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@estesp
The containerd Project:
An Overview and Project Update
Phil Estes (@estesp), IBM Cloud
February 3, 2018
FOSDEM Containers Room
@estesp
A Brief History
APRIL 2016 Containerd “0.2” announced, Docker 1.11
DECEMBER 2016Announce expansion of containerd OSS project
Management/Supervisor for the OCI runc executor
Containerd 1.0: A core container runtime project for the industry
MARCH 2017 Containerd project contributed to CNCF
DECEMBER 2017containerd project announces v1.0.0 release
@estesp
https://github.com/containerd/containerd
@estesp
runc
containerd
Why Containerd 1.0?
▪ Continue projects spun out
from monolithic Docker engine
▪ Expected use beyond Docker
engine (Kubernetes CRI)
▪ Donation to foundation for
broad industry collaboration
▫ Similar to runc/libcontainer
and the OCI
@estesp
Technical Goals/Intentions
▪ Clean gRPC-based API + client library
▪ Full OCI support (runtime and image spec)
▪ Stability and performance with tight,
well-defined core of container function
▪ Decoupled systems (image, filesystem, runtime)
for pluggability, reuse
@estesp
Architecture
Runtimes
Metadata
ContainersContent DiffSnapshot Tasks EventsImages
GRPC Metrics
Runtimes
Storage
OS
@estesp
Containerd: Rich Go API
Getting Started
https://github.com/containerd/containerd/blob/master/docs/getting-started.md
GoDoc
https://godoc.org/github.com/containerd/containerd
@estesp
Snapshotters
How do you build a container root filesystem?
@estesp
Docker Storage Architecture
Graph Driver
“layers” “mounts”
Layer Store
“content addressable layers”
Image Store
“image configs”
Containers
“container configs”
Reference Store
“names to image”
Daemon
@estesp
containerd Storage Architecture
Snapshotter
“layer snapshots”
Content Store
“content addressed blobs”
Metadata Store
“references”
Config
Rootfs (mounts)
@estesp
Snapshots
● No mounting, just returns mounts!
● Explicit active (rw) and committed (ro)
● Commands represent lifecycle
● Reference key chosen by caller (allows
using content addresses)
● No tars and no diffs
Evolved from Graph Drivers
● Simple layer relationships
● Small and focused interface
● Non-opinionated string keys
● External Mount Lifecycle
type Snapshotter interface {
Stat(key string) (Info, error)
Mounts(key string) ([]containerd.Mount, error)
Prepare(key, parent string) ([]containerd.Mount, error)
View(key, parent string) ([]containerd.Mount, error)
Commit(name, key string) error
Remove(key string) error
Walk(fn func(Info) error) error
}
type Info struct {
Name string // name or key of snapshot
Parent string
Kind Kind
}
type Kind int
const (
KindView
KindActive
KindCommitted
)
@estesp
Example: Investigating Root
Filesystem
$ ctr snapshot ls
…
$ ctr snapshot tree
…
$ ctr snapshot mounts <target> <id>
@estesp
Running a container
@estesp
service Tasks {
// Create a task.
rpc Create(CreateTaskRequest) returns (CreateTaskResponse);
// Start a process.
rpc Start(StartRequest) returns (StartResponse);
// Delete a task and on disk state.
rpc Delete(DeleteTaskRequest) returns (DeleteResponse);
rpc DeleteProcess(DeleteProcessRequest) returns (DeleteResponse);
rpc Get(GetRequest) returns (GetResponse);
rpc List(ListTasksRequest) returns (ListTasksResponse);
// Kill a task or process.
rpc Kill(KillRequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty);
rpc Exec(ExecProcessRequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty);
rpc ResizePty(ResizePtyRequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty);
rpc CloseIO(CloseIORequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty);
rpc Pause(PauseTaskRequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty);
rpc Resume(ResumeTaskRequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty);
rpc ListPids(ListPidsRequest) returns (ListPidsResponse);
rpc Checkpoint(CheckpointTaskRequest) returns (CheckpointTaskResponse);
rpc Update(UpdateTaskRequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty);
rpc Metrics(MetricsRequest) returns (MetricsResponse);
rpc Wait(WaitRequest) returns (WaitResponse);
}
client containerd
Tasks and Runtime
Runtimes
Tasks
Service
Containers
Service
Meta
Runtime
Config
Mounts
linux
containerd-shim
containerd-shim
containerd-shim
containerd-shim
wcow
hcsshim
VM VM
VM VM
lcow
VM VM
hcsshim
VM VM
VM VM
VM VM
@estesp
Example: Pull an Image
Via ctr client:
$ export 
CONTAINERD_NAMESPACE=example
$ ctr pull 
docker.io/library/redis:alpine
$ ctr image ls
...
import (
"context"
"github.com/containerd/containerd"
"github.com/containerd/containerd/namespaces"
)
// connect to our containerd daemon
client, err := containerd.New("/run/containerd/containerd.sock")
defer client.Close()
// set our namespace to “example”:
ctx := namespaces.WithNamespace(context.Background(), "example")
// pull the alpine-based redis image from DockerHub:
image, err := client.Pull(ctx,
"docker.io/library/redis:alpine",
containerd.WithPullUnpack)
@estesp
Example: Run a Container
Via ctr client:
$ export 
CONTAINERD_NAMESPACE=example
$ ctr run -t 
docker.io/library/redis:alpine 
redis-server
$ ctr c
...
// create our container object and config
container, err := client.NewContainer(ctx,
"redis-server",
containerd.WithImage(image),
containerd.WithNewSpec(containerd.WithImageConfig(image)),
)
defer container.Delete()
// create a task from the container
task, err := container.NewTask(ctx, containerd.Stdio)
defer task.Delete(ctx)
// make sure we wait before calling start
exitStatusC, err := task.Wait(ctx)
// call start on the task to execute the redis server
if err := task.Start(ctx); err != nil {
return err
}
@estesp
Example: Kill a Task
Via ctr client:
$ export 
CONTAINERD_NAMESPACE=example
$ ctr t kill redis-server
$ ctr t ls
...
// make sure we wait before calling start
exitStatusC, err := task.Wait(ctx)
time.Sleep(3 * time.Second)
if err := task.Kill(ctx, syscall.SIGTERM); err != nil {
return err
}
// retrieve the process exit status from the channel
status := <-exitStatusC
code, exitedAt, err := status.Result()
if err != nil {
return err
}
// print out the exit code from the process
fmt.Printf("redis-server exited with status: %dn", code)
@estesp
Example: Customize OCI Configuration
// WithHtop configures a container to monitor the host via `htop`
func WithHtop(s *specs.Spec) error {
// make sure we are in the host pid namespace
if err := containerd.WithHostNamespace(specs.PIDNamespace)(s); err != nil {
return err
}
// make sure we set htop as our arg
s.Process.Args = []string{"htop"}
// make sure we have a tty set for htop
if err := containerd.WithTTY(s); err != nil {
return err
}
return nil
}
With{func} functions cleanly separate modifiers
@estesp
Release Process
https://github.com/containerd/containerd/blob/master/RELEASES.md
Latest Release: v1.0.2 (-rc.0 pre-release 3 days ago)
Key Points:
▪ Using SemVer
▪ Major releases have a support horizon with backported fixes
▫ Already proven out post-1.0.0 with 2 point releases
▪ Next point release (v1.1) plans to include features for Windows
container runtime support and other enhancements
▪ Stability and compatibility guarantees provided & documented
@estesp
Supported Components
Component Status Stablized Version Links
GRPC API Beta 1.0 api/
Metrics API Beta 1.0
Go client API Unstable 1.1 tentative godoc
ctr tool Unstable Out of scope -
@estesp
▪ Containerd is a member project
within the Cloud Native
Computing Foundation (CNCF)
▪ The Moby project governance,
adopted in Q42017 is not a
BDFL model
▪ The newly formed Moby
Technical Steering Committee
(TSC) oversees Moby projects
▪ Broad base of contributors, and
growing
TOP TEN CONTRIBUTORS
1. Docker
2. Google
3. NTT
4. Tesla*
5. IBM
6. ZTE
7. Microsoft
8. Red Hat**
9. Huawei
10. Amazon Web Services
* Former Docker maintainer left for Tesla
** Red Hat contributions mostly prior to 1.0 codebase
Project Contributors
@estesp
Users
- CURRENT
- Docker (moby)
- Kubernetes (cri-containerd)
- SwarmKit (experimental)
- LinuxKit
- BuildKit
- PLANNING/DEVELOPING
- CloudFoundry Garden-runC
- Apache OpenWhisk
- Puppet R&D
- {your project here}
@estesp
kubelet
kubelet
dockershim (CRI)
Docker engine
containerd
containerd-shim
containerd-shim
containerd-shim
runc
runc
runc
containerd
containerd-shim
containerd-shim
containerd-shim
runc
runc
runc
cri plugin
containerd
cri-containerd
ttrpc: very lightweight
gRPC protocol format
Kubernetes runtimes:
Docker vs. cri-containerd
( **NOTE: Cri-container project merged into
containerd GitHub project in January 2018; will
become a plugin within the containerd binary )
**
@estesp
Source: https://github.com/kelseyhightower/kubernetes-the-hard-way
▪ Requires runc and containerd to be installed
(distro packaging lagging these projects)
▪ CRI-Containerd project has been doing binary
releases with dependencies included (future
TBD)
▪ No requirement for Docker engine installation
on worker nodes at all
▪ LinuxKit also using (and providing) this
configuration in their default Kubernetes
project:
▪ “make all KUBE_RUNTIME=cri-containerd”
▪ See: https://github.com/linuxkit/kubernetes
Using Containerd in K8s 1.9+
@estesp
Containerd Benefits
● Designed and implemented with broad
usage as a core container runtime in mind:
○ Docker, LinuxKit, Kubernetes and
embedded core runtime use cases
(OpenWhisk, Cloud Foundry)
● Heavy stress testing validating stability
and performance guarantees 24/7
● Attention to detail re: Go/gRPC APIs for
strong usability and ease of embedding
● Focus on compatibility guarantees; bug fix
backports for high level of support on
major version levels
@estesp
Going further with containerd
▪ Contributing: https://github.com/containerd/containerd
▫ Bug fixes, adding tests, improving docs, validation
▪ Using: See the getting started documentation in the docs
folder of the repo
▪ Porting/testing: Other architectures & OSs, stress
testing (see bucketbench, containerd-stress):
▫ git clone <repo>, make binaries, sudo make install
▪ K8s CRI: implementation of K8s CRI using containerd
▫ In beta today; e2e tests, validation, contributing
@estesp
Thank You! Questions?
▪ Phil Estes
▫ https://github.com/estesp
▫ estesp@gmail.com
▫ Twitter: @estesp

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Containerd Project Update: FOSDEM 2018

  • 1. @estesp The containerd Project: An Overview and Project Update Phil Estes (@estesp), IBM Cloud February 3, 2018 FOSDEM Containers Room
  • 2. @estesp A Brief History APRIL 2016 Containerd “0.2” announced, Docker 1.11 DECEMBER 2016Announce expansion of containerd OSS project Management/Supervisor for the OCI runc executor Containerd 1.0: A core container runtime project for the industry MARCH 2017 Containerd project contributed to CNCF DECEMBER 2017containerd project announces v1.0.0 release
  • 4. @estesp runc containerd Why Containerd 1.0? ▪ Continue projects spun out from monolithic Docker engine ▪ Expected use beyond Docker engine (Kubernetes CRI) ▪ Donation to foundation for broad industry collaboration ▫ Similar to runc/libcontainer and the OCI
  • 5. @estesp Technical Goals/Intentions ▪ Clean gRPC-based API + client library ▪ Full OCI support (runtime and image spec) ▪ Stability and performance with tight, well-defined core of container function ▪ Decoupled systems (image, filesystem, runtime) for pluggability, reuse
  • 7. @estesp Containerd: Rich Go API Getting Started https://github.com/containerd/containerd/blob/master/docs/getting-started.md GoDoc https://godoc.org/github.com/containerd/containerd
  • 8. @estesp Snapshotters How do you build a container root filesystem?
  • 9. @estesp Docker Storage Architecture Graph Driver “layers” “mounts” Layer Store “content addressable layers” Image Store “image configs” Containers “container configs” Reference Store “names to image” Daemon
  • 10. @estesp containerd Storage Architecture Snapshotter “layer snapshots” Content Store “content addressed blobs” Metadata Store “references” Config Rootfs (mounts)
  • 11. @estesp Snapshots ● No mounting, just returns mounts! ● Explicit active (rw) and committed (ro) ● Commands represent lifecycle ● Reference key chosen by caller (allows using content addresses) ● No tars and no diffs Evolved from Graph Drivers ● Simple layer relationships ● Small and focused interface ● Non-opinionated string keys ● External Mount Lifecycle type Snapshotter interface { Stat(key string) (Info, error) Mounts(key string) ([]containerd.Mount, error) Prepare(key, parent string) ([]containerd.Mount, error) View(key, parent string) ([]containerd.Mount, error) Commit(name, key string) error Remove(key string) error Walk(fn func(Info) error) error } type Info struct { Name string // name or key of snapshot Parent string Kind Kind } type Kind int const ( KindView KindActive KindCommitted )
  • 12. @estesp Example: Investigating Root Filesystem $ ctr snapshot ls … $ ctr snapshot tree … $ ctr snapshot mounts <target> <id>
  • 14. @estesp service Tasks { // Create a task. rpc Create(CreateTaskRequest) returns (CreateTaskResponse); // Start a process. rpc Start(StartRequest) returns (StartResponse); // Delete a task and on disk state. rpc Delete(DeleteTaskRequest) returns (DeleteResponse); rpc DeleteProcess(DeleteProcessRequest) returns (DeleteResponse); rpc Get(GetRequest) returns (GetResponse); rpc List(ListTasksRequest) returns (ListTasksResponse); // Kill a task or process. rpc Kill(KillRequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty); rpc Exec(ExecProcessRequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty); rpc ResizePty(ResizePtyRequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty); rpc CloseIO(CloseIORequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty); rpc Pause(PauseTaskRequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty); rpc Resume(ResumeTaskRequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty); rpc ListPids(ListPidsRequest) returns (ListPidsResponse); rpc Checkpoint(CheckpointTaskRequest) returns (CheckpointTaskResponse); rpc Update(UpdateTaskRequest) returns (google.protobuf.Empty); rpc Metrics(MetricsRequest) returns (MetricsResponse); rpc Wait(WaitRequest) returns (WaitResponse); } client containerd Tasks and Runtime Runtimes Tasks Service Containers Service Meta Runtime Config Mounts linux containerd-shim containerd-shim containerd-shim containerd-shim wcow hcsshim VM VM VM VM lcow VM VM hcsshim VM VM VM VM VM VM
  • 15. @estesp Example: Pull an Image Via ctr client: $ export CONTAINERD_NAMESPACE=example $ ctr pull docker.io/library/redis:alpine $ ctr image ls ... import ( "context" "github.com/containerd/containerd" "github.com/containerd/containerd/namespaces" ) // connect to our containerd daemon client, err := containerd.New("/run/containerd/containerd.sock") defer client.Close() // set our namespace to “example”: ctx := namespaces.WithNamespace(context.Background(), "example") // pull the alpine-based redis image from DockerHub: image, err := client.Pull(ctx, "docker.io/library/redis:alpine", containerd.WithPullUnpack)
  • 16. @estesp Example: Run a Container Via ctr client: $ export CONTAINERD_NAMESPACE=example $ ctr run -t docker.io/library/redis:alpine redis-server $ ctr c ... // create our container object and config container, err := client.NewContainer(ctx, "redis-server", containerd.WithImage(image), containerd.WithNewSpec(containerd.WithImageConfig(image)), ) defer container.Delete() // create a task from the container task, err := container.NewTask(ctx, containerd.Stdio) defer task.Delete(ctx) // make sure we wait before calling start exitStatusC, err := task.Wait(ctx) // call start on the task to execute the redis server if err := task.Start(ctx); err != nil { return err }
  • 17. @estesp Example: Kill a Task Via ctr client: $ export CONTAINERD_NAMESPACE=example $ ctr t kill redis-server $ ctr t ls ... // make sure we wait before calling start exitStatusC, err := task.Wait(ctx) time.Sleep(3 * time.Second) if err := task.Kill(ctx, syscall.SIGTERM); err != nil { return err } // retrieve the process exit status from the channel status := <-exitStatusC code, exitedAt, err := status.Result() if err != nil { return err } // print out the exit code from the process fmt.Printf("redis-server exited with status: %dn", code)
  • 18. @estesp Example: Customize OCI Configuration // WithHtop configures a container to monitor the host via `htop` func WithHtop(s *specs.Spec) error { // make sure we are in the host pid namespace if err := containerd.WithHostNamespace(specs.PIDNamespace)(s); err != nil { return err } // make sure we set htop as our arg s.Process.Args = []string{"htop"} // make sure we have a tty set for htop if err := containerd.WithTTY(s); err != nil { return err } return nil } With{func} functions cleanly separate modifiers
  • 19. @estesp Release Process https://github.com/containerd/containerd/blob/master/RELEASES.md Latest Release: v1.0.2 (-rc.0 pre-release 3 days ago) Key Points: ▪ Using SemVer ▪ Major releases have a support horizon with backported fixes ▫ Already proven out post-1.0.0 with 2 point releases ▪ Next point release (v1.1) plans to include features for Windows container runtime support and other enhancements ▪ Stability and compatibility guarantees provided & documented
  • 20. @estesp Supported Components Component Status Stablized Version Links GRPC API Beta 1.0 api/ Metrics API Beta 1.0 Go client API Unstable 1.1 tentative godoc ctr tool Unstable Out of scope -
  • 21. @estesp ▪ Containerd is a member project within the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) ▪ The Moby project governance, adopted in Q42017 is not a BDFL model ▪ The newly formed Moby Technical Steering Committee (TSC) oversees Moby projects ▪ Broad base of contributors, and growing TOP TEN CONTRIBUTORS 1. Docker 2. Google 3. NTT 4. Tesla* 5. IBM 6. ZTE 7. Microsoft 8. Red Hat** 9. Huawei 10. Amazon Web Services * Former Docker maintainer left for Tesla ** Red Hat contributions mostly prior to 1.0 codebase Project Contributors
  • 22. @estesp Users - CURRENT - Docker (moby) - Kubernetes (cri-containerd) - SwarmKit (experimental) - LinuxKit - BuildKit - PLANNING/DEVELOPING - CloudFoundry Garden-runC - Apache OpenWhisk - Puppet R&D - {your project here}
  • 23. @estesp kubelet kubelet dockershim (CRI) Docker engine containerd containerd-shim containerd-shim containerd-shim runc runc runc containerd containerd-shim containerd-shim containerd-shim runc runc runc cri plugin containerd cri-containerd ttrpc: very lightweight gRPC protocol format Kubernetes runtimes: Docker vs. cri-containerd ( **NOTE: Cri-container project merged into containerd GitHub project in January 2018; will become a plugin within the containerd binary ) **
  • 24. @estesp Source: https://github.com/kelseyhightower/kubernetes-the-hard-way ▪ Requires runc and containerd to be installed (distro packaging lagging these projects) ▪ CRI-Containerd project has been doing binary releases with dependencies included (future TBD) ▪ No requirement for Docker engine installation on worker nodes at all ▪ LinuxKit also using (and providing) this configuration in their default Kubernetes project: ▪ “make all KUBE_RUNTIME=cri-containerd” ▪ See: https://github.com/linuxkit/kubernetes Using Containerd in K8s 1.9+
  • 25. @estesp Containerd Benefits ● Designed and implemented with broad usage as a core container runtime in mind: ○ Docker, LinuxKit, Kubernetes and embedded core runtime use cases (OpenWhisk, Cloud Foundry) ● Heavy stress testing validating stability and performance guarantees 24/7 ● Attention to detail re: Go/gRPC APIs for strong usability and ease of embedding ● Focus on compatibility guarantees; bug fix backports for high level of support on major version levels
  • 26. @estesp Going further with containerd ▪ Contributing: https://github.com/containerd/containerd ▫ Bug fixes, adding tests, improving docs, validation ▪ Using: See the getting started documentation in the docs folder of the repo ▪ Porting/testing: Other architectures & OSs, stress testing (see bucketbench, containerd-stress): ▫ git clone <repo>, make binaries, sudo make install ▪ K8s CRI: implementation of K8s CRI using containerd ▫ In beta today; e2e tests, validation, contributing
  • 27. @estesp Thank You! Questions? ▪ Phil Estes ▫ https://github.com/estesp ▫ estesp@gmail.com ▫ Twitter: @estesp