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Engr. Muhammad Zeeshan Ahad
M.Sc Construction Project Management (UK)
B.Sc Civil Engineering (Pakistan)
Affiliation
Royal Institute of Civil Engineers (U.K)
Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (U.K)
Pakistan Engineering Council (PAK)
Head of Department
Assistant Professor
Civil Engineering
Iqra National University
Concept of Disaster
Concept of Disaster
Concept of Disaster
Concept of Disaster
Disaster
 The term disaster owes its origin to the French
word “Desastre” which is a combination of two
words ‘des’ meaning bad and ‘aster’ meaning star.
 Thus the term refers to ‘Bad or Evil star’.
 “A serious disruption in the functioning of the
community or a society causing wide spread
material, economic, social or environmental losses
which exceed the ability of the affected society to
cope using its own resources”.
Disaster
 A disaster is a result from the combination of
hazard, vulnerability and insufficient capacity or
measures to reduce the potential chances of risk.
 A disaster happens when a hazard impacts on the
vulnerable population and causes damage,
casualties and disruption.
Concept of Disaster
Disaster – How do we Consider
 Any hazard – flood, earthquake or cyclone which is a
triggering event along with greater vulnerability (inadequate
access to resources, sick and old people, lack of awareness
etc) would lead to disaster causing greater loss to life and
property.
ONLY WHEN IT AFFECTS
 For example; an earthquake in an uninhabited
desert cannot be considered a disaster, no matter
how strong the intensities produced.
 An earthquake is disastrous only when it affects
people, their properties and activities
Disaster
 Thus, disaster occurs only when hazards and
vulnerability meet.
 But it is also to be noted that with greater capacity of
the individual/community and environment to face
these disasters, the impact of a hazard reduces.
 Therefore, we need to understand the three major
components namely hazard, vulnerability and
capacity.
Hazard
 “A dangerous condition or event, that threat or
have the potential for causing injury to life or
damage to property or the environment.”
 The word ‘hazard’ owes its origin to the word
‘hasard’ in old French and ‘az-zahr’ in Arabic
meaning ‘chance’ or ‘luck’.
 Hazards can be grouped into two broad
categories namely natural and manmade
Natural Hazards
 Natural hazards are hazards which are
caused because of natural phenomena
 Hazards with meteorological,
 Geological or even
 Biological origin.
 Examples of natural hazards are:
 Cyclones,
 Tsunamis,
 Earthquake and
 Volcanic eruption which are exclusively of
natural origin
Concept of Disaster
Man Made hazards
 Manmade hazards are hazards which are due to
human negligence.
 Manmade hazards are associated with:
 Industries or
 Energy generation facilities and include
explosions,
 Leakage of toxic waste,
 Pollution,
 Dam failure,
 Wars or civil strife etc
Concept of Disaster
Types of Hazard
Types of Hazard
Vulnerability
 The extent to which a community, structure, services or
geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted
by the impact of particular hazard, on account of their
nature, construction and proximity to hazardous
terrains or a disaster prone area.”
 Vulnerabilities can be categorized into:
 Physical and
 Socio-economic vulnerability.
Vulnerability
 Physical Vulnerability:
 It includes notions of who and what may be
damaged or destroyed by natural hazard
such as earthquakes or floods.
 It is based on the physical condition of
people and elements at risk, such as
buildings, infrastructure etc; and their
proximity, location and nature of the hazard.
 It also relates to the technical capability of
building and structures to resist the forces
acting upon them during a hazard event.
Concept of Disaster
Vulnerability
 Socio-economic Vulnerability
 The degree to which a population is affected by a
hazard will not merely lie in the physical
components of vulnerability but also on the
socioeconomic conditions.
 Hazards are always prevalent, but the hazard
becomes a disaster only when there is greater
vulnerability and less of capacity to cope with it.
Capacity
 “Resources, means and strengths which exist in
households and communities and which enable
them to cope with, withstand, prepare for, prevent,
mitigate or quickly recover from a disaster”.
Concept of Disaster
Formula for Disaster Risk
 Disaster Risk (or recipe for disaster) has been
presented by Ward, 1999 as follows:
 Disaster Risk = Hazard * Vulnerability / Manageability
 Manageability – the degree to which the community
can intervene and manage a hazard in order to reduce
its potential impact
 Manageability is synonymous to capacity
 Disaster Risk = Hazard * Vulnerability / Capacity
End of Session

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Concept of Disaster

  • 1. Engr. Muhammad Zeeshan Ahad M.Sc Construction Project Management (UK) B.Sc Civil Engineering (Pakistan) Affiliation Royal Institute of Civil Engineers (U.K) Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (U.K) Pakistan Engineering Council (PAK) Head of Department Assistant Professor Civil Engineering Iqra National University
  • 6. Disaster  The term disaster owes its origin to the French word “Desastre” which is a combination of two words ‘des’ meaning bad and ‘aster’ meaning star.  Thus the term refers to ‘Bad or Evil star’.  “A serious disruption in the functioning of the community or a society causing wide spread material, economic, social or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources”.
  • 7. Disaster  A disaster is a result from the combination of hazard, vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential chances of risk.  A disaster happens when a hazard impacts on the vulnerable population and causes damage, casualties and disruption.
  • 9. Disaster – How do we Consider  Any hazard – flood, earthquake or cyclone which is a triggering event along with greater vulnerability (inadequate access to resources, sick and old people, lack of awareness etc) would lead to disaster causing greater loss to life and property.
  • 10. ONLY WHEN IT AFFECTS  For example; an earthquake in an uninhabited desert cannot be considered a disaster, no matter how strong the intensities produced.  An earthquake is disastrous only when it affects people, their properties and activities
  • 11. Disaster  Thus, disaster occurs only when hazards and vulnerability meet.  But it is also to be noted that with greater capacity of the individual/community and environment to face these disasters, the impact of a hazard reduces.  Therefore, we need to understand the three major components namely hazard, vulnerability and capacity.
  • 12. Hazard  “A dangerous condition or event, that threat or have the potential for causing injury to life or damage to property or the environment.”  The word ‘hazard’ owes its origin to the word ‘hasard’ in old French and ‘az-zahr’ in Arabic meaning ‘chance’ or ‘luck’.  Hazards can be grouped into two broad categories namely natural and manmade
  • 13. Natural Hazards  Natural hazards are hazards which are caused because of natural phenomena  Hazards with meteorological,  Geological or even  Biological origin.  Examples of natural hazards are:  Cyclones,  Tsunamis,  Earthquake and  Volcanic eruption which are exclusively of natural origin
  • 15. Man Made hazards  Manmade hazards are hazards which are due to human negligence.  Manmade hazards are associated with:  Industries or  Energy generation facilities and include explosions,  Leakage of toxic waste,  Pollution,  Dam failure,  Wars or civil strife etc
  • 19. Vulnerability  The extent to which a community, structure, services or geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of particular hazard, on account of their nature, construction and proximity to hazardous terrains or a disaster prone area.”  Vulnerabilities can be categorized into:  Physical and  Socio-economic vulnerability.
  • 20. Vulnerability  Physical Vulnerability:  It includes notions of who and what may be damaged or destroyed by natural hazard such as earthquakes or floods.
  • 21.  It is based on the physical condition of people and elements at risk, such as buildings, infrastructure etc; and their proximity, location and nature of the hazard.  It also relates to the technical capability of building and structures to resist the forces acting upon them during a hazard event.
  • 23. Vulnerability  Socio-economic Vulnerability  The degree to which a population is affected by a hazard will not merely lie in the physical components of vulnerability but also on the socioeconomic conditions.  Hazards are always prevalent, but the hazard becomes a disaster only when there is greater vulnerability and less of capacity to cope with it.
  • 24. Capacity  “Resources, means and strengths which exist in households and communities and which enable them to cope with, withstand, prepare for, prevent, mitigate or quickly recover from a disaster”.
  • 26. Formula for Disaster Risk  Disaster Risk (or recipe for disaster) has been presented by Ward, 1999 as follows:  Disaster Risk = Hazard * Vulnerability / Manageability  Manageability – the degree to which the community can intervene and manage a hazard in order to reduce its potential impact  Manageability is synonymous to capacity  Disaster Risk = Hazard * Vulnerability / Capacity