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Multi-device Content Display
             &
 Smart Use of Annotation
        Processing
          @gdigugli
          @dbaeli
Speakers
@dbaeli - Dimitri BAELI             @gdigugli - Gilles Di Guglielmo
• Java developer since 1999         • Java developer since 1999
• R&D Team Mentor at                • Software architect at



• Coder, DevOps, Agile Coach        • ILOG - IBM
    – From idea to production           2D graphic toolkit
• eXo Platform                          Rule engine
    • VP Quality                    • Prima-Solutions
                                        Services platform for J2EE
                                        Domain models code generators




2
We’re working for
A French Insurance Aggregator
mobile & desktop
mobile & desktop
mobile & desktop
In the search of
Effective content display
The story
Effective Content Display              using APT Tooling
• Multi device & languages             • APT Engine
    Labels                            • APT Processors
    Layout & images
                                           Generate technical code
• Clean code                               Generate reports
    Strong Quality                        Generate patterns
    Easy Maintenance     based on i18n
                             • @Message
                             • @MessageBundle
                             • Dedicated APT Processors

                https://github.com/dbaeli/ez18n
Improved i18n
for text display
Java i18n pattern
• The JDK default tooling to:
   Dynamically bind the content
   Usable for Texts, but also CSS and images (urls)
• Tooling :
   java.util.ResourceBundle : for .properties reading
   java.util.MessageFormat : tiny templating
   .properties files with naming pattern
java.util.ResourceBundle
• The .properties loader for a given Locale
• Key / Value in .properties
• Naming convention for the storage
  Messages_en_EN.properties

       Language    Country
java.util.MessageFormat



•   Tiny templating
•   format(“<pattern>”, args)
•   Date, numbers are formatted according to the Locale
•   Options, conditional values easy to use
.properties issues
• Low quality control
  – Keys are strings in the code
  – Poor IDE support
     • No warning on unused or wrong keys
  – Encoding Hell
     • use uxxxx or you’re in trouble
• Forces you to maintain two files in sync
  – key declaration / value in .properties
  – Key usage in the .java files
Improved i18n
Ez18n : improved i18n
• Interfaces representing each .properties
• The methods acts as keys




      Messages.java              Messages.properties
Annotations and Code generation
• Same pattern as in GWT, but for J2SE
• New Annotations in the code :
   @MessageBundle to mark interfaces
      represents a ResourceBundle
   @Message to mark methods
     represents a localization key
• Generate :
   .properties file (for ‘default’)
   A ResourceBundle for each .properties
   Manage other languages out-side your code
Improved i18n benefits
• Now you can
   Refactor your keys
   Maintain the ‘default’ in Java
   Never change a .properties file for default locale
• And use it with other libs:
   GWT (done on GitHub)
   Even JQuery, Dojo, CoffeeScript (planned)
 We called that ez18n
Extend this pattern for
    Multi-display
Extended to displays
• Add mobile support in @Message declaration
                               DesktopMessages.properties




    Messages.java              MobileMessages.properties
Multiple kind of displays
•   One ResourceBundle by kind of display
•   All driven by @MessageBundle annotation
•   Fallback on the default display
•   Keep the plumbing generated
APT to generate
.properties and ResourceBundle
    classes from annotations
Behind the scene
 How APT works
APT basics
•   APT - Annotation Processing Tool
•   Kind of old-school pre-processing
•   Standard in JDK6+ (JSR 269)
•   No runtime overload
•   Based on annotations in source code
•   Standard since JDK 1.6 (available in Sun JDK
    1.5)
APT annotations
• Use @Retention, @Target
APT Processors
• javax.annotation.processing.Processor
• Code parsing similar to Reflection
   No need of compiled code
   Some limitations
• 2 key elements :
   @SupportedAnnotationTypes to declare the
    matching annotations
   FileObject : the future generated file
Similarities with java.lang.reflect
Java.lang.reflect            Javax.annotation.processing
java.lang.Class              TypeElement
Constructor                  ExecutableElement
Field, Parameter             VariableElement
Method                       ExecutableElement
java.lang.Package            PackageElement


•   NO Class.newInstance()
•   NO instanceOf, NO isAssignable()
•   NO getConstructor, getMethod, …
•   Weak inheritance support
Processor code sample
 Processor declaration




 Use a FileObject to generate the content
APT command line
javac
  -cp $CLASSPATH
  -proc:only                  Or -proc:none
  -encoding UTF-8
  -processor $PROCESSOR         processors fqcn list
  -d $PROJECT_HOMEtargetclasses
  -s $PROJECT_HOMEtargetgenerated-sourcesapt
  -sourcepath $SOURCE_PATH
  -verbose
  $FILES                              optional
APT tooling
• Maven integration
   maven-processor-plugin (google-code)
• Ant integration
   javac
• IDE integration
   Extend the JDK compilation options
APT usages
• Generate required repetitive code :
   Not always possible at runtime
   Unit tests, JMX declarations
   Utility code with coverage and debug
• Build your reports on your code
   Your metrics without runtime overload
   Even fail the build if you want !
One or Two phase compilation
• One phase :
   APT runs during the compilation
   Generated code is directly produced as bytecode
    (.class)
   Harder to debug (no .java created)
 Two phases : “proc:only”
   javac with proc:only then with proc:none
   Creates .java files in the sourcepath
Problems with APT
• Beware of the “Generate” golden hammer
   generate needed code
• APT Processors can be tricky:
   hard to test / maintain
   bad error management (hidden errors !)
   Not really (well) documented
• No built-in templating mechanism
• Enforced file path creation
• Beware of maven parallel builds
   Because javac is not thread safe
It’s time to convince your team
• APT parses the source code to generate
   Java Files & .class, Reports (.csv, …)
   Build log information or even build failures
• It allows you to have a source level DSL
   Annotate your code & Generate the plumbing
   Compile / Debug the generated code
• APT framework is compact
Go deep in APT usage
     with Ez18n
Demo

• The Stock-watcher available on
  – http://github.com/dbaeli/ez18n
  – In the ez18n-webapp module
• With a desktop browser
• With a mobile browser
Ez18n - Big picture
                                           Messages
                          +loveMeTender() : String [1]
                          +doYouLove( name : String [1] ) : String [1]




                     MessagesMobi leB undle                                                       MessagesDeskto pBundl e

MessagesMobileBundle()                                                         MessagesDesktopBundle()
getMessage( k : String [1], params : Object [1] ) : String [1]
             ey                                                                getMessage( k : String [1], params : Object [1] ) : String [1]
                                                                                            ey
loveMeTender() : String [1]                                                    loveMeTender() : String [1]
doYouLove( name : String [1] ) : String [1]                                    doYouLove( name : String [1] ) : String [1]




             «annotate»                                                                                                                         «annotate»
                                   «inject»                              «inject»

                                                                                           -delegate    -delegate
                                                                                                         1           1
     Mobi l e                                 Bund leFacto ry                                      Resour ceBundl e                   Desktop

                                    <S>get( serv annotation )
                                                ice,
Ez18n - APT chaining
         • 5 APT processors to
           obtain the default
           pattern
         • Optional CSV files for
           analysis/tooling
From Messages to DesktopMessages.properties

• One property file per interface with
  @MessageBundle
• One property entry per method with @Message
From Messages to MobileMessages.properties

• Another property file is generated for the mobile
  content
• If @Message#mobile is empty, the
  @Message#value is used as fallback
From Messages to
MessagesDesktopBundle.java (1/2)
From Messages to
MessagesDesktopBundle.java (2/2)
From Messages to
META-INF/services/org.ez18n.sample.Messages




               • Using META-INF/services to inject the
                 mobile & desktop implementation
               • The two implementations could be
                 filtered at runtime using annotations
                 and java.util.ServiceLoader
                   @Mobile
                   @Desktop
A factory for the Messages implementations
• Using java.util.ServiceLoader to inject the interface with
  @MessageBundle
• @Desktop and @Mobile used to filter the injection result
Client code sample with JUnit
• Some basic JUnit test using the API

                                          The unit tests are
                                          generated using APT
                                          too 



                         BundleFactory.get(…) usage in the test
                         @Before to retrieve the bundle
                         implementation
Ez18n - Summary




    Maven, javac
   Injection & APT
If you’d like
a JSR for ez18n
please tell us !

                   Ez18n =
                   @Message
                   @MessageBundle
                   Set of Processors
APT virtual mini-track
Sessions
• CON3372 - Advanced Annotation Processing with JSR 269
     Jaroslav Tulach
• CON6489 - Build Your Own Type System for Fun and Profit
     Werner Dietl and Michael Ernst
• CON4469 - Annotations and Annotation Processing: What’s New in JDK 8?
     Joel Borggrén-Franck
• HOL3925 - Hack into Your Compiler!
     Jaroslav Tulach
• CON7928 - Writing Annotation Processors to Aid Your Development Process
     Ian Robertson
Thanks to
• Joseph D. Darcy (APT spec lead) - https://blogs.oracle.com/darcy/


“As the lead engineer on JSR 269 in JDK 6, I'd be heartened to see greater adoption and use
of annotation processing by Java developers.” Joseph D. Darcy (Oracle)
Thank you !


         Ez18n is on GitHub.
            Just fork it !


          https://github.com/dbaeli/ez18n


48

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JavaOne 2012 - CON11234 - Multi device Content Display and a Smart Use of Annotation Processing

  • 1. Multi-device Content Display & Smart Use of Annotation Processing @gdigugli @dbaeli
  • 2. Speakers @dbaeli - Dimitri BAELI @gdigugli - Gilles Di Guglielmo • Java developer since 1999 • Java developer since 1999 • R&D Team Mentor at • Software architect at • Coder, DevOps, Agile Coach • ILOG - IBM – From idea to production  2D graphic toolkit • eXo Platform  Rule engine • VP Quality • Prima-Solutions  Services platform for J2EE  Domain models code generators 2
  • 3. We’re working for A French Insurance Aggregator
  • 7. In the search of Effective content display
  • 8. The story Effective Content Display using APT Tooling • Multi device & languages • APT Engine  Labels • APT Processors  Layout & images  Generate technical code • Clean code  Generate reports  Strong Quality  Generate patterns  Easy Maintenance based on i18n • @Message • @MessageBundle • Dedicated APT Processors https://github.com/dbaeli/ez18n
  • 10. Java i18n pattern • The JDK default tooling to:  Dynamically bind the content  Usable for Texts, but also CSS and images (urls) • Tooling :  java.util.ResourceBundle : for .properties reading  java.util.MessageFormat : tiny templating  .properties files with naming pattern
  • 11. java.util.ResourceBundle • The .properties loader for a given Locale • Key / Value in .properties • Naming convention for the storage Messages_en_EN.properties Language Country
  • 12. java.util.MessageFormat • Tiny templating • format(“<pattern>”, args) • Date, numbers are formatted according to the Locale • Options, conditional values easy to use
  • 13. .properties issues • Low quality control – Keys are strings in the code – Poor IDE support • No warning on unused or wrong keys – Encoding Hell • use uxxxx or you’re in trouble • Forces you to maintain two files in sync – key declaration / value in .properties – Key usage in the .java files
  • 15. Ez18n : improved i18n • Interfaces representing each .properties • The methods acts as keys Messages.java Messages.properties
  • 16. Annotations and Code generation • Same pattern as in GWT, but for J2SE • New Annotations in the code :  @MessageBundle to mark interfaces  represents a ResourceBundle  @Message to mark methods represents a localization key • Generate :  .properties file (for ‘default’)  A ResourceBundle for each .properties  Manage other languages out-side your code
  • 17. Improved i18n benefits • Now you can  Refactor your keys  Maintain the ‘default’ in Java  Never change a .properties file for default locale • And use it with other libs:  GWT (done on GitHub)  Even JQuery, Dojo, CoffeeScript (planned)  We called that ez18n
  • 18. Extend this pattern for Multi-display
  • 19. Extended to displays • Add mobile support in @Message declaration DesktopMessages.properties Messages.java MobileMessages.properties
  • 20. Multiple kind of displays • One ResourceBundle by kind of display • All driven by @MessageBundle annotation • Fallback on the default display • Keep the plumbing generated
  • 21. APT to generate .properties and ResourceBundle classes from annotations
  • 22. Behind the scene How APT works
  • 23. APT basics • APT - Annotation Processing Tool • Kind of old-school pre-processing • Standard in JDK6+ (JSR 269) • No runtime overload • Based on annotations in source code • Standard since JDK 1.6 (available in Sun JDK 1.5)
  • 24. APT annotations • Use @Retention, @Target
  • 25. APT Processors • javax.annotation.processing.Processor • Code parsing similar to Reflection  No need of compiled code  Some limitations • 2 key elements :  @SupportedAnnotationTypes to declare the matching annotations  FileObject : the future generated file
  • 26. Similarities with java.lang.reflect Java.lang.reflect Javax.annotation.processing java.lang.Class TypeElement Constructor ExecutableElement Field, Parameter VariableElement Method ExecutableElement java.lang.Package PackageElement • NO Class.newInstance() • NO instanceOf, NO isAssignable() • NO getConstructor, getMethod, … • Weak inheritance support
  • 27. Processor code sample  Processor declaration  Use a FileObject to generate the content
  • 28. APT command line javac -cp $CLASSPATH -proc:only Or -proc:none -encoding UTF-8 -processor $PROCESSOR processors fqcn list -d $PROJECT_HOMEtargetclasses -s $PROJECT_HOMEtargetgenerated-sourcesapt -sourcepath $SOURCE_PATH -verbose $FILES optional
  • 29. APT tooling • Maven integration  maven-processor-plugin (google-code) • Ant integration  javac • IDE integration  Extend the JDK compilation options
  • 30. APT usages • Generate required repetitive code :  Not always possible at runtime  Unit tests, JMX declarations  Utility code with coverage and debug • Build your reports on your code  Your metrics without runtime overload  Even fail the build if you want !
  • 31. One or Two phase compilation • One phase :  APT runs during the compilation  Generated code is directly produced as bytecode (.class)  Harder to debug (no .java created)  Two phases : “proc:only”  javac with proc:only then with proc:none  Creates .java files in the sourcepath
  • 32. Problems with APT • Beware of the “Generate” golden hammer  generate needed code • APT Processors can be tricky:  hard to test / maintain  bad error management (hidden errors !)  Not really (well) documented • No built-in templating mechanism • Enforced file path creation • Beware of maven parallel builds  Because javac is not thread safe
  • 33. It’s time to convince your team • APT parses the source code to generate  Java Files & .class, Reports (.csv, …)  Build log information or even build failures • It allows you to have a source level DSL  Annotate your code & Generate the plumbing  Compile / Debug the generated code • APT framework is compact
  • 34. Go deep in APT usage with Ez18n
  • 35. Demo • The Stock-watcher available on – http://github.com/dbaeli/ez18n – In the ez18n-webapp module • With a desktop browser • With a mobile browser
  • 36. Ez18n - Big picture Messages +loveMeTender() : String [1] +doYouLove( name : String [1] ) : String [1] MessagesMobi leB undle MessagesDeskto pBundl e MessagesMobileBundle() MessagesDesktopBundle() getMessage( k : String [1], params : Object [1] ) : String [1] ey getMessage( k : String [1], params : Object [1] ) : String [1] ey loveMeTender() : String [1] loveMeTender() : String [1] doYouLove( name : String [1] ) : String [1] doYouLove( name : String [1] ) : String [1] «annotate» «annotate» «inject» «inject» -delegate -delegate 1 1 Mobi l e Bund leFacto ry Resour ceBundl e Desktop <S>get( serv annotation ) ice,
  • 37. Ez18n - APT chaining • 5 APT processors to obtain the default pattern • Optional CSV files for analysis/tooling
  • 38. From Messages to DesktopMessages.properties • One property file per interface with @MessageBundle • One property entry per method with @Message
  • 39. From Messages to MobileMessages.properties • Another property file is generated for the mobile content • If @Message#mobile is empty, the @Message#value is used as fallback
  • 42. From Messages to META-INF/services/org.ez18n.sample.Messages • Using META-INF/services to inject the mobile & desktop implementation • The two implementations could be filtered at runtime using annotations and java.util.ServiceLoader  @Mobile  @Desktop
  • 43. A factory for the Messages implementations • Using java.util.ServiceLoader to inject the interface with @MessageBundle • @Desktop and @Mobile used to filter the injection result
  • 44. Client code sample with JUnit • Some basic JUnit test using the API The unit tests are generated using APT too  BundleFactory.get(…) usage in the test @Before to retrieve the bundle implementation
  • 45. Ez18n - Summary Maven, javac Injection & APT
  • 46. If you’d like a JSR for ez18n please tell us ! Ez18n = @Message @MessageBundle Set of Processors
  • 47. APT virtual mini-track Sessions • CON3372 - Advanced Annotation Processing with JSR 269  Jaroslav Tulach • CON6489 - Build Your Own Type System for Fun and Profit  Werner Dietl and Michael Ernst • CON4469 - Annotations and Annotation Processing: What’s New in JDK 8?  Joel Borggrén-Franck • HOL3925 - Hack into Your Compiler!  Jaroslav Tulach • CON7928 - Writing Annotation Processors to Aid Your Development Process  Ian Robertson Thanks to • Joseph D. Darcy (APT spec lead) - https://blogs.oracle.com/darcy/ “As the lead engineer on JSR 269 in JDK 6, I'd be heartened to see greater adoption and use of annotation processing by Java developers.” Joseph D. Darcy (Oracle)
  • 48. Thank you ! Ez18n is on GitHub. Just fork it ! https://github.com/dbaeli/ez18n 48