red’ or press 1, ‘green’ or press 2, …. (etc)
Error Recovery - Chatbot
• Chatbots do need it!
– Do you need to do a local recovery vs. a
global recovery?
– Specific point
– Total reset
35Source: Chatbot.fail
Prompts and Responses
• Prompts imply more than choices
– Would you like chocolate or vanilla?
• Yes
• Both
• Inputs are more like text boxes
36© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
37
Grice’s Maxims
Maxim Description
Quantity
Be as informative as is required, but not more
informative.
Quality
Do not make statements that you believe are false or for
which you lack evidence.
Relation Be relevant.
Manner
Avoid obscure expressions
Avoid ambiguity
Be brief
Be orderly
Paul Grice
• British philosopher of language
• “Logic and Conversation,” 1975
• The maxims describe the
“default” assumptions that
listeners make about how
people talk.
• When the assumptions are
broken:
– People look for underlying
implications
– People may assume that there
is a problem with the
conversation or speaker
Source: Amazon
Grice’s Maxims: Applied
• Be as informative as is required, but not
more informative.
– What is your user really wanting to do?
• Goals and tasks
– Am I telling the user too much during this
conversation?
• Unhelpful help.
• Overly chatty bots
Source: Taco Bell Bot (That’s Nerdalicious)
Grice’s Maxims: Applied
• Be relevant.
– Users want to do what they want, not what
you want them to do.
• Upselling
• Intrusive apps / bots
– Maintain state
43Source: chatbots.fail
Grice’s Maxims: Applied
• Avoid obscure expressions
– No jargon
• Avoid ambiguity
– Ex: “This” and “that”
• Be brief
• Be orderly
– Organize information cleanly – ensure that IA
(if applicable) is understandable and relevant.
Differences
46© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
Voice
Systems
Taxonomy of CUIs
Domain
•Alexa
•Google Home
•Wildfire
•IVR
•Troubleshooting
•Manage Accounts
Technology
•Are you doing speech
recognition?
•What kind?
•What “thing” are you
talking to?
•What else are you
connected to?
•Network
•Data
•What other input
modalities are you
coordinating with?
Possibilities
47© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
Write an app (skill) for
an agent such as
Cortana / Alexa / Jibo
Use cloud APIs to add
ASR to your app / device
/ page / gadget
Download an ASR engine
and use full-featured
capabilities for onboard
robust recognition
Build your own ASR /
DNN
Distributed: Today’s Speech Agents
• Siri
• Cortana
• Google Now
• Amazon Echo (Alexa)
48© 2016 Versay Solutions LLC
Alexa “Skills”
• “Alexa, ask Yelp to find me a restaurant.”
– Cortana has similar integration
• Register your skill with Amazon and
publish it
49© 2016 Versay Solutions LLC
Today’s Cloud-Based Speech APIs
• Distributed speech recognition
– Collection and compression of speech is on
the device
– The language models are typically on the
network
– Can be speaker-dependent
• Trains itself on your voice and on the acoustic
environments you are in most often
– Many companies are providing APIs to use
their speech recognition
50© 2016 Versay Solutions LLC
Speech API Example: Alexa Voice
Services
51© 2016 Versay Solutions LLC
Possible Approaches
Cloud-Based APIs
• Easy to get started
• Lightweight
• Not much
specialized
knowledge
• Limited
52© 2016 Versay Solutions LLC
Download / Embed / Roll
Your Own
• Customizable
• Can be device-specific
• More features
• Higher powered
• Will require specialized
knowledge
– Speech scientist
• Can use open source
Should I Speech-Enable X?
53© 2016 Versay Solutions LLC
Desktop App / Website
• Easy to get started with
API-based ASR
• But the use case may
not be as powerful
Tablet / Mobile
• Stronger use case
• But will the network be
available for APIs?
Industrial Device
• Great use case esp. with
multimodal
• But this is harder to do
and probably will be
custom
Gadget
• Decent use case
• APIs are tailored for this
• Will they do everything
you need?
• Will the extra modality
be a plus or just a “silly
add-on?”
• Different modalities?
Car
• Safety considerations
are high here
• Need better user
interfaces & more
robust
IVR
• Touchtone can still be
good for a lot of
applications
• Speech is good for
complex call routing and
input
Should I Speech-Enable X?
54
CUI: Past and Future
• How can chatbots learn from existing VUI
design? What makes these new interfaces
different, and how are they similar? Where
do the Alexas and Siris come into the mix?
We’ll discuss text-based vs. voice-based
conversational user interfaces, and the
landscape of Conversational User
Interfaces, now and into the future.
55© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
Iron Man 2: Marvel Studios, Paramount Pictures
Resources
• The Voice in the Machine: Building
Computers that Understand Speech –
Roberto Pieraccini
– YouTube video: “Open the Pod Bay Doors, Siri”
• Conversational design from Google:
– https://developers.google.com/actions/design/
• Alexa VUI design
– Alexa Skills Kit Voice Design Handbook”
• Association for Voice Interaction Design -
AVIxD.org
– Wiki, Brown Bags, Journal
– Looking for members and volunteers!
57© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
58© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
Thanks!
@crispinTX
crispinreedy.com
creedy@versay.com

More Related Content

Similar to Conversational User Interfaces, Past and Future

Voice Recognition and Natural Language - Dallas TechFest 2016
Voice Recognition and Natural Language - Dallas TechFest 2016Voice Recognition and Natural Language - Dallas TechFest 2016
Voice Recognition and Natural Language - Dallas TechFest 2016
Crispin Reedy
 
Getting Started with Voice UI
Getting Started with Voice UIGetting Started with Voice UI
Getting Started with Voice UI
Isidore Gotto
 
Getting ready for voice
Getting ready for voiceGetting ready for voice
Getting ready for voice
Maarten Dings
 
Ride the Wave of Conversational UX
Ride the Wave of Conversational UXRide the Wave of Conversational UX
Ride the Wave of Conversational UX
Solstice
 
TheTin x SXSW 2017
TheTin x SXSW 2017TheTin x SXSW 2017
TheTin x SXSW 2017
Tim Harper
 
Let's talk about voice
Let's talk about voiceLet's talk about voice
Let's talk about voice
Dotkumo
 
Global Azure2021 Verona.pptx
Global Azure2021 Verona.pptxGlobal Azure2021 Verona.pptx
Global Azure2021 Verona.pptx
Luis Beltran
 
How to Talk About Your Open Source Project So People Get It
How to Talk About Your Open Source Project So People Get ItHow to Talk About Your Open Source Project So People Get It
How to Talk About Your Open Source Project So People Get It
All Things Open
 
Discover the Benefits of Cloud Computing with Google Apps and Salesforce.com
Discover the Benefits of Cloud Computing with Google Apps and Salesforce.comDiscover the Benefits of Cloud Computing with Google Apps and Salesforce.com
Discover the Benefits of Cloud Computing with Google Apps and Salesforce.com
abcboston
 
Understanding Alexa Skills: How to Add Amazon’s Market-Leading Device Into Yo...
Understanding Alexa Skills: How to Add Amazon’s Market-Leading Device Into Yo...Understanding Alexa Skills: How to Add Amazon’s Market-Leading Device Into Yo...
Understanding Alexa Skills: How to Add Amazon’s Market-Leading Device Into Yo...
Click Consult (Part of Ceuta Group)
 
Best Of SEJ Summit: Duane Forrester on the Future of Voice Search
Best Of SEJ Summit: Duane Forrester on the Future of Voice SearchBest Of SEJ Summit: Duane Forrester on the Future of Voice Search
Best Of SEJ Summit: Duane Forrester on the Future of Voice Search
Search Engine Journal
 
The Times They Are a-Changin’: Domino Applications in the New World of HCL No...
The Times They Are a-Changin’: Domino Applications in the New World of HCL No...The Times They Are a-Changin’: Domino Applications in the New World of HCL No...
The Times They Are a-Changin’: Domino Applications in the New World of HCL No...
panagenda
 
Dominoapplikationen im Wandel der Zeit: Alles neu mit HCL Nomad Web
Dominoapplikationen im Wandel der Zeit: Alles neu mit HCL Nomad WebDominoapplikationen im Wandel der Zeit: Alles neu mit HCL Nomad Web
Dominoapplikationen im Wandel der Zeit: Alles neu mit HCL Nomad Web
panagenda
 
Back to School with 50 Tech Tips
Back to School with 50 Tech TipsBack to School with 50 Tech Tips
Voice Tech TO #1
Voice Tech TO #1Voice Tech TO #1
Voice Tech TO #1
Voice Tech Global
 
Conversational experience by Systango
Conversational experience by SystangoConversational experience by Systango
Conversational experience by Systango
Systango
 
UXPA2019 Not Your Average Chatbot: Using Cognitive Intercept to Improve Infor...
UXPA2019 Not Your Average Chatbot: Using Cognitive Intercept to Improve Infor...UXPA2019 Not Your Average Chatbot: Using Cognitive Intercept to Improve Infor...
UXPA2019 Not Your Average Chatbot: Using Cognitive Intercept to Improve Infor...
UXPA International
 
"Alexa, when does the keynote start?" - building VUIs for events
"Alexa, when does the keynote start?" - building VUIs for events"Alexa, when does the keynote start?" - building VUIs for events
"Alexa, when does the keynote start?" - building VUIs for events
Nelli Hergenröther
 
Conversational Interfaces & Brand Storytelling
Conversational Interfaces & Brand StorytellingConversational Interfaces & Brand Storytelling
Conversational Interfaces & Brand Storytelling
Trust Marketing
 
Prototyping Accessibility - WordCamp Europe 2018
Prototyping Accessibility - WordCamp Europe 2018Prototyping Accessibility - WordCamp Europe 2018
Prototyping Accessibility - WordCamp Europe 2018
Adrian Roselli
 

Similar to Conversational User Interfaces, Past and Future (20)

Voice Recognition and Natural Language - Dallas TechFest 2016
Voice Recognition and Natural Language - Dallas TechFest 2016Voice Recognition and Natural Language - Dallas TechFest 2016
Voice Recognition and Natural Language - Dallas TechFest 2016
 
Getting Started with Voice UI
Getting Started with Voice UIGetting Started with Voice UI
Getting Started with Voice UI
 
Getting ready for voice
Getting ready for voiceGetting ready for voice
Getting ready for voice
 
Ride the Wave of Conversational UX
Ride the Wave of Conversational UXRide the Wave of Conversational UX
Ride the Wave of Conversational UX
 
TheTin x SXSW 2017
TheTin x SXSW 2017TheTin x SXSW 2017
TheTin x SXSW 2017
 
Let's talk about voice
Let's talk about voiceLet's talk about voice
Let's talk about voice
 
Global Azure2021 Verona.pptx
Global Azure2021 Verona.pptxGlobal Azure2021 Verona.pptx
Global Azure2021 Verona.pptx
 
How to Talk About Your Open Source Project So People Get It
How to Talk About Your Open Source Project So People Get ItHow to Talk About Your Open Source Project So People Get It
How to Talk About Your Open Source Project So People Get It
 
Discover the Benefits of Cloud Computing with Google Apps and Salesforce.com
Discover the Benefits of Cloud Computing with Google Apps and Salesforce.comDiscover the Benefits of Cloud Computing with Google Apps and Salesforce.com
Discover the Benefits of Cloud Computing with Google Apps and Salesforce.com
 
Understanding Alexa Skills: How to Add Amazon’s Market-Leading Device Into Yo...
Understanding Alexa Skills: How to Add Amazon’s Market-Leading Device Into Yo...Understanding Alexa Skills: How to Add Amazon’s Market-Leading Device Into Yo...
Understanding Alexa Skills: How to Add Amazon’s Market-Leading Device Into Yo...
 
Best Of SEJ Summit: Duane Forrester on the Future of Voice Search
Best Of SEJ Summit: Duane Forrester on the Future of Voice SearchBest Of SEJ Summit: Duane Forrester on the Future of Voice Search
Best Of SEJ Summit: Duane Forrester on the Future of Voice Search
 
The Times They Are a-Changin’: Domino Applications in the New World of HCL No...
The Times They Are a-Changin’: Domino Applications in the New World of HCL No...The Times They Are a-Changin’: Domino Applications in the New World of HCL No...
The Times They Are a-Changin’: Domino Applications in the New World of HCL No...
 
Dominoapplikationen im Wandel der Zeit: Alles neu mit HCL Nomad Web
Dominoapplikationen im Wandel der Zeit: Alles neu mit HCL Nomad WebDominoapplikationen im Wandel der Zeit: Alles neu mit HCL Nomad Web
Dominoapplikationen im Wandel der Zeit: Alles neu mit HCL Nomad Web
 
Back to School with 50 Tech Tips
Back to School with 50 Tech TipsBack to School with 50 Tech Tips
Back to School with 50 Tech Tips
 
Voice Tech TO #1
Voice Tech TO #1Voice Tech TO #1
Voice Tech TO #1
 
Conversational experience by Systango
Conversational experience by SystangoConversational experience by Systango
Conversational experience by Systango
 
UXPA2019 Not Your Average Chatbot: Using Cognitive Intercept to Improve Infor...
UXPA2019 Not Your Average Chatbot: Using Cognitive Intercept to Improve Infor...UXPA2019 Not Your Average Chatbot: Using Cognitive Intercept to Improve Infor...
UXPA2019 Not Your Average Chatbot: Using Cognitive Intercept to Improve Infor...
 
"Alexa, when does the keynote start?" - building VUIs for events
"Alexa, when does the keynote start?" - building VUIs for events"Alexa, when does the keynote start?" - building VUIs for events
"Alexa, when does the keynote start?" - building VUIs for events
 
Conversational Interfaces & Brand Storytelling
Conversational Interfaces & Brand StorytellingConversational Interfaces & Brand Storytelling
Conversational Interfaces & Brand Storytelling
 
Prototyping Accessibility - WordCamp Europe 2018
Prototyping Accessibility - WordCamp Europe 2018Prototyping Accessibility - WordCamp Europe 2018
Prototyping Accessibility - WordCamp Europe 2018
 

More from Crispin Reedy

Assertive Niceness
Assertive NicenessAssertive Niceness
Assertive Niceness
Crispin Reedy
 
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2017
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2017Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2017
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2017
Crispin Reedy
 
Where's Jarvis? The Future of Voice Recognition and Natural Language User In...
Where's Jarvis?  The Future of Voice Recognition and Natural Language User In...Where's Jarvis?  The Future of Voice Recognition and Natural Language User In...
Where's Jarvis? The Future of Voice Recognition and Natural Language User In...
Crispin Reedy
 
Top 10 Tips for Making Complicated Things Simple
Top 10 Tips for Making Complicated Things SimpleTop 10 Tips for Making Complicated Things Simple
Top 10 Tips for Making Complicated Things Simple
Crispin Reedy
 
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2016
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2016Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2016
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2016
Crispin Reedy
 
Going Solo: Design and Productivity Techniques for the Team of One
Going Solo: Design and Productivity Techniques for the Team of OneGoing Solo: Design and Productivity Techniques for the Team of One
Going Solo: Design and Productivity Techniques for the Team of One
Crispin Reedy
 
Service Design and the Omnichannel Experience - SpeechTEK 2015
Service Design and the Omnichannel Experience - SpeechTEK 2015Service Design and the Omnichannel Experience - SpeechTEK 2015
Service Design and the Omnichannel Experience - SpeechTEK 2015
Crispin Reedy
 
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2015
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2015Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2015
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2015
Crispin Reedy
 
SpeechTEK University Outtakes 2014: Zero Out Strategies
SpeechTEK University Outtakes 2014: Zero Out StrategiesSpeechTEK University Outtakes 2014: Zero Out Strategies
SpeechTEK University Outtakes 2014: Zero Out Strategies
Crispin Reedy
 
2013 Speech TEK - Alphanumeric Recognition Discussion
2013 Speech TEK - Alphanumeric Recognition Discussion2013 Speech TEK - Alphanumeric Recognition Discussion
2013 Speech TEK - Alphanumeric Recognition Discussion
Crispin Reedy
 
Design Thinking Action Lab Exercise 1
Design Thinking Action Lab Exercise 1Design Thinking Action Lab Exercise 1
Design Thinking Action Lab Exercise 1
Crispin Reedy
 

More from Crispin Reedy (11)

Assertive Niceness
Assertive NicenessAssertive Niceness
Assertive Niceness
 
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2017
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2017Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2017
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2017
 
Where's Jarvis? The Future of Voice Recognition and Natural Language User In...
Where's Jarvis?  The Future of Voice Recognition and Natural Language User In...Where's Jarvis?  The Future of Voice Recognition and Natural Language User In...
Where's Jarvis? The Future of Voice Recognition and Natural Language User In...
 
Top 10 Tips for Making Complicated Things Simple
Top 10 Tips for Making Complicated Things SimpleTop 10 Tips for Making Complicated Things Simple
Top 10 Tips for Making Complicated Things Simple
 
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2016
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2016Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2016
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2016
 
Going Solo: Design and Productivity Techniques for the Team of One
Going Solo: Design and Productivity Techniques for the Team of OneGoing Solo: Design and Productivity Techniques for the Team of One
Going Solo: Design and Productivity Techniques for the Team of One
 
Service Design and the Omnichannel Experience - SpeechTEK 2015
Service Design and the Omnichannel Experience - SpeechTEK 2015Service Design and the Omnichannel Experience - SpeechTEK 2015
Service Design and the Omnichannel Experience - SpeechTEK 2015
 
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2015
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2015Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2015
Association for Voice Interaction Design Annual Meeting 2015
 
SpeechTEK University Outtakes 2014: Zero Out Strategies
SpeechTEK University Outtakes 2014: Zero Out StrategiesSpeechTEK University Outtakes 2014: Zero Out Strategies
SpeechTEK University Outtakes 2014: Zero Out Strategies
 
2013 Speech TEK - Alphanumeric Recognition Discussion
2013 Speech TEK - Alphanumeric Recognition Discussion2013 Speech TEK - Alphanumeric Recognition Discussion
2013 Speech TEK - Alphanumeric Recognition Discussion
 
Design Thinking Action Lab Exercise 1
Design Thinking Action Lab Exercise 1Design Thinking Action Lab Exercise 1
Design Thinking Action Lab Exercise 1
 

Recently uploaded

Value based approach to heritae conservation -.docx
Value based approach to heritae conservation -.docxValue based approach to heritae conservation -.docx
Value based approach to heritae conservation -.docx
JIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Call Girls Ahmedabad( 🤑 7488326553 🤑) Vip Call Girl Ahmedabad
Call Girls Ahmedabad( 🤑 7488326553 🤑) Vip Call Girl AhmedabadCall Girls Ahmedabad( 🤑 7488326553 🤑) Vip Call Girl Ahmedabad
Call Girls Ahmedabad( 🤑 7488326553 🤑) Vip Call Girl Ahmedabad
babesbookhot
 
My Fashion PPT is my presentation on fashion and Trendss
My Fashion PPT is my presentation on fashion and TrendssMy Fashion PPT is my presentation on fashion and Trendss
My Fashion PPT is my presentation on fashion and Trendss
MedhaRana1
 
一比一原版(Deakin毕业证书)澳洲迪肯大学毕业证文凭如何办理
一比一原版(Deakin毕业证书)澳洲迪肯大学毕业证文凭如何办理一比一原版(Deakin毕业证书)澳洲迪肯大学毕业证文凭如何办理
一比一原版(Deakin毕业证书)澳洲迪肯大学毕业证文凭如何办理
k4krdgxx
 
一比一原版(brunel毕业证书)布鲁内尔大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(brunel毕业证书)布鲁内尔大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(brunel毕业证书)布鲁内尔大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(brunel毕业证书)布鲁内尔大学毕业证如何办理
aprhf21y
 
Plastic Molding Infographic - RPWORLD.pdf
Plastic Molding Infographic - RPWORLD.pdfPlastic Molding Infographic - RPWORLD.pdf
Plastic Molding Infographic - RPWORLD.pdf
RPWORLD Manufacturing
 
一比一原版美国加州大学戴维斯分校毕业证(ucdavis学位证)如何办理
一比一原版美国加州大学戴维斯分校毕业证(ucdavis学位证)如何办理一比一原版美国加州大学戴维斯分校毕业证(ucdavis学位证)如何办理
一比一原版美国加州大学戴维斯分校毕业证(ucdavis学位证)如何办理
twqryq79
 
Connaught Place Call Girls 📞 9711199171 ❤️ Full enjoy at your Door Step Avail...
Connaught Place Call Girls 📞 9711199171 ❤️ Full enjoy at your Door Step Avail...Connaught Place Call Girls 📞 9711199171 ❤️ Full enjoy at your Door Step Avail...
Connaught Place Call Girls 📞 9711199171 ❤️ Full enjoy at your Door Step Avail...
yesp58846
 
The Power to Battle! Slideshow by: Kal-el
The Power to Battle! Slideshow by: Kal-elThe Power to Battle! Slideshow by: Kal-el
The Power to Battle! Slideshow by: Kal-el
Kal-el Shows
 
一比一原版(UWS毕业证)澳洲西悉尼大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UWS毕业证)澳洲西悉尼大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(UWS毕业证)澳洲西悉尼大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UWS毕业证)澳洲西悉尼大学毕业证如何办理
t34zod9l
 
一比一原版(UW毕业证书)华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UW毕业证书)华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(UW毕业证书)华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UW毕业证书)华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
i990go7o
 
Call Girls Jaipur 📞 8445551418 🌟Door Step Delivery We Offering You 100% Genuine
Call Girls Jaipur 📞 8445551418 🌟Door Step Delivery We Offering You 100% GenuineCall Girls Jaipur 📞 8445551418 🌟Door Step Delivery We Offering You 100% Genuine
Call Girls Jaipur 📞 8445551418 🌟Door Step Delivery We Offering You 100% Genuine
parulsinha
 
一比一原版(UC毕业证书)堪培拉大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UC毕业证书)堪培拉大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(UC毕业证书)堪培拉大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UC毕业证书)堪培拉大学毕业证如何办理
wkip62b
 
一比一原版(KPU毕业证)加拿大昆特兰理工大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(KPU毕业证)加拿大昆特兰理工大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(KPU毕业证)加拿大昆特兰理工大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(KPU毕业证)加拿大昆特兰理工大学毕业证如何办理
kmzsy4kn
 
一比一原版(McGill毕业证)加拿大麦吉尔大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(McGill毕业证)加拿大麦吉尔大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(McGill毕业证)加拿大麦吉尔大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(McGill毕业证)加拿大麦吉尔大学毕业证如何办理
w26izoeb
 
The Color of Life Slideshow by: Kal-el Go
The Color of Life Slideshow by: Kal-el GoThe Color of Life Slideshow by: Kal-el Go
The Color of Life Slideshow by: Kal-el Go
Kal-el Shows
 
一比一原版英国伦敦政治经济学院毕业证(LSE学位证)如何办理
一比一原版英国伦敦政治经济学院毕业证(LSE学位证)如何办理一比一原版英国伦敦政治经济学院毕业证(LSE学位证)如何办理
一比一原版英国伦敦政治经济学院毕业证(LSE学位证)如何办理
k4krdgxx
 
一比一原版(ututaustin毕业证书)美国德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(ututaustin毕业证书)美国德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校毕业证如何办理一比一原版(ututaustin毕业证书)美国德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(ututaustin毕业证书)美国德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校毕业证如何办理
yqyquge
 
一比一原版(OU毕业证)美国俄克拉荷马大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(OU毕业证)美国俄克拉荷马大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(OU毕业证)美国俄克拉荷马大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(OU毕业证)美国俄克拉荷马大学毕业证如何办理
67n7f53
 
一比一原版(Hull毕业证)英国哈珀亚当斯大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Hull毕业证)英国哈珀亚当斯大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(Hull毕业证)英国哈珀亚当斯大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Hull毕业证)英国哈珀亚当斯大学毕业证如何办理
aonx8o5f
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Value based approach to heritae conservation -.docx
Value based approach to heritae conservation -.docxValue based approach to heritae conservation -.docx
Value based approach to heritae conservation -.docx
 
Call Girls Ahmedabad( 🤑 7488326553 🤑) Vip Call Girl Ahmedabad
Call Girls Ahmedabad( 🤑 7488326553 🤑) Vip Call Girl AhmedabadCall Girls Ahmedabad( 🤑 7488326553 🤑) Vip Call Girl Ahmedabad
Call Girls Ahmedabad( 🤑 7488326553 🤑) Vip Call Girl Ahmedabad
 
My Fashion PPT is my presentation on fashion and Trendss
My Fashion PPT is my presentation on fashion and TrendssMy Fashion PPT is my presentation on fashion and Trendss
My Fashion PPT is my presentation on fashion and Trendss
 
一比一原版(Deakin毕业证书)澳洲迪肯大学毕业证文凭如何办理
一比一原版(Deakin毕业证书)澳洲迪肯大学毕业证文凭如何办理一比一原版(Deakin毕业证书)澳洲迪肯大学毕业证文凭如何办理
一比一原版(Deakin毕业证书)澳洲迪肯大学毕业证文凭如何办理
 
一比一原版(brunel毕业证书)布鲁内尔大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(brunel毕业证书)布鲁内尔大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(brunel毕业证书)布鲁内尔大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(brunel毕业证书)布鲁内尔大学毕业证如何办理
 
Plastic Molding Infographic - RPWORLD.pdf
Plastic Molding Infographic - RPWORLD.pdfPlastic Molding Infographic - RPWORLD.pdf
Plastic Molding Infographic - RPWORLD.pdf
 
一比一原版美国加州大学戴维斯分校毕业证(ucdavis学位证)如何办理
一比一原版美国加州大学戴维斯分校毕业证(ucdavis学位证)如何办理一比一原版美国加州大学戴维斯分校毕业证(ucdavis学位证)如何办理
一比一原版美国加州大学戴维斯分校毕业证(ucdavis学位证)如何办理
 
Connaught Place Call Girls 📞 9711199171 ❤️ Full enjoy at your Door Step Avail...
Connaught Place Call Girls 📞 9711199171 ❤️ Full enjoy at your Door Step Avail...Connaught Place Call Girls 📞 9711199171 ❤️ Full enjoy at your Door Step Avail...
Connaught Place Call Girls 📞 9711199171 ❤️ Full enjoy at your Door Step Avail...
 
The Power to Battle! Slideshow by: Kal-el
The Power to Battle! Slideshow by: Kal-elThe Power to Battle! Slideshow by: Kal-el
The Power to Battle! Slideshow by: Kal-el
 
一比一原版(UWS毕业证)澳洲西悉尼大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UWS毕业证)澳洲西悉尼大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(UWS毕业证)澳洲西悉尼大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UWS毕业证)澳洲西悉尼大学毕业证如何办理
 
一比一原版(UW毕业证书)华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UW毕业证书)华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(UW毕业证书)华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UW毕业证书)华盛顿大学毕业证如何办理
 
Call Girls Jaipur 📞 8445551418 🌟Door Step Delivery We Offering You 100% Genuine
Call Girls Jaipur 📞 8445551418 🌟Door Step Delivery We Offering You 100% GenuineCall Girls Jaipur 📞 8445551418 🌟Door Step Delivery We Offering You 100% Genuine
Call Girls Jaipur 📞 8445551418 🌟Door Step Delivery We Offering You 100% Genuine
 
一比一原版(UC毕业证书)堪培拉大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UC毕业证书)堪培拉大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(UC毕业证书)堪培拉大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(UC毕业证书)堪培拉大学毕业证如何办理
 
一比一原版(KPU毕业证)加拿大昆特兰理工大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(KPU毕业证)加拿大昆特兰理工大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(KPU毕业证)加拿大昆特兰理工大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(KPU毕业证)加拿大昆特兰理工大学毕业证如何办理
 
一比一原版(McGill毕业证)加拿大麦吉尔大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(McGill毕业证)加拿大麦吉尔大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(McGill毕业证)加拿大麦吉尔大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(McGill毕业证)加拿大麦吉尔大学毕业证如何办理
 
The Color of Life Slideshow by: Kal-el Go
The Color of Life Slideshow by: Kal-el GoThe Color of Life Slideshow by: Kal-el Go
The Color of Life Slideshow by: Kal-el Go
 
一比一原版英国伦敦政治经济学院毕业证(LSE学位证)如何办理
一比一原版英国伦敦政治经济学院毕业证(LSE学位证)如何办理一比一原版英国伦敦政治经济学院毕业证(LSE学位证)如何办理
一比一原版英国伦敦政治经济学院毕业证(LSE学位证)如何办理
 
一比一原版(ututaustin毕业证书)美国德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(ututaustin毕业证书)美国德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校毕业证如何办理一比一原版(ututaustin毕业证书)美国德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(ututaustin毕业证书)美国德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校毕业证如何办理
 
一比一原版(OU毕业证)美国俄克拉荷马大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(OU毕业证)美国俄克拉荷马大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(OU毕业证)美国俄克拉荷马大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(OU毕业证)美国俄克拉荷马大学毕业证如何办理
 
一比一原版(Hull毕业证)英国哈珀亚当斯大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Hull毕业证)英国哈珀亚当斯大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(Hull毕业证)英国哈珀亚当斯大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Hull毕业证)英国哈珀亚当斯大学毕业证如何办理
 

Conversational User Interfaces, Past and Future

  • 1. Conversational User Interfaces: Past and Future Crispin Reedy @crispinTX
  • 2. 2017 goals 1. Provide more UX resources to UX professionals. 2. Improve brand consistency. 3. Improve “International” UXPA. User Experience Professionals Association (UXPA) Monthly webinars User Experience Magazine The Journal of Usability Studies Visit www.uxpa.org for more info about the conference, webinars, and other UX resources! Annual Conference in Toronto, Canada June 5 – 8, 2017 uxpa2017.org
  • 3. Conversational User Interfaces: Past and Future Crispin Reedy @crispinTX
  • 4. 4© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC • Voice User Interface Designer • 15+ years in the field • Former coder; got interested in UX • President of the Association for Voice Interaction Design • Consultant for Versay Solutions @crispinTX crispinreedy.com
  • 5. CUI: Past and Future • How can chatbots learn from existing VUI design? What makes these new interfaces different, and how are they similar? Where do the Alexas and Siris come into the mix? We’ll discuss text-based vs. voice-based conversational user interfaces, and the landscape of Conversational User Interfaces, now and into the future. 5© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
  • 6. Disclaimers • What, exactly, is a Conversational User Interface? – For this discussion we are going broad and wide. • Conversation: – Interactive communication between two or more people • Spoken vs. written (chatbots) • Turntaking vs. one shot 6© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. Flash-forward to 2017…. 17© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
  • 18. “I’m really excited about chat and natural language because there’s no user interface you have to deal with.” - Chatbot writer on support board
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. “Just this week, Facebook said it was “refocusing” its use of AI after its bots hit a failure rate of 70 percent, meaning bots could only get to 30 percent of requests without some sort of human intervention.” “I would call it overpromising,” said CP+B executive creative tech director Joe Corr. “Brands that created bots with a structured request or utility like Domino’s or in retail were easy. But bots that tried to break out of the utility and be chatbots became the problem.”
  • 22. 22© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC Chatbots Voice Systems Taxonomy of CUIs Input Modality
  • 23. 23© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC Chatbots Voice Systems Taxonomy of CUIs Input Modality Domain Domain •Personal Assistants •Agents •General Search •Order Products •Troubleshooting •Manage Accounts •Alexa •Google Home •Wildfire •IVR •Billing information •Control-based
  • 24. 24© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC Voice Systems Taxonomy of CUIs Domain •Alexa •Google Home •Wildfire •IVR •Troubleshooting •Manage Accounts Technology •What “thing” are you talking to? •What else are you connected to? (Network, data) •What kind of speech technology are you using? •What other input and output modalities are you coordinating with?
  • 25. What Are You Talking To? 25© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
  • 26. Voice Conversation vs. Chat Conversation • Differences – Written convention vs. spoken convention – Speech recognition vs. textual understanding • ASR vs. NLU • DNN, Machine Learning – Chatbot implies keyboard; voice interface could be to almost anything • This becomes really important: – Discoverability – Onboarding – Coordinating voice with other modalities
  • 27. Voice Conversation vs. Chat Conversation • Commonalities – Logical structure of a conversation (flow) – Error recovery • If caller / user goes off topic – Prompts elicit expected responses • Sometimes! – Conversational maxims • English is still English! Well, sort of.
  • 28. UX Still Applies! • Typical Tools: – Tasks – Personas – “Happy Path” High Level Conversations (Script) – Card sorts? – Read Aloud – Usability Testing • Wizard of Oz – A/B Testing 28© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
  • 30. Voice Conversational Model: Beginning NL Level 1: Open Ended Question • Hi, how may I help you today? • I’m calling about a problem with my phone. • Sure, what kind of problem are you having? • I don’t seem to have any internet. • I can help you with that. Are you calling about the Apple iPhone 6 that you have on your plan? • Yes NL Level 2: Identify Problem Directed Dialog: ID Phone Implicit: ID Caller
  • 31. Chat Conversational Model: Beginning NL Level 1: Open Ended Question • Hi, how may I help you today? • I have a prob w/ phone • Sure, what kind of problem? • No internet connectin • OK. Is that about the Apple iPhone 6 you have on your plan? • Yep NL Level 2: Identify Problem Directed Dialog: ID Phone Implicit: ID Caller
  • 32. Voice Conversational Model: Troubleshooting • So, first let’s check your settings. What about Airplane Mode… do you have that turned off? If you need help with that, say “tell me more.” • Tell me more • Sure. You can find Airplane Mode under “Settings.” (call continues) Step 1 + Fallback
  • 33. Chat Conversational Model: Troubleshooting • Let’s check settings. Do you have Airplane Mode turned off? • IDK • OK to check Airplane Mode, go to “Settings.” Step 1 + Fallback
  • 34. Error Recovery - Voice • If the recognizer doesn’t get something, you may have to reprompt. – How crucial is the information you needed to collect in order to move the conversation forward? • Eg: Alexa doesn’t always reprompt – Systems can be more directive if failure continues 34© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC “What color is that light?” It’s… <noise> “Sorry, what color?” “Sorry, what color?” <silence> “You can say ‘red’ or press 1, ‘green’ or press 2, …. (etc)
  • 35. Error Recovery - Chatbot • Chatbots do need it! – Do you need to do a local recovery vs. a global recovery? – Specific point – Total reset 35Source: Chatbot.fail
  • 36. Prompts and Responses • Prompts imply more than choices – Would you like chocolate or vanilla? • Yes • Both • Inputs are more like text boxes 36© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
  • 37. 37
  • 38. Grice’s Maxims Maxim Description Quantity Be as informative as is required, but not more informative. Quality Do not make statements that you believe are false or for which you lack evidence. Relation Be relevant. Manner Avoid obscure expressions Avoid ambiguity Be brief Be orderly
  • 39. Paul Grice • British philosopher of language • “Logic and Conversation,” 1975 • The maxims describe the “default” assumptions that listeners make about how people talk. • When the assumptions are broken: – People look for underlying implications – People may assume that there is a problem with the conversation or speaker Source: Amazon
  • 40. Grice’s Maxims: Applied • Be as informative as is required, but not more informative. – What is your user really wanting to do? • Goals and tasks – Am I telling the user too much during this conversation? • Unhelpful help. • Overly chatty bots
  • 41. Source: Taco Bell Bot (That’s Nerdalicious)
  • 42. Grice’s Maxims: Applied • Be relevant. – Users want to do what they want, not what you want them to do. • Upselling • Intrusive apps / bots – Maintain state
  • 44. Grice’s Maxims: Applied • Avoid obscure expressions – No jargon • Avoid ambiguity – Ex: “This” and “that” • Be brief • Be orderly – Organize information cleanly – ensure that IA (if applicable) is understandable and relevant.
  • 46. 46© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC Voice Systems Taxonomy of CUIs Domain •Alexa •Google Home •Wildfire •IVR •Troubleshooting •Manage Accounts Technology •Are you doing speech recognition? •What kind? •What “thing” are you talking to? •What else are you connected to? •Network •Data •What other input modalities are you coordinating with?
  • 47. Possibilities 47© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC Write an app (skill) for an agent such as Cortana / Alexa / Jibo Use cloud APIs to add ASR to your app / device / page / gadget Download an ASR engine and use full-featured capabilities for onboard robust recognition Build your own ASR / DNN
  • 48. Distributed: Today’s Speech Agents • Siri • Cortana • Google Now • Amazon Echo (Alexa) 48© 2016 Versay Solutions LLC
  • 49. Alexa “Skills” • “Alexa, ask Yelp to find me a restaurant.” – Cortana has similar integration • Register your skill with Amazon and publish it 49© 2016 Versay Solutions LLC
  • 50. Today’s Cloud-Based Speech APIs • Distributed speech recognition – Collection and compression of speech is on the device – The language models are typically on the network – Can be speaker-dependent • Trains itself on your voice and on the acoustic environments you are in most often – Many companies are providing APIs to use their speech recognition 50© 2016 Versay Solutions LLC
  • 51. Speech API Example: Alexa Voice Services 51© 2016 Versay Solutions LLC
  • 52. Possible Approaches Cloud-Based APIs • Easy to get started • Lightweight • Not much specialized knowledge • Limited 52© 2016 Versay Solutions LLC Download / Embed / Roll Your Own • Customizable • Can be device-specific • More features • Higher powered • Will require specialized knowledge – Speech scientist • Can use open source
  • 53. Should I Speech-Enable X? 53© 2016 Versay Solutions LLC Desktop App / Website • Easy to get started with API-based ASR • But the use case may not be as powerful Tablet / Mobile • Stronger use case • But will the network be available for APIs? Industrial Device • Great use case esp. with multimodal • But this is harder to do and probably will be custom Gadget • Decent use case • APIs are tailored for this • Will they do everything you need? • Will the extra modality be a plus or just a “silly add-on?” • Different modalities? Car • Safety considerations are high here • Need better user interfaces & more robust IVR • Touchtone can still be good for a lot of applications • Speech is good for complex call routing and input
  • 55. CUI: Past and Future • How can chatbots learn from existing VUI design? What makes these new interfaces different, and how are they similar? Where do the Alexas and Siris come into the mix? We’ll discuss text-based vs. voice-based conversational user interfaces, and the landscape of Conversational User Interfaces, now and into the future. 55© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
  • 56. Iron Man 2: Marvel Studios, Paramount Pictures
  • 57. Resources • The Voice in the Machine: Building Computers that Understand Speech – Roberto Pieraccini – YouTube video: “Open the Pod Bay Doors, Siri” • Conversational design from Google: – https://developers.google.com/actions/design/ • Alexa VUI design – Alexa Skills Kit Voice Design Handbook” • Association for Voice Interaction Design - AVIxD.org – Wiki, Brown Bags, Journal – Looking for members and volunteers! 57© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC
  • 58. 58© 2017 Versay Solutions LLC Thanks! @crispinTX crispinreedy.com creedy@versay.com

Editor's Notes

  1. DO NOT FORGET TO BRING THE MINI-SPEAKERS!!!
  2. Computers: Apps and webpages. Consoles: Gaming / Connectivity Mobile and Tablet Industrial devices – especially something task driven Gadgets Cars The phone Essentially what we’re coming to terms with here is a new input modality. It’s one that doesn’t always work very well – for reasons we’ll get into later. But, it can be a very powerful one when it does work well. It’s also a lot harder to figure out how to properly combine speech with everything else that is going on in your environment.
  3. Jarvis: Audio and gestural Perfect recognition. No error recovery needed Great voice quality Connected to vast amounts of data Understands all the parts of the model: “Lose the landscape.” Context-sensitive. Aware of the space around him Sense of humor. “Am I to include the Belgian Waffle stands?” Takes initiative. “What is it you’re trying to achieve, sir?”
  4. DO NOT FORGET TO BRING THE MINI-SPEAKERS!!!