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© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Container-based Architectures on
AWS
Sascha Möllering, Solutions Architect, @sascha242, Amazon Web Services EMEA SARL
Steffen Grunwald, Solutions Architect, @steffeng, Amazon Web Services EMEA SARL
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
We started in 2014
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Customers running Docker on EC2 from the very
beginning...
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
But there were pain points.
Things like scheduling, placing, managing
and deploying containers were difficult.
They wanted something to make those pain
points better.
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
So we built ECS
Highly scalable,
high performance
container
management system
A managed
platform
Amazon Elastic
Container Service
Cluster
management
Container
orchestration
Deep AWS
integration
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
So we built ECS
Highly scalable,
high performance
container
management system
AWS VPC
networking mode
Advanced task
placement
Deep integration
with AWS platform
ECS CLI…{ }
Global footprint
Powerful scheduling
engines
Auto scaling
CloudWatch metrics
Load balancers
Amazon Elastic
Container Service
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Amazon ECS
EC2 INSTANCES
ECS
AGENT
TASK
Containers
TASK
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
AGENT COMMUNICATION
SERVICE
Amazon
ECS
API
CLUSTER
MANAGEMENT ENGINE
KEY/VALUE STORE
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
Internet LOAD
BALANCER
LOAD
BALANCER
Containers
Containers
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Cluster of hosts
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
AGENT COMMUNICATION
SERVICE
Amazon
ECS
API
CLUSTER MANAGEMENT
ENGINE
KEY/VALUE STORE
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
Internet LOAD
BALANCER
LOAD
BALANCER
EC2 INSTANCES
TASK TASK
TASK TASK
AGENT COMMUNICATION
SERVICE
API
CLUSTER
MANAGEMENT ENGINE
KEY/VALUE STORE
TASK TASK
Internet Containers
Containers
Containers
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Lightweight agent on each host
EC2 INSTANCES
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
AGENT COMMUNICATION
SERVICE
Amazon
ECS
API
CLUSTER MANAGEMENT
ENGINE
KEY/VALUE STORE
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
Internet LOAD
BALANCER
LOAD
BALANCER
TASK TASK
TASK TASK
AGENT COMMUNICATION
SERVICE
API
CLUSTER
MANAGEMENT ENGINE
KEY/VALUE STORE
TASK TASK
Internet Containers
Containers
Containers
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
API for launching containers on the cluster
EC2 INSTANCES
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
AGENT COMMUNICATION
SERVICE
Amazon
ECS
API
CLUSTER MANAGEMENT
ENGINE
KEY/VALUE STORE
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
Internet LOAD
BALANCER
LOAD
BALANCER
EC2 INSTANCES
TASK TASK
TASK TASK
AGENT COMMUNICATION
SERVICE
Amazon
ECS
API
CLUSTER MANAGEMENT
ENGINE
KEY/VALUE STORE
TASK TASK
Internet Containers
Containers
Containers
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
EC2 INSTANCES
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
AGENT COMMUNICATION
SERVICE
Amazon
ECS
API
CLUSTER
MANAGEMENT ENGINE
KEY/VALUE STORE
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
Internet LOAD
BALANCER
LOAD
BALANCER
Container task is placed on a host
Containers
Containers
Containers
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Traffic is sent to your host
EC2 INSTANCES
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
AGENT COMMUNICATION
SERVICE
Amazon
ECS
API
CLUSTER
MANAGEMENT ENGINE
KEY/VALUE STORE
ECS
AGENT
TASK TASK
Internet LOAD
BALANCER
LOAD
BALANCER
Containers
Containers
Containers
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
ECS Optimized Amazon Machine Images (AMIs)
• Optimized AMIs available for Linux & Windows
• Bring your own images based on it
• Expects ECS cluster name in user-data
• Update images on SNS update notifications
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Publish metrics
Auto Scaling ECS service
Availability
Zone A
Availability
Zone B
TASK A
Add/Remove
ECS tasks
TASK C
TASK BScaling Policies
Amazon
CloudWatch
Amazon ECS
Application
Load Balancer
Automatic Service Scaling
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
ECS Cluster
EC2 Instance EC2 Instance
TASK A
TASK B
TASK B
Amazon
DynamoDB
Amazon
S3
IAM Roles For Tasks
Amazon ECS
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
•prod.app1.db-pass
•general.license-code
•prod.app2.user-name
ECS Cluster
EC2 Instance EC2 Instance
TASK A
TASK B
TASK B
System Manager –
Parameter Store
Secrets Management
Amazon ECS
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR)
• Cloud-based Docker image registry
• Fully managed
• Secure – images encrypted at rest,
integrated with IAM
• Scalable and Highly Available
• Integrated with Amazon ECS and the
Docker CLI
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
AWS Fargate
No cluster or
infrastructure to
manage or scale
Everything is
handled at the
container level
Scale seamlessly
on demand
Underlying technology for container
management
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
What does Fargate mean?
Not worrying about scaling, underlying infrastructure, cluster
resources, capacity, setup.
Just give it a task definition or pod (in 2018), set some resource
limits, and away you go.
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Task Definitions Repository on GitHub
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
AWS
CodePipeline
AWS
CodeBuild
Developers
1 2
3 4
7
Continuous Deployment in Amazon ECS
5
6
AWS Fargate Amazon EC2
Amazon ECS
Amazon ECR
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Europe's leading app for ordering taxis
Majority of services on ECS
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
10+ million users with 45,000+ taxis across
40+ cities.
With the microservice architecture (140+
services) built on AWS, mytaxi can provide
new features to users faster than ever
before.
Running entirely on Spot.
ECS
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
„In November 2015 we moved our Docker container
architecture to Amazon ECS, and for the first time ever in
December we were able to celebrate a new year in which our
system could handle the huge number of requests without
any crashes or interruptions.“
-Sebastian Herzberg, System Engineer
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
“Run Kubernetes for me.”
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Amazon Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes: EKS
Managed Kubernetes on
AWS
Highly
available
Automated
version
upgrades
Integration
with other
AWS services
Etcd
Master
Managed
Kubernetes
control
plane CloudTrail,
CloudWatch, ELB,
IAM, VPC, PrivateLink
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Amazon EKS is certified Kubernetes
conformant so you can use all existing
plugins and tooling from the Kubernetes
community.
Any application running on any standard
Kubernetes environment is fully
compatible.
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes
• Platform for enterprises to run production grade workloads
• Provides a native and upstream Kubernetes experience
• Not forced to use additional AWS services, but offer seamless integration
• EKS team actively contributes to the Kubernetes project
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Availability
Zone 1
Availability
Zone 2
Availability
Zone 3
Kubectl
EKS Architecture
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Cross-account Kubernetes
Workers Masters
Customer VPC EKS VPC
Network Load
Balancer
ENI
API Access
Kubectl
Exec/Logs
TLS
Static IPs
ENI Attachment
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
EKS Cross-Account Networking: Availability Zones
Availability
Zone 1
Master Master
Availability
Zone 2
Availability
Zone 3
Master
Workers Workers Workers
Customer VPC
EKS VPC
ENI ENI ENI
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Native VPC networking
with CNI plugin
Pods have the same VPC
address inside the pod
as on the VPC
Simple, secure networking
Open source and
on Github
https://github.com/aws/amazon-vpc-cni-k8s
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Nginx Pod
Java Pod
ENI
Secondary IPs:
10.0.0.1
10.0.0.2
Veth IP: 10.0.0.1
Veth IP: 10.0.0.2
Nginx Pod
Java Pod
ENI
Veth IP: 10.0.0.20
Veth IP: 10.0.0.22
Secondary IPs:
10.0.0.20
10.0.0.22
ec2.associateaddress()
VPC Subnet – 10.0.0.0/24
Instance 1 Instance 2
CNI
CNI
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Kubernetes Network
Policies enforce network
security rules
Calico is the leading
implementation of the
network policy API
Open source, active
development (>100
contributors)
Commercial support
available from Tigera
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Jenkins – CI/CD with Kubernetes
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
AWS CodePipeline – CI/CD with Kubernetes
AWS CodePipeline
AWS CodeCommit AWS CodeBuild AWS Lambda
Amazon ECR
1 2 4
3 5
6
Developer
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Batch Processing with Containers
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
What is batch computing?
Run jobs
asynchronously and
automatically across
one or more computers.
Jobs may have
dependencies, making the
sequencing and scheduling
of multiple jobs complex
and challenging.
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Cloud makes Sense for Batch
• Scalable
• Reliable
• Choice:
• Compute resources (GPUs, RAM- or CPU-bound)
• Storage resources (fileshares, performance characteristics)
• Downstream services (e.g. databases, streaming services)
• Pricing models
• Pay as you go (per second)
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Anatomy of a Batch
Event
Changes in
data state
Requests to
endpoints
Services (anything)
Scheduled
triggers
Compute
Execution
Your Code
Auto Scaling
Job Queue
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Options for Batch Workloads on AWS
AWS Lambda
NEW: Amazon SQS as
built-in event source
AWS BatchAmazon Elastic
Container
Service (ECS)
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Containers make Sense for Batch
• Benefits from container development model
• Polyglot
• Do one thing well
• Black Box – and easy to model
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Basic Batch Workflow with ECS
Input is put to
S3 Bucket
Output is put
to S3 Bucket
Event is put to
Amazon SQS
ECS provisions clusters
and schedules tasks
Containerized batch workers process files
Queue depth
is used for
scaling
Workers
poll queue
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Introducing AWS Batch
• Fully managed batch primitives
• Focus on your applications (shell scripts, Linux
executables, Docker images) and their resource
requirements
• We take care of the rest!
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Execution
What you need to take care of...
Auto Scaling
Event
Changes in
data state
Requests to
endpoints
Services (anything)
Scheduled
triggers
Compute
Your Code
Job Queue
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Typical AWS Batch Job Architecture
Input is put to
S3 Bucket
Output is put
to S3 Bucket
Job Queue with
runnable jobs
AWS Batch Compute Environment
IAM role
Job definition
Application
Image
+ config
Scheduler
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
„Flip Image“ Job‘s Dockerfile
FROM amazonlinux:latest
RUN yum update -y
RUN yum install ImageMagick aws-cli -y
ADD flip.sh /usr/local/bin/flip.sh
WORKDIR /tmp
USER nobody
ENTRYPOINT ["/usr/local/bin/flip.sh"]
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
flip.sh
#!/bin/bash
SRCBKT=$1 # SOURCE BUCKET
OBJ=$2 # OBJECT KEY
TRGBKT=$3 # TARGET BUCKET
error_exit() { echo "${1}" >&2; exit 1; }
tmpfile=$(mktemp /tmp/image.XXXXXX)
aws s3 cp "s3://$SRCBKT/$OBJ" "$tmpfile"  # DOWNLOAD
|| error_exit "Download failed $SRCBKT/$OBJ"
convert -flip "$tmpfile" "$tmpfile"  # FLIP w/ IMAGEMAGICK
|| error_exit "Failed to flip file"
aws s3 cp "$tmpfile" "s3://$TRGBKT/$OBJ"  # UPLOAD
|| error_exit "Upload failed $TRGBKT/$OBJ"
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Important AWS Batch Concepts
• Job definitions
• Jobs
• Job queue
• Compute environments
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Job Definitions
AWS Batch job definitions specify how jobs are to be run.
Some attributes in a job definition:
• Container Image
• IAM role associated with the job
• vCPU and memory requirements
• Mount points
• Environment variables
• Retry strategy
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Jobs are the unit of work executed by
AWS Batch.
Set/ overwrite Job Definition
attributes, e.g.:
• Command
• Parameters
• Dependencies
Job command example:
Jobs
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Easily run massively parallel jobs
Efficient way to run:
• Parametric sweeps
• Monte Carlo simulations
• Processing a large collection of
objects
Start up to 10,000 copies of an application with a single call using Array Jobs.
Get
File
List
flip.sh [1]
flip.sh [2]
flip.sh [n]
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
AWS Batch supports up to 10 attempts per job:
• errors in the AWS Batch job
• termination of the Spot Instance
The AWS_BATCH_JOB_ATTEMPT environment variable is set to the
container's corresponding job attempt number.
Job Retries
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Managed
AWS scales and configures your
instances for you.
Optional choice:
• On demand/ Spot
• Instance Types/ Mix
• Amazon Machine Image (AMI)
Compute Environments
Unmanaged
You control and manage the
instance configuration,
provisioning, and scaling.
Full control over scaling and
instance provisioning for the ECS
cluster used by AWS Batch.
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Bring your own AMIs
Customer Provided AMIs let you set the AMI that is launched as part of a
managed compute environment.
Makes it possible to configure Docker settings, mount EBS/ EFS volumes, and
configure drivers for GPU jobs.
AMIs must be Linux-based, HVM and have a working ECS agent installation.
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Jobs are submitted to Job Queues.
Job queues are assigned to one or more compute environments.
Each job queue has a priority assigned. Jobs in queues with higher priority
take precedence.
Job Queues
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Use Spot Instances
Get your jobs done faster or
cheaper.
AWS Batch retries jobs on
instance terminations and
selects from multiple
instance types.
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
No additional charge for AWS Batch or Amazon ECS.
You only pay for the underlying resources that you consume!
Pricing
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Let’s
build!
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Questions?
Ask these guys!
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
Thank you!

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  • 1. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Container-based Architectures on AWS Sascha Möllering, Solutions Architect, @sascha242, Amazon Web Services EMEA SARL Steffen Grunwald, Solutions Architect, @steffeng, Amazon Web Services EMEA SARL
  • 2. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark We started in 2014
  • 3. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Customers running Docker on EC2 from the very beginning...
  • 4. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark But there were pain points. Things like scheduling, placing, managing and deploying containers were difficult. They wanted something to make those pain points better.
  • 5. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark So we built ECS Highly scalable, high performance container management system A managed platform Amazon Elastic Container Service Cluster management Container orchestration Deep AWS integration
  • 6. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark So we built ECS Highly scalable, high performance container management system AWS VPC networking mode Advanced task placement Deep integration with AWS platform ECS CLI…{ } Global footprint Powerful scheduling engines Auto scaling CloudWatch metrics Load balancers Amazon Elastic Container Service
  • 7. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Amazon ECS EC2 INSTANCES ECS AGENT TASK Containers TASK ECS AGENT TASK TASK AGENT COMMUNICATION SERVICE Amazon ECS API CLUSTER MANAGEMENT ENGINE KEY/VALUE STORE ECS AGENT TASK TASK Internet LOAD BALANCER LOAD BALANCER Containers Containers
  • 8. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Cluster of hosts ECS AGENT TASK TASK ECS AGENT TASK TASK AGENT COMMUNICATION SERVICE Amazon ECS API CLUSTER MANAGEMENT ENGINE KEY/VALUE STORE ECS AGENT TASK TASK Internet LOAD BALANCER LOAD BALANCER EC2 INSTANCES TASK TASK TASK TASK AGENT COMMUNICATION SERVICE API CLUSTER MANAGEMENT ENGINE KEY/VALUE STORE TASK TASK Internet Containers Containers Containers
  • 9. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Lightweight agent on each host EC2 INSTANCES ECS AGENT TASK TASK ECS AGENT TASK TASK AGENT COMMUNICATION SERVICE Amazon ECS API CLUSTER MANAGEMENT ENGINE KEY/VALUE STORE ECS AGENT TASK TASK Internet LOAD BALANCER LOAD BALANCER TASK TASK TASK TASK AGENT COMMUNICATION SERVICE API CLUSTER MANAGEMENT ENGINE KEY/VALUE STORE TASK TASK Internet Containers Containers Containers
  • 10. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark API for launching containers on the cluster EC2 INSTANCES ECS AGENT TASK TASK ECS AGENT TASK TASK AGENT COMMUNICATION SERVICE Amazon ECS API CLUSTER MANAGEMENT ENGINE KEY/VALUE STORE ECS AGENT TASK TASK Internet LOAD BALANCER LOAD BALANCER EC2 INSTANCES TASK TASK TASK TASK AGENT COMMUNICATION SERVICE Amazon ECS API CLUSTER MANAGEMENT ENGINE KEY/VALUE STORE TASK TASK Internet Containers Containers Containers
  • 11. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark EC2 INSTANCES ECS AGENT TASK TASK ECS AGENT TASK TASK AGENT COMMUNICATION SERVICE Amazon ECS API CLUSTER MANAGEMENT ENGINE KEY/VALUE STORE ECS AGENT TASK TASK Internet LOAD BALANCER LOAD BALANCER Container task is placed on a host Containers Containers Containers
  • 12. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Traffic is sent to your host EC2 INSTANCES ECS AGENT TASK TASK ECS AGENT TASK TASK AGENT COMMUNICATION SERVICE Amazon ECS API CLUSTER MANAGEMENT ENGINE KEY/VALUE STORE ECS AGENT TASK TASK Internet LOAD BALANCER LOAD BALANCER Containers Containers Containers
  • 13. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark ECS Optimized Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) • Optimized AMIs available for Linux & Windows • Bring your own images based on it • Expects ECS cluster name in user-data • Update images on SNS update notifications
  • 14. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Publish metrics Auto Scaling ECS service Availability Zone A Availability Zone B TASK A Add/Remove ECS tasks TASK C TASK BScaling Policies Amazon CloudWatch Amazon ECS Application Load Balancer Automatic Service Scaling
  • 15. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark ECS Cluster EC2 Instance EC2 Instance TASK A TASK B TASK B Amazon DynamoDB Amazon S3 IAM Roles For Tasks Amazon ECS
  • 16. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark •prod.app1.db-pass •general.license-code •prod.app2.user-name ECS Cluster EC2 Instance EC2 Instance TASK A TASK B TASK B System Manager – Parameter Store Secrets Management Amazon ECS
  • 17. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR) • Cloud-based Docker image registry • Fully managed • Secure – images encrypted at rest, integrated with IAM • Scalable and Highly Available • Integrated with Amazon ECS and the Docker CLI
  • 18. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark AWS Fargate No cluster or infrastructure to manage or scale Everything is handled at the container level Scale seamlessly on demand Underlying technology for container management
  • 19. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark What does Fargate mean? Not worrying about scaling, underlying infrastructure, cluster resources, capacity, setup. Just give it a task definition or pod (in 2018), set some resource limits, and away you go.
  • 20. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Task Definitions Repository on GitHub
  • 21. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark AWS CodePipeline AWS CodeBuild Developers 1 2 3 4 7 Continuous Deployment in Amazon ECS 5 6 AWS Fargate Amazon EC2 Amazon ECS Amazon ECR
  • 22. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Europe's leading app for ordering taxis Majority of services on ECS
  • 23. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark 10+ million users with 45,000+ taxis across 40+ cities. With the microservice architecture (140+ services) built on AWS, mytaxi can provide new features to users faster than ever before. Running entirely on Spot. ECS
  • 24. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark „In November 2015 we moved our Docker container architecture to Amazon ECS, and for the first time ever in December we were able to celebrate a new year in which our system could handle the huge number of requests without any crashes or interruptions.“ -Sebastian Herzberg, System Engineer
  • 25. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 26. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark “Run Kubernetes for me.”
  • 27. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Amazon Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes: EKS Managed Kubernetes on AWS Highly available Automated version upgrades Integration with other AWS services Etcd Master Managed Kubernetes control plane CloudTrail, CloudWatch, ELB, IAM, VPC, PrivateLink
  • 28. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Amazon EKS is certified Kubernetes conformant so you can use all existing plugins and tooling from the Kubernetes community. Any application running on any standard Kubernetes environment is fully compatible.
  • 29. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes • Platform for enterprises to run production grade workloads • Provides a native and upstream Kubernetes experience • Not forced to use additional AWS services, but offer seamless integration • EKS team actively contributes to the Kubernetes project
  • 30. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes
  • 31. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Availability Zone 1 Availability Zone 2 Availability Zone 3 Kubectl EKS Architecture
  • 32. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Cross-account Kubernetes Workers Masters Customer VPC EKS VPC Network Load Balancer ENI API Access Kubectl Exec/Logs TLS Static IPs ENI Attachment
  • 33. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark EKS Cross-Account Networking: Availability Zones Availability Zone 1 Master Master Availability Zone 2 Availability Zone 3 Master Workers Workers Workers Customer VPC EKS VPC ENI ENI ENI
  • 34. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Native VPC networking with CNI plugin Pods have the same VPC address inside the pod as on the VPC Simple, secure networking Open source and on Github https://github.com/aws/amazon-vpc-cni-k8s
  • 35. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Nginx Pod Java Pod ENI Secondary IPs: 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.2 Veth IP: 10.0.0.1 Veth IP: 10.0.0.2 Nginx Pod Java Pod ENI Veth IP: 10.0.0.20 Veth IP: 10.0.0.22 Secondary IPs: 10.0.0.20 10.0.0.22 ec2.associateaddress() VPC Subnet – 10.0.0.0/24 Instance 1 Instance 2 CNI CNI
  • 36. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Kubernetes Network Policies enforce network security rules Calico is the leading implementation of the network policy API Open source, active development (>100 contributors) Commercial support available from Tigera
  • 37. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Jenkins – CI/CD with Kubernetes
  • 38. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark AWS CodePipeline – CI/CD with Kubernetes AWS CodePipeline AWS CodeCommit AWS CodeBuild AWS Lambda Amazon ECR 1 2 4 3 5 6 Developer
  • 39. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
  • 40. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
  • 41. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
  • 42. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark
  • 43. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Batch Processing with Containers
  • 44. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark What is batch computing? Run jobs asynchronously and automatically across one or more computers. Jobs may have dependencies, making the sequencing and scheduling of multiple jobs complex and challenging.
  • 45. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Cloud makes Sense for Batch • Scalable • Reliable • Choice: • Compute resources (GPUs, RAM- or CPU-bound) • Storage resources (fileshares, performance characteristics) • Downstream services (e.g. databases, streaming services) • Pricing models • Pay as you go (per second)
  • 46. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Anatomy of a Batch Event Changes in data state Requests to endpoints Services (anything) Scheduled triggers Compute Execution Your Code Auto Scaling Job Queue
  • 47. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Options for Batch Workloads on AWS AWS Lambda NEW: Amazon SQS as built-in event source AWS BatchAmazon Elastic Container Service (ECS)
  • 48. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Containers make Sense for Batch • Benefits from container development model • Polyglot • Do one thing well • Black Box – and easy to model
  • 49. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Basic Batch Workflow with ECS Input is put to S3 Bucket Output is put to S3 Bucket Event is put to Amazon SQS ECS provisions clusters and schedules tasks Containerized batch workers process files Queue depth is used for scaling Workers poll queue
  • 50. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Introducing AWS Batch • Fully managed batch primitives • Focus on your applications (shell scripts, Linux executables, Docker images) and their resource requirements • We take care of the rest!
  • 51. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Execution What you need to take care of... Auto Scaling Event Changes in data state Requests to endpoints Services (anything) Scheduled triggers Compute Your Code Job Queue
  • 52. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Typical AWS Batch Job Architecture Input is put to S3 Bucket Output is put to S3 Bucket Job Queue with runnable jobs AWS Batch Compute Environment IAM role Job definition Application Image + config Scheduler
  • 53. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark „Flip Image“ Job‘s Dockerfile FROM amazonlinux:latest RUN yum update -y RUN yum install ImageMagick aws-cli -y ADD flip.sh /usr/local/bin/flip.sh WORKDIR /tmp USER nobody ENTRYPOINT ["/usr/local/bin/flip.sh"]
  • 54. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark flip.sh #!/bin/bash SRCBKT=$1 # SOURCE BUCKET OBJ=$2 # OBJECT KEY TRGBKT=$3 # TARGET BUCKET error_exit() { echo "${1}" >&2; exit 1; } tmpfile=$(mktemp /tmp/image.XXXXXX) aws s3 cp "s3://$SRCBKT/$OBJ" "$tmpfile" # DOWNLOAD || error_exit "Download failed $SRCBKT/$OBJ" convert -flip "$tmpfile" "$tmpfile" # FLIP w/ IMAGEMAGICK || error_exit "Failed to flip file" aws s3 cp "$tmpfile" "s3://$TRGBKT/$OBJ" # UPLOAD || error_exit "Upload failed $TRGBKT/$OBJ"
  • 55. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Important AWS Batch Concepts • Job definitions • Jobs • Job queue • Compute environments
  • 56. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Job Definitions AWS Batch job definitions specify how jobs are to be run. Some attributes in a job definition: • Container Image • IAM role associated with the job • vCPU and memory requirements • Mount points • Environment variables • Retry strategy
  • 57. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Jobs are the unit of work executed by AWS Batch. Set/ overwrite Job Definition attributes, e.g.: • Command • Parameters • Dependencies Job command example: Jobs
  • 58. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Easily run massively parallel jobs Efficient way to run: • Parametric sweeps • Monte Carlo simulations • Processing a large collection of objects Start up to 10,000 copies of an application with a single call using Array Jobs. Get File List flip.sh [1] flip.sh [2] flip.sh [n]
  • 59. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark AWS Batch supports up to 10 attempts per job: • errors in the AWS Batch job • termination of the Spot Instance The AWS_BATCH_JOB_ATTEMPT environment variable is set to the container's corresponding job attempt number. Job Retries
  • 60. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Managed AWS scales and configures your instances for you. Optional choice: • On demand/ Spot • Instance Types/ Mix • Amazon Machine Image (AMI) Compute Environments Unmanaged You control and manage the instance configuration, provisioning, and scaling. Full control over scaling and instance provisioning for the ECS cluster used by AWS Batch.
  • 61. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Bring your own AMIs Customer Provided AMIs let you set the AMI that is launched as part of a managed compute environment. Makes it possible to configure Docker settings, mount EBS/ EFS volumes, and configure drivers for GPU jobs. AMIs must be Linux-based, HVM and have a working ECS agent installation.
  • 62. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Jobs are submitted to Job Queues. Job queues are assigned to one or more compute environments. Each job queue has a priority assigned. Jobs in queues with higher priority take precedence. Job Queues
  • 63. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Use Spot Instances Get your jobs done faster or cheaper. AWS Batch retries jobs on instance terminations and selects from multiple instance types.
  • 64. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark No additional charge for AWS Batch or Amazon ECS. You only pay for the underlying resources that you consume! Pricing
  • 65. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Let’s build!
  • 66. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Questions? Ask these guys!
  • 67. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Amazon Confidential and Trademark Thank you!