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The Comprehensive Report on the Cannabis
Extract Movement and the Use of Cannabis
Extracts to Treat Diseases
Author: Justin Kander
Consulting Editor: Nicholas Davey
8th
Edition February 2016
Originally Published October 2013
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Abstract
This report aims to be a comprehensive analysisofthe cannabis extract movement,a collectionof
patients,caregivers,doctors, dispensaries,corporations,and activists that advocate for the use of
cannabis extract medicine to treat seriousdiseasessuchas cancers, heart disease,diabetes,
rheumatoidarthritis, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis,Crohn’s,andotherdisorders. In aggregate, the
movementhas producedimmense evidence showingcannabisextracts can potentiallyeliminate
various typesof cancers in humans, and can control diseasesthat traditional pharmaceuticalsare
ineffective against.
The ultimate goal of this report issimple – to initiate immediate trialsof cannabis extract
medicine inhospice centers. Patientsin such centershave terminal diagnosesand nothingto lose by
attemptinga treatment whichhas a very real chance of curing them.Moreover,cannabis extracts are
completelynon-toxicandcarry no physiological risks. If proventhrough hospice trialsthat cannabis
extracts can reliablyeliminate cancers,more extensive clinical trialscan beginto determine optimum
treatment protocolsand the full extentof cannabinoid medicine’seffectiveness.
This report integratesthe latestscientificresearchand experiential resultstomake a
compellingcase that cannabis extracts are effective treatmentsfora wide variety ofdiseases. The
strength of the arguments, whenanalyzedas a whole,is overwhelming. The report progressesas
follows:
1. Overview of Supporting Science
2. History of Rick Simpson and Phoenix Tears
3. Individual Case Reports
4. Corporations and Dispensaries
5. Doctors and Caregivers
6. Concluding Discussion
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1. Overview of Supporting Science
There isan immense bodyof scientificevidence demonstratingthatcannabinoidsare effectiveagainst
virtuallyanydisease,includingsome clinicaltrials. Moststudies focusonthe effectsof individual
cannabinoidsincellularandanimal models. These studiesalonedonotprove effectivenessinhumans.
In manyinstanceswhere newmedical compoundsare tested,cellularandanimal resultsdonot
translate tohumansbecause of complex physiological differences. However,everycompoundthat
worksfor humansstartsby workinginsimplermodels.Furthermore,ithasbeenunequivocallyproven
that some cell-level effectsof cannabinoidsdoextendtohumans,bolstering theiruse forserious
diseases.
Decadesof research have exploredthe therapeuticpotential of cannabinoidsandthe cellular
mechanismsbywhichtheyaffectvariouscancers anddiseases.Delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is
the most prominentcannabinoidincannabis,andisresponsible forthe plant’spsychoactive effect.
There are at leastsixtyothercannabinoids,includingcannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol(CBN), cannabigerol
(CBG),cannabichromene (CBC), cannabigevarin (CBGV), tetrahydrocannabivarin(THCV),cannabicyclol
(CBL),and cannabielsoin(CBE). Mostof these are non-psychoactive,andcanevenreduce the
psychoactivityof THC. In theirnatural state,mostare presentintheiracidicforms. Forexample,inthe
unheatedcannabisplant,THCisknownas tetrahydrocannabinolicacid(THCA),whichisalsonon-
psychoactive. Whencannabisisdriedorheated,theseacidiccompoundsundergodecarboxylation;the
removal of a carboxyl groupfromthe molecule. Acidiccannabinoidshave differentpropertiesthantheir
decarboxylatedcounterparts,butbothtypespossessmedicinalproperties. The vastmajorityof the
studiesdiscussedhere exploredecarboxylatedcannabinoids. The role of terpenoidsandflavonoids,
some of the non-cannabinoidcompoundsincannabis,will alsobe reviewed.
One of the firstpositive studieswascarriedoutatthe Medical College of Virginiain1974. The
study,while intendedtoprove thatcannabisuse damagesthe immune system, foundthatTHC slowed
Lewislungadenocarcinomaandleukemiagrowthinadose-dependentrelationship
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1159836). A 2005 studyfurtherdemonstratedthatTHCcan
induce apoptosis(programmedcell death) inthree typesof leukemia cells - acute lymphoblastic
leukemia,acute promyelocyticleukemia,anderythroleukemiacells
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15454482).
The effectof THC on braincancer is well documentedbyDr.Manuel Guzmánand histeamof
researchersinSpain. In1998, theypublishedastudydocumentingTHC’sabilitytoinduce apoptosisin
gliomacells(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9771884). In2005, Dr. Guzmán’steamidentified
that THC and syntheticcannabinoids coulddecreaseproductionof vascularendothelial growthfactor
(VEGF) andmitigate activationof the relatedreceptorVEGFR-2, helpingtoprevent angiogenesis (the
formationof bloodvesselstotumors) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15313899). Through this
mechanism,culturedgliomacellsandmouse gliomaswere reduced. In2008, the team foundgliomacell
invasionisinhibitedbyTHC throughthe down-regulationof matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2)
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18339876). In the previoustwostudies,researcherslocally
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administeredTHCto twohumanpatients,andfoundthatTHC decreasedVEGFandMMP-2 levelsin
bothpatients
Othercancers have beenexaminedbyDr.Guzmán.A 2003 study showed activationof
cannabinoidreceptorswasassociatedwithapoptosisof skincancercells,whilehealthycellsremained
unaffected(http://www.jci.org/articles/view/16116).A 2006 studyon pancreaticcancer demonstrated
THC inducedapoptosisinfour pancreaticcancercell linesandreducedtumorgrowthintwoanimal
models(http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/66/13/6748.full). Italsofound thatsome cancercells
express higherlevelsof cannabinoidreceptorsthanhealthycells.Inthiscase,the role of the CB2
receptorwascritical,as blockingthe receptorpreventedTHC-inducedapoptosis;blockingthe synthesis
of ceramide,aproapoptoticcompound,alsopreventedapoptoticeffects.Below are resultsfromthe in
vivo model.
THC is effectiveagainstlungcancerboth in vitro and in vivo.A 2007 Harvard studyshowedthatTHC
inhibitedandinducedapoptosisinnon-small celllungcancercell linesandthatTHC-treated,cancerous
mice had 50% reductionsintumorweightandvolume,and60% reductionsinmacroscopiclesions
(http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/v27/n3/full/1210641a.html).A laterApril 2012 studyfoundthat
CBD alsohad an anti-metastaticeffectonone of the same lungcancer cell lines,A549,as well asthe
linesH358 andH460 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22198381). CBD isalsoable to induce
apoptosisinA549 andH460 cells(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23220503).
Both THC and CBD are alsoeffectiveagainstskincancer.AnOctober2015 studyin Life Sciences
usedTHC to reduce melanomatumorsinmice,shrinkingthe cancersby50%
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25921771). THC workedviathe immune system, mitigatingthe
pro-inflammatorymicroenvironmentof the cancercells.
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A June 2015 studyinthe Journalof InvestigativeDermatology illuminatedthe powerof THCand CBD's
synergisticactionsagainstmelanoma(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25674907). First,THC was
shownto activate autophagyandinduce apoptosisinBRAFwild-type(CHL-1) andmutated(A375 and
SK-MEL-28) melanomacell lines. Usingverysmall dosesof THCand CBD togetherresultedinsubstantial
lossof viabilityinCHL-1,A375, and SK-MEL-28 cells.THCalone wassomewhateffective;temozolomide,
a standard single-agenttreatmentformetastasticmelanoma,hadlittle effect.
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Researchersalsoassessedthe in vivo anticanceractionof cannabinoidswithamouse CHL-1 xenograft
tumor model.THCand the THC+CBD combinationreducedtumorcell proliferationandincreased
autophagyandapoptosiscomparedtocontrol or temozolomideconditions.The authorsconcluded,
"Collectively,thesedatasuggestthatTHC and Sativex-L[THC+CBD] are more effective than
temozolomide intermsof apoptosisinductionandantitumorresponse,furthervalidatingthe
therapeuticrelevance of cannabinoidtreatmentformelanoma."
A September1999 studyfoundthat THC couldinduce apoptosisinthe prostate cancercell line PC3,and
these effectsoccurredindependentlyof cannabinoidreceptors
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10570948). Additionally,asummarizingstudyonthe
endocannabinoidsystemandprostate cancerdiscussedthe potential role of the systeminmaintaining
prostate homeostasis,aswell asthe abilityof several cannabinoidsto reduce prostate cancercell
proliferationandmigration(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21912423).
Cholangiocarcinoma,anespeciallyrare cancer,can be substantially reduced withTHC
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916793). At low concentrations,THCinhibitedcancercell
proliferation,migration,andinvasion. Athighconcentrations,itdirectlyinducedapoptosis. Anotherrare
cancer, ErbB2-positive breastcancer,wasshowntorespondto THC and a syntheticcannabinoidinaJuly
2010 MolecularCancer study(http://www.molecular-cancer.com/content/9/1/196).Bothcannabinoids
inhibitedcancercell proliferationandimpairedangiogenesis,aswell asinducedapoptosis. Theyalso
workedin vivo againsttumorgrowth.
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A July2011 Cell Death and Differentiation article alsotestedTHCanda syntheticcannabinoid,finding
theybothreducedthe viability andinducedapoptosisin twohepatocellular(liver)carcinomacell lines
throughCB2 activation (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21475304). An in vivo model confirmed
the cell-leveleffectsextendedtoanimals.
THC was foundto be a potentinhibitorof oral cancercell respirationina2010 Pharmacology study,
whichconcludeditwastoxicto the highlymalignantTu183 cell line andeffectswereconcentration-
dependent(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20516734).
Researchhasshownthat cannabinoidsexertpositive benefitsatthe geneticlevel. A studybyDr.
SeanMcAllisterinNovember2007 showedthatCBD coulddown-regulate Id-1gene expressionin
aggressive breastcancercells,limitingtheirmetastaticpotential
(http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/6/11/2921.long).A furtherstudyinAugust2011 clarifiedthe
pathwaysbywhichId-1 expressionwasinhibited(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20859676). A
September2004 studyfrom the Departmentof Medical OncologyinLondonshowedthatTHCwas a
potentinducerof apoptosisinmultiple leukemiccell linesatleastpartiallythroughchanginggene
expressionlevels(http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/105/3/1214.full).
A 2012 studyinthe British Journalof Pharmacologyshowed CBDinhibitedangiogenesisof
several tumorsthroughmultiple mechanisms (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22624859).
Anotherstudyinthe same journal publishedJanuary2013 showedCBDsignificantlyinhibitedcell
viabilityinseveral typesof prostate cancerandinducedapoptosisthroughintrinsicapoptoticpathways
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22594963). The studyalsoshowedthat several otherpure
cannabinoidsandcannabisextractswere effective againstprostate cancer,withthe full-spectrum
extractsgenerallybeingstronger.Anti-cancerstrengthismeasuredwiththe IC50value,whichinthis
case isthe concentrationrequiredtoreduce cell viabilityby50% comparedto a control. A lowerIC50
value indicatesgreaterpotency. Incaseswhere 50% inhibition wasnotreached,the inhibitionreached
at maximumconcentrationtestedisputinparentheses.Asshown,THCV,THCVA,andCBDV all have
anti-cancerproperties,althoughtheyare relativelyweakerthanothercannabinoids.
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A 2005 studydemonstrated CBDinhibitsgliomacellmigration throughareceptor-independent
mechanism(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1576089). A 2010 studyshowedthatCBD
enhancesthe inhibitoryeffectsof THCon glioblastomacell proliferationandsurvival
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20053780). As withthe above chart, thisarticle indicatesthe
importance and relevance of synergybetweencannabinoids.
An October2013 studyfoundthatCBD inhibitedcellproliferationof the U87-MG and T98G
gliomacell linesanddecreasedexpressionof proteinsassociatedwithgrowth,invasion,and
angiogenesis(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24204703). CBD isparticularlyeffectiveagainst
gliomasdue toits abilitytotargetgliomastem-likecells(GSCs).These poorlydifferentiatedcellsare
highlyresistanttoradiationandchemotherapy.AnOctober2015 studypublishedinthe International
Journalof CancershowedhowCBD promotesthe differentiationof GSCsandinhibitstheirproliferation
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25903924). By promotingdifferentiation,CBDabrogatedthe
resistance of these cellstochemotherapyandinhibitedcell viabilitydirectly.
CBD can also directlykill gliomacells.A November2003 studyin JPET illuminatedhow CBD
inducedapoptosisinthe humangliomacell linesU87and U373
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14617682). ResearchersfoundthataddingCBD to cultures
dramaticallyreducedmitochondrial oxidative metabolismandcell viabilityinaconcentration-
dependentmanner.The studyalsoimplantedU87 gliomacellsinmice,andtreatmentwithonly0.5mg
of CBD permouse significantlyinhibitedthe glioma’sgrowth.
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A November2013 studyin InternationalJournalof Cancer testedthe effectsof CBDalone andin
combinationwithachemotherapeuticagentagainst multiple myeloma
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24293211). CBD workedbyitself orinsynergywithbortezomib
to stronglyinhibitgrowth,arrestcell cycle progression,andinduce cell deathinmultiple myelomacells.
A 2010 studyby Germanresearchersfromthe Universityof Rostockdemonstratedthe abilityof
CBD to inhibitinvasionof cervical cancercellsaswell asinhibitviability
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19914218). The studyalsoshowedthatCBD inhibitedthe
metastasisof lungcancercells.
Kaposi's sarcomais a cancer characterizedbythe growthof abnormal tissue underthe skinorin
the liningof the mouse,nose,orthroat;it usuallyaffectsinHIV/AIDSpatientsdue totheirweakened
immune systems.ItiscausedbyKaposi sarcoma-associatedherpesvirus(KSHV).A studyin Genes&
Cancerpublishedin2012 provedthat CBD can inhibitproliferationandinduce apoptosisincellsinfected
withKSHV (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23264851).
A 2010 studyin Urology showedthatCBD inducedapoptosisoccurredviathe regulationof
calciuminflux throughthe TRPV2channel protein,atrans-membrane channel in humanT24 bladder
cancer cells (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20546877). CBD can alsoinduce apoptosisand
reduce viabilityinhumanleukemiacells throughinteractionswithintrinsicandextrinsicapoptotic
pathways(http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/70/3/897.full).
A 2011 MolecularCancerTherapeutics article showedCBDinducedbreastcancercell death
throughreceptor-independentmechanisms(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21566064). CBD
workedagainstbothestrogenreceptor-positive andestrogenreceptor-negative cells,withincreasing
efficacyathigherconcentrations.
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The November2011 issue of AnticancerResearch featuredanarticle aboutCBD and the synthetic
cannabinoid WIN-55,212-2’sabilitiestoinduce apoptosisinprostate andcoloncancercellsthroughthe
modulationof complex cell signaling(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22110202). WIN-55,212-2
can alsoinduce apoptosisinchemotherapy-resistantstomachcancerviaactivatingcannabinoid
receptors(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23749906). Anothersyntheticcannabinoid,HU-210,
has beenshowntobe veryeffectiveagainstanaggressive rhabdomyosarcomasubtype
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19509271). ViaactivatingCB1 receptors,inductionof apoptosis
was achieved.THCwasalsoeffectiveatreducingcell viabilityandinducingapoptosis.The study
demonstratedCB1receptorswere upregulatedincanceroustissue.Anin vivo experimentwithHU-210
showedmarkedresults.
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A July2014 studyin Biochemical Pharmacology demonstratedaremarkable methodbywhich
cannabinoidsworkwiththe body’simmune systemtokill lungcancercells
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25069049). CBD, THC, and an endocannabinoidwere shownto
upregulate ICAM-1,anadhesionmolecule, onA549 and H460 lungcancer cell lines. Thisincreased
susceptibilityof the cancercells toadhere to LAKcells,a type of white bloodcell thatbreaksdown
tumors.Afteradhesion,the whitebloodcellsdestroythe cancervialysis.
AlthoughTHCand CBD have receivedthe bulkof attentionwhenitcomestoresearch,other
cannabinoidsalsopossessanti-cancereffects. A September2006 article analyzedthe effectsof several
cannabinoidson twohumanbreastcarcinomacell lines,MCF-7andMDA-MB-231. CBD wasfoundto be
the most potentinhibitorof cancercell growth;THC, CBG, CBC,THCA, CBDA,THC-rich andCBD-rich
extractswere foundtobe effective aswell (http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/318/3/1375.full).All
cannabinoidsandbothextractswere alsofoundtoinhibitgrowthof prostate (DU-145),colorectal
(CaCo-2),gastricadenocarcinoma(AGS),glioma(C6),thyroid(KiMol),andleukemiccancercells (RBL-
2H3). The followingchartillustratesthe relativestrengthsof eachcannabinoidagainst eachcell line,as
measuredwithIC50values(the concentrationrequiredtoreduce growthby50% as comparedto a
control). Asexplainedearlier,lowerconcentrationsindicate greaterpotency,asitrequireslessof the
cannabinoidtoreduce growthby50%. As mentioned,CBDwasthe most potent anti-cancercompound,
withCBG beinggenerallythe secondmostpotentandCBC generallythe thirdmostpotent(there are
some exceptions).
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An October2013 article in AnticancerResearch foundthatsix cannabinoids, includingCBD,CBG,CBGV,
and theiracidicforms,could independently inhibitthe proliferationof leukemiacells
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123005). However,whenthe cannabinoids were combined,
the anticancereffectwasevengreater,indicatingasynergisticeffect.
Endocannabinoids,the cannabinoid-likemoleculesproducedwithinthe body,have apoptosis-
inducingeffectsaswell. A February2006 studyin ExperimentalCell Research foundthat an analogue of
the endogenouscannabinoidanandamideinhibitedthe adhesionandmigrationof breastcancercells,
and that the endocannabinoidsystemregulatessuchcancercell proliferation
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16343481). A June 2003 studyin Prostateshowedanandamide
inducedapoptosisinmultipleprostate cancercell lines,includingthe PC3line,whichhasproven
susceptibletoTHC as well (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12746841). Evenmetastaticgrowth
was inhibited. Additionally,the ceramidepathway of apoptosiswasbolsteredfurther,withthe study
concludingthe cytotoxicactionsof anandamide mayoccurviaintracellularceramide production. Ina
January2008 study,increasedendocannabinoidlevelswereshowntoreduce the developmentof
precancerouscolonlesionsinmice (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755791).
Anandamide canalsocause cell deathinapoptosis-resistantcolorectalcancercells,asdemonstratedin
a 2010 studyin the InternationalJournalof Oncology
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20514410).
An October2011 studydemonstratedthatanandamideandtworelatedcompounds could
reduce the viabilityof mice neuroblastomacells
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203169). Priorto this,a 2000 studyin The Journalof
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Biological Chemistry showedthatanandamide inducedapoptosisinhumanneuroblastomaand
lymphomacells(http://www.jbc.org/content/275/41/31938.full).A July2009 study in The Journalof
SurgicalResearch showedthatanandamide inducedapoptosisinstomachcancercellsand
synergisticallyenhancedthe cancer-killingeffectsof the chemotherapeuticagentpaclitaxel
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19394652). A May 2014 studyin Head & Neck showed
anandamide,butnot2-AG,inhibitedproliferationof headandnecksquamouscell carcinomacellsby
increasingreactive oxygenspeciesthroughareceptor-independentmechanism.
Cannabinoidreceptorsingeneral were implicatedinimprovingdisease-free survival of liver
cancer patients. A November2006 studyfoundthatdisease-free survivalwasmuchbetterinpatients
withhighexpressionlevelsof CB1and CB2 receptorsthanthose withlow-level expression
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17074588). In 2005, a Swedishresearchteamfoundthat
activatingcannabinoid receptorswithsyntheticcannabinoidsandendocannabinoidscoulddecrease the
viabilityof mantle cell lymphoma(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16337199). An article in2010
by a Chinese researchteamdiscussedthe effectsof cannabinoidreceptoractivationonhepatomacells,
and foundactivationinducedapoptosisandinhibitedproliferation
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20368112).
An excellentstudysummarizingthe anti-cancereffectsof bothcannabinoidsand
endocannabinoidswaspublishedJanuary2013 issue of Progressin Lipid Research
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23103355). The abstract states, “Many disease-ameliorating
effectsof cannabinoids-endocannabinoidsare receptormediated,butmanyare not,indicatingnon-CBR
signalingpathways.Cannabinoids-endocannabinoidsare anti-inflammatory,anti-proliferative,anti-
invasive,anti-metastaticandpro-apoptoticinmostcancers, in vitro and in vivo inanimals.Theysignal
throughp38, MAPK,JUN,PI3, AKT,ceramide,caspases,MMPs,PPARs,VEGF,NF-κB,p8,CHOP,TRB3 and
pro-apoptoticoncogenes(p53,p21waf1/cip1) to induce cell cycle arrest,autophagy,apoptosisand
tumourinhibition.”Alsomentioned isthe factsome studiessuggest cannabinoidscanbe anti-apoptotic
and pro-proliferative insome cancers. There verywell couldbe cases,especiallyincell culturesoutside
organismswithfunctioningendocannabinoidsystems,whereanisolated cannabinoidmay demonstrate
these effects. However, suchstudies are overwhelminglyoutnumberedbyothers demonstratinganti-
cancer properties,andthe above paperevenconcludesbystating clinical trialsare “urgentlyrequired”
to determine the fullpotential of cannabinoidcancertherapy. Furthermore,pro-proliferativeeffects
usuallyoccurwithnanomolarconcentrationsof cannabinoids,whileanti-proliferative effectsbeginto
occur at the micromolarconcentrationlevel(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2241751).
Cannabinoidtreatmentutilizesconcentrationsatthe higherend,andevenlow-dose cannabisextracts
are well above nanomolarconcentrations.
The most powerful scientificevidence demonstratinganticancereffectsof cannabisextractsin
humansisa November2013 article inCaseReportsin Oncology
(http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3901602). The article describedthe case of a14-year old
female withterminal acute lymphoblasticleukemiawitha Philadelphiachromosome mutation. This
formof leukemiaismuchmore aggressive thanothertypes. 34 monthsof chemotherapyandradiation
failedtostopthe cancer, and the patientwasplacedinpalliative home care. The familydecidedtouse
cannabisoil as a lastresort afterconductingresearchindicatingpotential effectiveness.
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The firstdose of extractwasgivenonFebruary21st
, 2009. Priorto this,fromFebruary4th
to the 20th
, the
patient’sleukemicblastcell countrose from51,490 to 194,000. Evenafterbeginningthe oil,the count
continuedtorise,peakingat374,000 on February25th
. However,there wassubsequentlyasharp
decrease inblastcount,whichcorrelatedwithanincrease indose. ByDay39, the blastcounthad
decreasedto300. The total treatmentlasted78 days,at whichpointthe leukemicblastcellswere
almostcompletelygone.Unfortunately,the patientpassedawaydue toa bowel perforation,which
apparentlywas causedbythe side effectsof the priorintense chemotherapyregiment. The study
concluded,
“The resultsshownhere cannotbe attributedtothe phenomenonof ‘spontaneousremission'
because a dose response curve wasachieved.Three factors,namelyfrequencyof dosing,amountgiven
(therapeuticdosing) andthe potencyof the cannabisstrains,were critical indeterminingresponse and
disease control.Byviewingfigure 6,itcan be seenthatintroducingstrainsthatwere lesspotent,dosing
at intervals>8 h and suboptimal therapeuticdosingconsistentlyshowedincreasesinthe leukemicblast
cell count.It couldnot be determinedwhichcannabinoidprofilesconstituteda‘potent'cannabisstrain
because the resinwasnotanalyzed.Researchisneededtodeterminethe profile andratiosof
cannabinoidswithinthe strainsthatexhibitantileukemicproperties.
These resultscannotbe explainedbyanyothertherapies,asthe childwasunderpalliativecare
and wassolelyoncannabinoidtreatmentwhenthe response wasdocumentedbythe SickKidsHospital.
The toxicologyreportsruledoutchemotherapeuticagents,andonlyshowedhertobe positive forTHC
(tetrahydrocannabinol) whenshe had‘arecentmassive decrease of WBCfrom350,000 to 0.3' inducing
tumor lysissyndrome,asreportedbythe primaryhematologist/oncologistatthe SickKidsHospital.
Thistherapyhas to be viewedaspolytherapy,asmanycannabinoidswithinthe resinousextract
have demonstratedtargeted,antiproliferative,proapoptoticandantiangiogenicproperties.Thisalso
needstobe exploredfurther,asthere ispotential thatcannabinoidsmightshow selectivitywhen
attackingcancer cells,therebyreducingthe widespreadcytotoxiceffectsof conventional
chemotherapeuticagents.Itmustbe notedthatwhere ourmost advancedchemotherapeuticagents
had failedtocontrol the blastcountsand had devastatingside effectsthatultimatelyresultedinthe
deathof the patient,the cannabinoidtherapyhadnotoxicside effectsandonlypsychosomatic
properties,withanincrease inthe patient'svitality.”
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(Note:HempOil referstoTHC-richcannabis-derivedextract,nothempseedoil)
A January2016 article in BMC Cancerofferedadditional evidenceof THC'seffectivenessagainst
leukemiaandreferredtothe above case (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26775260). German
researcherswiththe UniversityHospital Tübingen showedthatTHCinducedapoptosisandinhibited
proliferationinleukemiacells.Theyalsoofferedinsightintothe potential anticancereffectsof
dronabinol,asyntheticformof THC,in a humanpatient. The abstract includes,"We have anecdotal
evidence thatTHCmay have contributedtodisease control inapatientwithacute undifferentiated
leukemia."Researchersextractedplasmafromthe patient'sbloodandtesteditonleukemiacells,and
foundthe cellsunderwentapoptosis.Whilethis isnotdirectproof thatdronabinol exerted an
anticancereffectinthe patient,itis a potentiallyimportantobservation.Furthermore,the authors
testedTHC onseveral typesof leukemiaanddeterminedwhichtypesweremostsusceptibletoTHC.
Theystated,
"In thiscontext,acase reportof a 14 yearold girl withrefractoryBCR-ABL1(Ph+) ALL was
recentlypublished [the above-mentioned CaseReportsin Oncology study] demonstratingdramaticblast
reductioninan individual therapyapproachusingescalatingdoses of acannabis extract.It is
remarkable,thatthe selectedcase fitsintothe definedrespondercohortof ourstudy."Furtherresearch
fromthe UniversityHospitalTübingen willhopefullyshedmore lightintohow THCfightsleukemia.
The National CancerInstitute hasacknowledgedthe preclinical evidence showingthe anticancer
propertiesof cannabinoids,andexploresthematthe followinglink:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/cannabis/healthprofessional/page4.
Before movingontostudiesregardingotherseriousdiseases,itisimportantto examinethe
endocannabinoidsystem(ECS).Ashasbeensuggestedthroughthe cancer-relatedstudiesalone,the
importance of the ECS iscritical. It consistsof a networkof cannabinoidreceptorsand
endocannabinoids,foundthroughoutthe entire body. Phytocannabinoids(derivedfromcannabis),
endocannabinoids,andsyntheticcannabinoids caninduce apoptosisincancercellsthrough numerous
mechanisms. The factthat some cancercellsexpresshigherlevelsof cannabinoidreceptorsthannormal
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cellsisremarkably intriguinginlightof endocannabinoidanticancerproperties. Evenwithout
phytocannabinoids,the bodyhas anexcellentdefense systemagainstabnormal cells. Whencells
become malignant,theydevelopmore cannabinoid receptorsandbecome more susceptible to
endocannabinoids, thusenablingtheirefficientdisposal.However,itappearsthatdue to nutritional and
environmental factors,the capabilitiesof endocannabinoidsare oftennotenough,and
phytocannabinoidsupplementationisnecessarytorestore balance.
Several studieshave pointedtothe homeostatic-maintenance propertiesof the ECS.
Homeostasisisthe restingconditionof healthof anorganism, includingbutnotlimitedtofactorssuch
as hydration,energy,temperature,andmaintenance of properenzyme,hormone,andneurotransmitter
levels. Maintaininghomeostasisisof paramountimportance,forif it istoo strongly impaired,an
organismwill die. Researchisbeginningtoindicate thatthe ECSis theprimaryregulatorof homeostasis
inthe body. If thisisthe case,thenthe astoundingmedicinal propertiesof phytocannabinoidsbecome
much more understandable. Alldisease ultimately stemsfromanimbalance of some kind. Althoughthis
statementisanimmense simplificationof the complexoriginsandmechanismsof variousdiseases,it
still accuratelydescribesthe fundamental nature of disease –imbalance,irregularity,abnormality.
Theoretically,phytocannabinoidsfunctioningwithinthe ECScouldrestore homeostaticbalance and thus
eliminatebodilydisease. Giventhe factthatin practice humansare usingconcentrated
phytocannabinoidstosuccessfullytreatamultitude of diseases, thesehigh-level theoriesonthe ECS
mustbe givenmore weight. Asadditional researchisconducted,the exactmechanismsbywhich
cannabinoidsheal individualdiseasesandmaintainorganism-wide homeostasiswilldoubtlessbe
revealed.
Dr. RobertMelamede, formerCEOand Presidentof CannabisScience andAssociate Professorat
Universityof ColoradoColoradoSprings,haspioneeredsignificantresearchonthe ECS. Dr. Melamede’s
paperon endocannabinoidsasglobal homeostaticregulatorsdiscussesthe remarkablydiverse methods
of ECS function(http://necsi.edu/events/iccs6/viewpaper.php?id=70).Otherresearchhasconfirmedthe
regulatorypropertiesof the ECS.A January2005 studydiscussedhow the ECSappearedearlyin
evolutionandmodulatescritical functionslike the autonomicnervoussystem, immune systemand
microcirculationin all vertebrates (http://alcalc.oxfordjournals.org/content/40/1/2.short).A 2006 study
inInternationalJournalof Obesity spoke of the ECSas a regulatorof energyhomeostasis,participatingin
functionslike fatmetabolismandappetite
(http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v30/n1s/full/0803276a.html).
A June 2010 studyin Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior elaboratedonveryintriguing
ideas,includingthe role of the ECSin regulatingvariousaspectsof embryological developmentand
homeostasis(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305710000924). The study
primarilysuggestedthatthere were aspectsof the ECSwhichbecame dysfunctional inobese people.
Since CB1 receptorswere knowntobe involvedinappetite,CB1antagonistdrugswere developedto
blockthe activationof the receptorsandthus decrease appetite. Whilethiswaspartiallyeffective,
numerousside effectsoccurredandthe use of such antagonistswasdiscontinued. Giventhe widespread
functionof cannabinoidreceptorsbeyondappetite,the verypoorresultsof CB1blockade are not
surprising. The studyconcludesbysayingalternativecannabinoid-basedtherapiesshouldbe openfor
consideration. Anotheraspectof the endocannabinoidsystem’sregulatorymechanisms,post-synaptic
feedback,isdiscussedinthe Doctors and Caregiverssection.
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The ubiquitousnature of the endocannabinoidsystemisdemonstratedbythe fact that it is
somehowinvolvedinagreat array of diseases.Althoughthe purpose of thisreportisnotto examine
everyscientificarticle oncannabinoids,itisimportanttounderstandthe profoundlyversatile,positive,
and diverse benefits of cannabinoids.
A January2008 article in Neuropharmacologynotedhow CBD-treated,non-obese diabetes-
prone female mice hadonlya32% incidence of diabetesdiagnosis,comparedto100% in the untreated
group(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2270485). The studyalsoreferencedanearlier
workwhere cannabidiol loweredthe incidence of diabetesinmice. A June 2007 studyproposedthatthe
ECS regulatesglucose homeostasisthroughcoordinatedactionsof CB1and CB2 receptors,whilealso
showingactivationof CB2receptorsimprovedglucose tolerance
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001429990700249X). Intriguingly,the study showed
activatingCB2 receptorsresultsinsimilaractionsasblockingCB1receptors,demonstratingthe integral
relationshipbetweenbothreceptortypes.
A 2010 studyinthe Journalof theAmerican College of Cardiology,partiallyauthoredbyDr.
Raphael Mechoulam(the firsttoisolate THC),concludedthatCBDmay have greattherapeuticpotential
for diabetes,throughthe attenuationof oxidative/nitrative stress,inflammation,celldeath,andfibrosis
(http://www.natap.org/2010/newsUpdates/marijuana.pdf).Benefitforcardiovasculardisorderswas
alsosuggested. AnotherstudyinFebruary2008 concludedthatcannabinoidsmaybe aneffective
treatmentforinflammationandfibrosisinchronicpancreatitis
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2253501).
A 2002 studyin Bulletin of ExperimentalBiology and Medicine linkedthe activationof
cannabinoidreceptorswithcardioprotective effects,demonstratingthatcannabinoidscanpreventthe
deathof healthycellsduringaheartattack
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=12428278). A later
March 2006 studyfoundthat the ECS, throughactivationof CB2 receptors,wasimportantforprotection
frommyocardial ischemia,aconditionresultingindecreasedbloodflow tothe heart
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16618028).
Cannabinoids exertsignificantliverprotective effects. A December2003 studyin Molecular
Pharmacology showedthatasyntheticcannabinoidcouldinhibitinflammatoryliverdamage inmice,
partiallythroughpromotingthe earlyexpressionof protective genes
(http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/64/6/1334.full).A later2008 studyin the same journal
concludedthatTHC couldinhibithepatitisinmice byreducinglivertissue injury
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2828293). The studyalsofoundTHC suppressed
inflammationandsignificantlyincreasedspecializedliverregulatorycells.
HIV is one of the mostdestructive virusesfacinghumanitytoday,and cannabismaybe the
solution. Patientshave continuouslyreportedthatcannabisuse improvessymptoms,includingappetite,
muscle pain,nausea,anxiety,nervepain,anddepression
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15857739). Evidence alsosuggeststhatcannabinoidscaninhibit
the HIV virusdirectly. Muchinsightcomesfromresearchintosimianimmunodeficiencyvirus(SIV),the
primate formof HIV. AnApril 2010 study usingRhesusmacaques foundthatchronicTHC treatment
resultedin lowerplasmaviral load,lowerlymphnodeproviral DNA,andlowerviral gagRNA,irrespective
of disease stage (http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/24/1_MeetingAbstracts/752.6).
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A June 2011 studyin AIDSResearch and Retroviruses confirmedmanyof these results,showingthat
chronicTHC administrationdecreasedearlymortalityfromSIV infectionin macaques,withanassociated
decrease inplasmaandCSF viral loads(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131805). The
studyalsoanalyzed THC in vitro,findingthe compound decreasedSIV viral replicationinMT4-R5 cells.
A December2011 studyin Journalof NeuroimmunePharmacology revealedTHCandanother
cannabinoidknownasCP55940 couldreduce the migrationof microglial-like cellstowardsthe protein
Tat. Thisis significantbecauseTatisimplicatedinHIV neuropathogenesis; thus,inhibitingTatcan
potentiallyhelpcontrol HIV (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21735070). Anothersignificant
studycarriedout by the Mount Sinai School of Medicine andpublishedMarch2012 demonstratedthat
activatingCB2 receptors,butnotCB1 receptors,“reducedinfectionof primaryCD4+T cellsfollowing
cell-freeandcell-to-celltransmissionof CXCR4-tropicvirus”
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0033961).The report
concludedthatCB2 agonistsmay be beneficial fortheirantiviral effectsagainstCXCR4-tropicvirusesin
late HIV-1infectionstages.
The role of cannabinoidsfortreatmentof epilepticconditionshasbeengainingpopularity
recently,andseveral veryprominenttreatmentcasesare discussedin the case sections. A 1981 studyin
the Journalof Clinical Pharmacology suggestedthatCBDcouldbe therapeuticallyeffective againstthree
of the fourmajor typesof epilepsy,includinggrandmal,cortical focal,andcomplex partial seizures
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6975285). A September2003 studyin JPET useda rat
pilocarpine model of epilepsytotestthe effectivenessof THCand anothercannabimimeticonseizures –
treatment“completelyabolishedspontaneousepilepticseizures”
(http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/307/1/129.full).The studyalsotestedaCB1 antagonist,and
foundusingitto blockCB1 receptorssignificantlyincreased seizure duration. Anotherobservationwas
that an endogenouscannabinoidknownas 2-arachidonylglycerol significantlyincreasedduringseizures,
suggestingthatendocannabinoidsalongwithphytocannabinoidsmodulate seizure activitythroughCB1
activation.
A verycomprehensive June2012 studyin Seizure describedthe effectsof CBDonthree models
of seizures(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22520455). A previousstudybythe same team
showedthatcannabidiol reducedseizure severityandlethalityin the in vivo model of
pentylenetetrazole-inducedgeneralisedseizures. Inthisstudy,the acute pilocarbinemodelof temporal
lobe seizure andthe penicillinmodel of partial seizure were examinedthroughCBDadministrationto
rodentsat levelsof 1,10, and100mg/kg. Inthe pilocarbine model,all levelsof CBDdosessignificantly
reducedthe numberof animals experiencingthe mostsevere seizures. Inthe penicillinmodel,CBD
dosesof 10mg/kg and 100mg/kg significantlyreducedpercentage mortalityasaresultof seizures,but
all levelsof dosesdecreasedthe numberof animalsexperiencingthe mostsevere tonic-clonicseizures.
Inflammationisatthe core of manydiseases,andmanystudiesimplicate cannabinoidsin
controllingexcessive inflammation. Dr.Raphael Mechoulam, amongothers,holdsapatentonthe use of
CBD to treat inflammatorydiseases. The diseaseslistedinthe patentincluderheumatoidarthritis,
multiple sclerosis,ulcerativecolitis,andCrohn’sdisease
(http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6410588/fulltext.html).A detailed studyinthe Journalof Clinical
Investigation alsodescribedthe abilityof the ECSto mediate protectivesignalsthatreduce
inflammation(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC385396).Anotherstudypointedtothe
20
abilityof cannabinoidstomodulateinflammatoryanddegenerativeneuronal damage inmultiple
sclerosis,alsoindicatingthatthe ECSis dysregulatedinthe disease
(http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/130/10/2543.full). The resultspointtothe needforexternally
regulatingthe ECSto achieve effective MStreatment.Furthermore,aJuly2003 studyfoundthat
cannabinoidsinhibitedneurodegenerationandprovidedneuroprotectionfrominflammatorydiseases
(http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/126/10/2191.full). Furthermore, apatentexistsonTHCfor
treatingandpreventingsymptomsof MS
(http://www.patentstorm.us/applications/20060167084/fulltext.html).A summarizingstudyinthe
Journalof the NeurologicalSciences hypothesizedthatthe ECScan provide neuroprotectioninCNS
inflammatorydiseases(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15894331). THC, CBD, CBG, andtheir
acidicformswere shownto mitigate inflammationbyinhibitingcyclooxegenase enzyme activityina
2011 study(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21532172).
The potential of cannabinoidstopreventorreverse Alzheimer’sdisease isverypromising. Atthe
heartof Alzheimer’sisthe accumulationof beta-amyloidplaque,whichimpairsbrainfunctionandleads
to the host of symptomsassociatedwithAlzheimer’s. A September2013 studyin Molecular and Cellular
Neurosciences positedthatbeta-amyloidplaque buildupoccurredbecause of impairedclearance of the
plaque acrossthe blood-brainbarrier(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23831388). It testedhow
the applicationof cannabinoidreceptoragonistsinfluencedthe transportof plaque outof the brain,
findingagonistssignificantlyenhancedplaqueclearance. Theyalsoelevatedlevelsof LRP1,the beta-
amyloidtransportprotein,whichexplainshow receptoractivationinduced theseresults.Inhibiting
cannabinoidreceptorsstopped beneficialeffects,indicatingthe importance of receptoractivationin
fightingAlzheimer’s.
A 2013 Journalof Alzheimer’sDisease studyshowedthe CB2 agonistJWH-133 improved
cognitionof mice geneticallyalteredtohave Alzheimer’scharacteristics
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515018). The improvementwas associatedwithdecreased
microglial activityandreductionof fourpro-inflammatorycytokines. “Inconclusion,the presentstudy
lendssupporttothe ideathat stimulationof CB2receptorsamelioratesseveral alteredparametersin
Alzheimer'sdisease such asimpairedmemoryandlearning,neuroinflammation,oxidative stressdamage
and oxidativestressresponses,selectedtaukinases,andtauhyperphosphorylationaroundplaques.”
An August2014 studyon Alzheimer’sexploredthe use of CBDintreatinggeneticallyaltered
mice (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24577515). These mice hadimpairmentsinsocial
recognitionand novel objectrecognition,whichchronicCBDtreatmentreversed. However,anxiety-
relatedbehaviorswerenotaffected. “Itbasicallybringsthe performance of the animalsbacktothe level
of healthyanimals.Youcouldsayit curedthem, butwe will have togoback and lookat theirbrainsto
be sure,”saidDr. TimKarl,one of the study’sauthors(http://www.smh.com.au/national/cannabis-may-
help-reverse-dementia-study-20130206-2dxsk.html).InaTIME article onhow cannabinoids mayslow
brainaging,Dr. Gary Wenk,professorof neuroscience,immunology,andmedical geneticsatOhioState
University,stated, “I’ve beentryingtofindadrugthat will reduce braininflammationandrestore
cognitive functioninratsforover25 years;cannabinoidsare the firstandonlyclassof drugsthat have
everbeeneffective.Ithinkthatthe perceptionaboutthisdrugischangingandin the future people will
be lessfearful”(http://healthland.time.com/2012/10/29/how-cannabinoids-may-slow-brain-aging).
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A 2015 fromresearchersinSpainshowedthe importance of usingTHCandCBD forAlzheimer's
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25125475). The cannabinoidsworkedtogethertoreduce the
harmful effectfromthe mosttoxicformof the beta-amyloidplaque,aswell asexertedsynergistic anti-
inflammatoryeffects.A January2016 studyoutof Israel confirmedthatTHC-richcannabisoil benefits
Alzheimer'spatients(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26757043). 10 patientscompletedthe trial
and experiencedimprovementsinthe followingmeasures:Delusions,agitation/aggression,irritability,
apathy,and sleepandcaregiverdistress.Researchersconcludedthatusingcannabisoil forADpatients
was a safe and promisingtreatmentoption.
Amyotrophiclateral sclerosisisafatal neurodegenerativedisease whichisespeciallyhardto
treat.Prolongedexcitationof nerve cellsbythe neurotransmitterglutamate isapotential cause,among
manyother factors. A 2008 studyin CurrentPharmaceuticalDesign describedthe role of the
endocannabinoidsysteminmanagingALS(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18781981). Through
the activationof CB1 andCB2 receptors,cannabinoidscan exertanti-glutamatergiceffects. Receptor
activationcanalso reduce inflammationanddecrease microglial secretionof neurotoxicmediators. The
studyconcluded,“The abilityof cannabinoidstotargetmultipleneurotoxicpathwaysindifferentcell
populationsmayincrease theirtherapeuticpotential inthe treatmentof ALS.” Anearlierstudyina
dedicatedALSjournal testedTHCina mouse model of the disease
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15204022). Administrationof THCbefore or afteronsetof
symptomswaseffective indelayingmotorimpairmentandprolongingsurvival. The studyalsofound
THC was “extremelyeffective”atreducingoxidativedamage inspinal cordcultures,andwasanti-
excitotoxicinvitro. Anotherstudyinthe same journal testedCBN inmice,whichfounditsignificantly
delayeddisease onsetbutdidnotaffectsurvival (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16183560). An
August2010 studyinthe American Journalof Hospiceand Palliative Care calledforclinical trialsof
cannabisforALS due to its remarkable therapeuticversatility
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439484). The article states,“Ideally,amultidrugregimen,
includingglutamate antagonists,antioxidants,acentrallyactinganti-inflammatoryagent,microglial cell
modulators(includingtumornecrosisfactoralpha[TNF-alpha] inhibitors),anantiapoptoticagent,1or
more neurotrophicgrowthfactors,anda mitochondrial function-enhancingagentwouldbe requiredto
comprehensivelyaddressthe knownpathophysiologyof ALS.Remarkably,cannabisappearstohave
activityinall of those areas.”
Chronicpainis a symptomof many diseasesandaconditioninitself. Painisthe ultimate driver
of desperationandthe sensationthatdestroysall happinessinlife. Itleadspeopletodepressionand
suicide. Currentmethodsfordealingwith severepainrely largelyon opiates, whichare notsuitedfor
providinglong-termreliefand canhave many terrible side effects,suchasconstipation,mental
disconnection, addiction, andwithdrawal. Otherpharmaceutical medicationscantreatpain,butlike
opiatespossessunpleasantside effects. The scientificandexperiential evidence suggest that
cannabinoidsare abetteroptionforpainmanagement.
A February2003 studystatedCB2 activationinhibitsacute,inflammatory,andneuropathicpain
responses(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12550743). Later thatyear,a studyin Anesthesiology
referredtocannabinoidreceptoragonists’abilitiestoinhibitinflammatoryhyperalgesia,anincreased
sensitivitytopain
(http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Fulltext/2003/10000/Inhibition_of_Inflammatory_Hyperalgesi
22
a_by%20.31.aspx).A July2006 studyin CurrentNeuropharmacology demonstratedthatactivationof
cannabinoidreceptorsmodulatedpainthresholds,reducedinflammation,andevenworked
synergisticallywiththe endogenousopioidsystem
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2430692). An earlier1999 studylinkedanandamide
withpainmodulation(http://www.pnas.org/content/96/21/12198.full).In2010, a Public Library of
Science article postulatedcannabinoiduse asatreatmentformanagingpostoperativepain,andstated
that endocannabinoidsinhibitednociceptive painprocessingthroughactivationof bothCB1 andCB2
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2878341). A 2006 studyin CurrentMedicalResearch
and Opinion testedTHCtreatmentonfibromyalgiapatientswheresignificantreductionof painwas
observed,although severalpatientswithdrew fromthe studydue toadverse side effects,mostlikely
psychoactive innature (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16834825). A May 2012 studyin The
Journalof Neurosciencedemonstrated thatthe CB1 receptorwasassociatedwithbothreducedpainand
neurotoxicityproducedbychemotherapy,specificallythe chemotherapeuticagentcisplatin
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3366638/).
A fantasticsummaryof cannabinoidpain-reductioneffectsisdetailedinthe June 2003 issue of
Journalof Pain and SymptomManagement,viaalettertothe editor
(http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924(03)00142-8/fulltext).The overview statesthat,
“Cannabinoidsblockpainresponsesinvirtuallyeverylaboratorypainmodel tested.Inmodelsof acute
or physiological pain, cannabinoidsare highlyeffective againstthermal,mechanical,andchemical pain,
and are comparable toopioidsinpotencyandefficacy.Inmodelsof chronicpain,cannabinoidsexhibit
efficacyinthe modulationof bothinflammatory andneuropathicpain.”The article alsodescribesthree
caseswhere mere smokedcannabiswasable toreduce heavyopiate use byconsiderable amounts.
Giventhatsmokedcannabis delivers cannabinoids inahighlyinefficientmanner,itisnotable that
smokingstill worksmore effectivelythanpharmaceutical-grade opiates.
A survey of over1,300 fibromyalgiapatients bythe National PainFoundationfoundthat
cannabiswasfar superiortothe only three FDA-approveddrugsforfibromyalgia
23
(http://nationalpainreport.com/marijuana-rated-most-effective-for-treating-fibromyalgia-
8823638.html). The graphs belowdemonstratethe remarkablesuperiorityof cannabistothe drugs.At
most,10% of people reportedtwoof the FDA-approveddrugsveryeffective fortreatingsymptoms.In
the case of cannabis,62% of people reportedthe medicine veryeffective.
Anotherpage onNationalPainReport.comsummarizedthe resultsof a September2015 surveybyCare
By Design,anorganizationthatproducesCBD-richcannabisproductsinCalifornia
(http://nationalpainreport.com/medical-marijuana-great-for-migraine-fibromyalgia-and-irritable-bowel-
syndrome-survey-finds-8828409.html).621 people were interviewedforthe survey,includingpatients
withcancer,multiple sclerosis,Parkinson's,epilepsy,spinalcordinjury,neuropathicpain,arthritis,PTSD,
depression,andmore.Incredibly, 100%of patientswithfibromyalgia,headachesandmigraines,
irritable bowel syndrome,andspinal cordinjuryreportedadecrease inpainordiscomfortafterusing
CBD-richcannabistherapyforat least30 days. 100% of patientswithPTSD reportedanimprovementin
mood. There were dramaticeffectsof CBDon wellbeingforall patients
(http://blog.sfgate.com/smellthetruth/files/2015/09/CBD-Patient-Survey-September2015.pdf).
24
25
Cannabinoidspossessremarkable andimportantantibacterialproperties. A 2008 studyin Journalof
NaturalProducts foundthatTHC, CBD,CBN, CBG, and CBCall displayedpotentactivityagainstmany
strainsof methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481).
While the majorityof thisanalysishasfocusedoncannabinoids,the role of terpenoidsand
flavonoidscannotbe forgotten. Thesecompounds are foundinfruitsandvegetables, andlikelywork
synergisticallywithcannabinoids. Dr.EthanRusso,a prominent cannabisresearcher,publisheda
January2011 paperin British Journalof Pharmacology whichextensivelyreviewedthe effectsof various
terpenoidsandtheirsynergisticpotential withcannabinoids
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165946). He evenidentifiedwhichcannabinoidswork
synergisticallywithwhichterpenoids.
Terpenoidspresent include limonene,alpha-pinene,beta-myrcene,linalool,beta-caryophyllene,
and others. Theypossessmanyof the same traitscannabinoidsdo,suchas beinganti-inflammatory,
antibacterial,anticonvulsant,anti-anxiety,anti-fungal,pro-apoptotic,andmore. Beta-caryophyllene,
one of the mostprominentterpenoidsincannabis,isgastriccytoprotective,anti-inflammatory,andanti-
malarial. Limonene,commonlyfoundinlemons,caninduce apoptosisinbreastcancercells.
Flavonoidsare seeminglylessprevalentincannabisthanterpenoids,but stillprovide
remarkable benefits.Inapapertitled, Cannabisand CannabisExtracts:GreaterThan the Sumof Their
Parts?,Dr. Russo describedthe therapeuticbenefitsof severalflavonoids
(http://files.iowamedicalmarijuana.org/science/misc/McPartland-Russo-JCANT%201(3-4)-2001.pdf).
Apigenin,quercetin,beta-sitosterol,andcannflavinA all appearinsmall concentrations. Theyexert
antioxidant,anticancer,antimutagenic,andanti-inflammatoryproperties. CannflavinA isunique to
cannabis,andat leastone studypointstoitbeing30 timesaspowerful ananti-inflammatoryasaspirin.
Reportsof successwithcannabisstretchback to the post-Civil Warera. The March 1868-
February1869 issue of TheMedical Record recordsseveral casesof physiciansusingcannabisextractsin
theirpractice (http://books.google.ca/books?id=8DVYAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover).Twocasesare
attachedbelow.
26
Thisconcludesthe study-level analysis,buthundredsof furtherstudiesandnewsarticlescanbe found
at http://www.letfreedomgrow.com/cmu/Grannys%20List%20January%202013.pdf.The listof studies,
collectedbyanactivistknownasGranny Storm Crow,features researchshowingthe effectivenessof
cannabinoidsfornearlyanydisease imaginable. Inadditiontothe diseasesdiscussedabove,the list
containsstudiesrelatingtoADD/ADHD,addiction,depression,Parkinson’s,and osteoporosis. Effectson
lesswell knowndiseasesare alsodocumented,likeMeige’ssyndromeandNiemann-Pickdisease.
Cannabisisfurtheruseful forconditionswe donotthinkof as serious,suchas the hiccups.
Much is lefttobe learnedaboutthe endocannabinoidsystemandits complex interactions with
phytocannabinoids. The exactmechanismsof ECSfunction,anddysfunction, are still notentirely
understood. Despite the vastmysteriouslandscapeahead,manyconcrete observationscanbe gleaned
fromthe existingresearch,whichthankfullyisstillquite robust. First,bothendocannabinoidsand
phytocannabinoids exerttherapeuticeffectsforvirtuallyanydisease. Evensyntheticcannabinoidshave
beenshowntoinduce benefitthroughactivationof cannabinoidreceptors. The ECShas beenimplicated
inmaintaininghomeostasisthrough manybodysystems; thishomeostaticregulatorypropertywould
explainwhycannabinoidsare effective againstsomanydifferentconditions.Whenexaminedapartfrom
anecdotal data,thisresearchissimplypromising,andnomore. However,giventhathumansare actually
usingconcentratedcannabinoidstoachieve cure-levelresultsforconditionswhere curativepowers are
potentiallyimplied, thisresearchmustbe takenfarmore seriously. Infact,evenif thisresearchdidn’t
exist, the magnitude of the humanexperiences isimpossible toignore. Currentscientificstudiesgrant
legitimate credibilityandilluminate cellularmechanismsbywhichthese curative resultsare occurring. In
the future,more researchwill revealnotonly more abouthow the ECS functions,butthe beststrains,
dosages,andconstituentsforcannabisextractmedicine.
As more researchisconductedintocannabinoidmedicine,furtherinnovationsandusesare
boundto be discovered. Fornow, the scientificevidence supports the claims.
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2. History of Rick Simpson and Phoenix Tears
Giventhe multitude of referencestoRickSimpsonthroughoutthisreport,andhiscritical importance to
the beginningof the moderncannabisextractmovement,hishistoryis describedindetail below. Rick
Simpsonwasbornin Springhill,NovaScotiaonNovember30,1949. He beganworkat the age of 16, and
transitionedtoacareer inpowerengineeringat18. Rickworkedas an engineeruntil 1997, whenhe
sufferedawork-relatedinjuryandwasdiagnosedwithpost-concussionsyndrome. He wasprescribeda
numberof drugs to alleviatehiscondition,butnone were effective.
In late 1998, Rick watchedan episode of “The Nature of Things”,inwhichDr.David Suzuki interviewed
medical marijuanapatientswhohadachievedastoundingresultswithcannabis. ThispromptedRickto
try it forhimself. He quicklynoticedthatsmokingcannabisdidmore forhisconditionthananyof the
pillshe wastaking. Despite the effectivenessof his self-administeredmedication,Rick’sdoctorwould
not provide alegal prescriptionforcannabis,statingthe herbwas“badfor the lungs”. In response,Rick
askedif it wouldbe bettertoextractthe essential oilsfromcannabis,knowingsuchamethodwould
bypassthe needforsmoking. Hispleafailed,asthe doctorstill refusedtowrite aprescription.
Nonetheless,Rickdecidedtopursue thiscourse anyway,andthroughtrial-and-errordevelopedan
acceptable methodforproducingcannabisoil.
Until 2001, Rickcontinuedtakingprescriptionmedicinesuntilhisdoctortoldhimthere was
nothingmore theycoulddo. Rickthenceaseduse of pharmaceuticals,leavingcannabisoil ashisonly
medication. Thiscourse greatlyimprovedhiscondition.
In late 2002, Rick wasdiagnosedwithskincancer,whichwaspresentonthree partsof his body;
twopatcheson hisface andone on hischest. In January2003, Rickhad one area of skincancerremoved
surgically,withthe remainingtwopartsscheduledtobe removedlater.Shortlyafterthe surgery,Rick
recalledaradioshowhe’dheardabout the 1974 Universityof Virginiastudyindicating
tetrahydrocannabinol inhibitedcancergrowth(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1159836).Rick
knewcannabisoil containedconcentratedTHC,sohe decidedtophysicallytestitonhimself. He applied
28
homemade oil tobandagesandplacedthemdirectlyonthe skincancersites. Infourdays,the cancers
were gone. Excited,Rickwentbacktohisdoctor’s office toinformthemthathe had curedhimself with
cannabisoil,butthe reactionsfromboththe receptionistanddoctorwere negative.
Afterhisincrediblepersonalexperiences,Rickdecidedhe wantedtohelpothers. He began
growingcannabisinmassive quantitiesinhisbackyard,usingittoproduce thousandsof gramsof oil,
whichhe gave away forfree to anyone inneed. He quicklyobservedthatcannabisoil exertedpanacea-
like effects. Iteliminatedanytype of cancerhe came across and reversednearlyanytype of medical
condition. Diabetes,chronicpain,multiple sclerosis,nervedamage,inflammatoryandautoimmune
disorders,andmental conditionsbecame completelycontrolledordisappeared. Mostpatientscame to
Rick as a lastresort,not believingsomethingassimple ascannabisoil couldreallywork. The standard
treatmentprovidedwas60 gramsto be usedover90 days;thiswas the dosinglevel Rickobservedwas
necessarytoachieve curative effects. However,as massingevidence indicates,sometimesmuchlessor
much more cannabis oil isneededtorealize sucheffects.
Rick’sactivitiesattractedbothmediaandlaw enforcementattention. Inlate 2006, storiesabout
Rick appearedonGlobal National NewsandGlobal Maritimes EveningNews,twopopularCanadian
newsprograms. Priorto that,on August3rd
, 2005, the Royal CanadianMountedPolice raidedRick’s
home,andconfiscated1,190 cannabisplants(http://www.cumberlandnewsnow.com/Justice/2007-09-
13/article-370849/Seized-marijuana-plants-had-value-up-to-830000-RCMP/1).Althoughthe citedarticle
states1,190, Rick saidthe plantcount wasactually1,620; one of the newsreportsalsomentionsacount
numberaround1,600. The raidledto a trial in September2007, where Rickfacedchargesincluding
possessionof lessthan30 grams of cannabis,possessionof lessthanthree kilogramsof
tetrahydrocannabinol forthe purpose of trafficking,andunlawful productionof cannabis. He wasfound
guiltyonall charges. Whendiscussinganadjournmentforsentencing,Ricksaidthe followingtoJudge
Felix Cacchione:
“It may be betterto lockme up rightnow.As soonas I get home I’mgoingto treatmy patients.
I’mgoingto grow that plantuntil the dayI die,soI mightas well be putin jail today.Ican’t stopin the
middle of [treatment].People’slivesare atstake here.”
(http://www.cumberlandnewsnow.com/Justice/2007-09-19/article-381209/Simpson-guilty/1).
Simpsonwasscheduledtoreturntocourt forsentencingon November30, 2007. However,
while awaitingsentencing,SimpsonwasarrestedagainfortraffickingTHC,andwas remandedforfour
daysuntil beingreleased. WhenSimpsonwassentencedforhisfirstcharges,he receiveda$2,000 fine,
prohibitiononownershipof firearms(asisthe case withmostdrug charges),andone day custody,
deemedservedbyhiscourtappearance. Judge Cacchione explainedhisdecision,saying,“Mr.Simpson
has a sincere belief he hasa cure withthisoil and shouldbe commended,butin reality,he broke the
law”(http://www.cumberlandnewsnow.com/Justice/2008-02-11/article-382416/Simpson-considers-
leaving-country/1).Inearly2008, Rickreturnedtocourt to face the charge relatedtohis secondarrest,
and wassentencedtoeightdaysincustodyby Judge Carole Beaton. Aswiththe firstcase,the custody
time wasdeemedservedbyRick’spreviousremandtime.
“Mr. Simpsonisinan unusual position,because unlike otherpeople engagedinthe drugtrade,
he was not engagedintraffickingforfinancial gain,"saidJudge CaroleBeaton."He wasengagedinan
altruisticactivityandwasfirminhisbelief thathe washelpingothers”(http://www.salem-
news.com/articles/december052009/rick_simpson_bk.php).
29
Withtwo separate legal incidentshappeningonlymonthsapart,Rickwasforcedto cease his
activitiesforsome time. InNovember2009, Rickwentto Amsterdamtoreceive the HighTimesFreedom
Fighterof the Year Award(http://www.hightimes.com/read/rick-simpson-seeks-political-refuge-
europe). WhileinEurope,Rick’shome wasraidedagainbypolice,resultinginmore cannabisproduction
and possessioncharges,alongwithchargesrelatedtothe breakingof hisfirearmsprohibition.
(http://www.cumberlandnewsnow.com/Justice/2009-12-17/article-818327/Summons-issued-for-
cannabis-crusader/1).Asaresult,Rickdecidedtostayin Europe forseveral years,where he continued
to educate people personallyandthroughhisorganization,PhoenixTears. The 2009 charges were
withdrawnin2012 by CrownattorneyDoug Shatfordaftera forfeiture applicationof seizeditemswas
approved(http://www.cumberlandnewsnow.com/News/Local/2012-05-14/article-2978460/Charges-
against-Simpson-withdrawn/1).
Rick Simpson’sendeavortoheal people with cannabisoilwaspublicizedinthe documentary
Run From theCure, releasedFebruary2008 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pjhT9282-Tw).The
documentaryelaboratesuponRick’sstoryandhow he discoveredcannabisoil couldeliminate various
cancers andotherdiseases. The filmalsoprovidesstep-by-stepinstructionsonhow to make cannabisoil
and featuresinterviewswithcuredpatients,includingthose once deemedterminal. Itisof note that
much betterprocessesforextractingcannabisoil have beendiscoveredsince the publishingof Run From
the Cure. Alcohol,vegetableoil,carbondioxide,andothernon-petroleum-basedsolventsare fast
becomingthe choice waystoprocesscannabisintoextracts.
Furtherdiscussedinthe documentaryisanincidentinvolvingRickDwyer,formerpresidentof
the Maccan Branch of the Royal CanadianLegion. AfterseeingsuccesswithhisfatherEdforterminal
lungcancer, Dwyertriedtoshare the informationthroughhis Legionbranch. However,uponlearningof
whatthe branchwas promoting,ProvincialCommandintervenedandremovedDwyerfromhisposition,
claimingthatadvocatingthe use of an illegal substance wasunacceptable
(http://www.canada.com/globaltv/national/story.html?id=70817eb6-a515-4af7-bf0d-3050413f0ebc).
Thistrendof disregardanddisbelief forcannabisextractmedicinehasbeenaperpetuallystrong
presence. RickDwyer’sincidentwasonlythe beginning –Rick Simpsonalsoexperiencedrejectionfrom
everyorganizationhe contacted,includingcancerresearchcenters. He offeredtopresentevidence
directlyfrompatientsprovingthe effectivenessof cannabisoil,butnoone listened. Itwasnotevenuntil
August2013 that the firsttrulymainstreamtestimonialforcannabisextractmedicine wasshowntothe
world,inthe formof Dr. SanjayGupta’s Weed documentaryandits discussionof child-patientCharlotte
Figi. Throughthe use of non-psychoactive high-cannabidioloil (whichdiffersfromtraditional
psychoactive high-THCoil),Charlotte’sseizuresdroppedfrom300 grand mal seizures aweektoless
than three minorseizuresamonth. The use of cannabisoil wascommencedonlyaftereverypossible
combinationof powerfulpharmaceuticalsfailed. Charlotte’scase isjustthe latestinanincrediblylong
and diverse listof successesthathave beenachievedsince the release of Run FromtheCure.
Interestinglyenough,RickSimpsoniscitedinthe November2013 CaseReportsin Oncology
study inthe previoussection,ashe helpedassistthe studiedpatientwithproducingherownoil.
Run From theCure was directedbyChristianLaurette,whohimself hadavery positive healing
experience withcannabisoilforbackproblems. He iscurrentlydirecting Run FromtheCure2, whichwill
feature manyof the developmentsthathave occurredsince the firstfilm.
30
3. Individual Case Reports
Patientshave alwaysbeenthe central focusof the cannabisextractmovement;real people whohave
facedreal prospectsof painand death,yetrecoveredsuccessfully throughthe use of cannabisextract
medicine. The followingtestimonialsare pulledprimarilyfromsocial mediaandnewssources,aswell as
frompersonal interviewsof the author.Severalcasesalsoinclude official medical documentationof
diagnosisandsubsequentremission.
The most fittingplace tostart isthe documentary Run Fromthe Cure,whichfeaturedseveral
patientswhoexperiencedincrediblehealingbenefits.
Eric Donkinhad fouropen-heartsurgeriesandfive pacemakers,andthroughthe use of Rick’s
oil,wasable to live life nearlypainfree andgobackto work. Doctors had toldhimhe wouldonlybe able
to siton the couch and watch TV for the rest of hislife. Ericalsoremarkedthatthe oil waseffectivefor
hisfather’scancer,and itwas because of hisfatherthat he beganon the oil as well.
Rick Dwyersufferedfrommajordepressionsince 27,along withpanicattacks. Three back
injuriesresultedinchronicbackpainwithconstantaching. The oil cut downhispanicattacks, reduced
back aches,and continuouslyimproveddepressionandanxietysymptoms.
Debbie Donkinhadsuspectedskincanceronher shoulder,andafterusingthe oil fortwoweeks
(byputtingthe oil ona bandage,andreapplyingoil/changingthe bandage afew timesthroughout),the
site wascompletelyclear.
Cecil Hoeghad melanomaonhisface,whichhadpreviouslybeentreatedmanytimeswith
radiation. Althoughthe radiationtreatmentswere ineffective, Rick’scannabisoilproved effectiveat
finallygettingridof the cancer.
Margaret Dwyerusedcannabisoil withefficacyformigraines,anovariancyst,arthritis,skin
allergies, stomachproblems,andevensnoring.
The most dramaticcase featuredisJamesLeBlanc,apatientwithterminal cancerwhowas
healedwithcannabisoil. While James’storyisrelativelybrief inthe documentary,the authorof this
reportspoke extensivelywithJamesin2008, and recorded several importantdetails.Some information
isalso takenfromthe original incarnationof the Phoenix Tearswebsite.
31
Jameswasdiagnosedwithstomachcanceron May 18, 2005. Overthe subsequentfew months,LeBlanc
enduredsurgery,chemotherapy,andradiationtreatments. OnNovember30th
,2005, the cancer was
virtuallygone. ItreturnedinOctober2006, and thistime had spreadthroughoutJames’lymphnode
system. InNovember2006, LeBlancwasgiventwomonthsto live,as the cancer wascompletely
untreatable. Onlypalliativemedicinewasprescribed. ItwasinDecember2006 that LeBlancbecame
aware of cannabisoil,andwasbrought to AmhersttomeetRickSimpson. He wasinitiallyskeptical of
the endeavor– like mostpeople atthe time,he wasusingcannabisoil asa lastresort withlittle hope.
AfterspeakingextensivelywithRick,LeBlanc’shopeswere raisedandhe startedthe oil onJanuary 1st
,
2007. On April 4th
,2007, LeBlanchad hisfirstCT scan since starting the oil and receivedthe resultson
April 24th
. The doctor presentedJameswithextremelygoodnews;notonlywasthe cancer not
spreading,butitwasdying. By late July,the secondCTscan showedthatonlya small bitof cancer
remained,andbythe final CTscan in December2007, the cancer wascompletelygone.Afterbeating
terminal cancer,Jamesreturnedtowork.
Rick Dwyer,apatientmentionedabove andformerpresidentof the Maccan Branch of the Royal
CanadianLegion,spoke onGlobal MaritimesEveningNewsinDecember2006. He spoke aboutissues
withthe RCMP and the successhisfather, 82-year-oldEdDwyer, experienced throughcannabisoil
consumption. The treatmenthelpeddrainfluidfromEd’slungs,repairhisprostate,andeliminate his
needforinsulintocontrol hisdiabetes. Throughthe use of cannabisoil,the fluidfromEd’slungswas
drained,hisprostate wasrepaired,andhe nolongerneededtotake insulinforcontrollinghisdi abetes.
Most importantly, Ed’sterminal lungcancerwasheld atbay,despite atone pointhavinga prognosisof
only24 hoursto live.
Later inthe documentary,RickDwyerdiscussedhow he came tomeetRick Simpson andlearn
the truth of his claims bytalkingwithcuredpatients. AsDwyerstated,“IinvestigateditasIshould’ve.”
Despite effortstoshare the informationwithProvincial Commandandsolicitanhonestreview of the
claims,theydidnotlisten.Dwyerevenstartedapetitionaskingparliamenttoenactlegislationin
supportof clinical testingoncannabisoil.
32
Insteadof examiningthe evidence,LegionCommandcame inandshutdownthe Maccan Branch. Rick
Dwyer’seffortstoshare the scientificandhumanevidence were ignored. ProvincialCommandonly
cared that the Royal CanadianLegionname and insigniawere notusedtopromote illegal information.
Steve Wessel,CommandChairmanof NovaScotia,saidsharingsuchinformationcoulddamage the
integrityandreputationof the Legion.
Giventhatno actual medical documentationof curative resultswere includedin Run Fromthe
Cure,the documentary wasinitially,andstill tothisday,metwithheavyskepticism. Tocounterthis
skepticism, Rick Simpsonsimplystated,“If youdon’tbelieveme,putsome oil onaskincancer, and
watch itdisappear.”Indeed,since the 2008 release of Run Fromthe Cure,thousandsof people have
takenthischallenge andmore,seeingRick’sseeminglyabsurdclaimsconfirmedtime andtime again.
DavidTripletttreatedskincanceronhisnose withcannabisoil,anddocumented the resultsin a
short filmtitled Cured:A CannabisStory,releasedinJuly2010.
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JPm0Jq9bj98).
33
34
A womannamedMaggie Perondiscussedthe use of cannabisoil forher65-year oldfather,whohad
squamouscell carcinomaonhishands (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ui68B_rjzLk).He hadto deal
withconstantscabs,pus, sores,andpain. Maggie boughtcannabisoil fromGersh Avery,whooftengoes
by the pseudonymPeanutButter. She convincedherdadtotry ittopicallyone night,andthe verynext
day he reportedsubstantiallyreducedpain. Overamonth,the scabsand soresalmostcompletely
disappeared. There washardlyanyscaring,andpushad gone awaycompletely. “That’sthe mainthing,
there’snopain,”saidMaggie.
GershAveryhas treatedmanypeople andinformallycollected some reportedresultsinaspreadsheet.
He insistedthiswasnota formal study, justobservations frompatients. Ratingsare ona 1 to 10 scale,
with1 beingthe leastsevereand10 beingthe mostsevere symptomintensity. These symptomsstem
fromCrohn’sdisease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, orulcerativecolitis. Measuredsymptomsinclude
acid,tension,gurgling,diarrhea,andpain.
35
A newsreportonABC NewsChannel 13discussedthe use of cannabisoil forneckcancer
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0F3mTf1z3Yo).BrettStraussfirsthadcancerin 2007, andafter
beatingittraditionally,the cancerreturnedinthe formof five malignanttumorsinJanuary2010. He
decidedtotry topicallyusingacannabisextractbalmonhisneck,and in March 2010, doctors confirmed
onlyone tumorwas malignant. Afterthisexperience,Brettwantedtoresearchthe effectsof cannabis
oil forother cancerpatients. However,theredoesnotseemtobe anyfurtherinformationavailable
abouthis intendedresearch.
ShonaBanda isa particularlyunique patientandactivistwhohas Crohn’sdisease. Shonabattledfor
eightyearsagainsta verysevere case of Crohn’s,usinganarray of powerful pharmaceuticalsincluding
Remicade,which oftenhasseriousandpainful side effects. Whenshe beganusingcannabisoilinMarch
2009, herconditiongreatlyimproved. The drastic,overwhelmingsuccesspromptedShonatowrite a
36
bookabout herexperience called LiveFree or Die. The bookstartedas a journal that Shonakeptto
documentthe effectsof cannabisoil,andshe expandeduponthe journal withotherinformation to
create her book.Live Free or Die isespeciallypowerful because of Shona’scourage toreveal the specific
waysin whichCrohn’saffectedherlife.Onseveraloccasionsshe thoughtshe wasgoingtodie.
The other interestingaspectof Shona’sstoryisthe wayshe producedcannabisoil. Havingseen
Run From theCure and knowingshe couldn’tacquire the recommendedamountsof cannabisto make
oil from(inthe documentary,apoundor as little asone ounce isrecommended),Shonabelievedshe
wouldnevertryit.However,aftervaporizingcannabisinaglobe-typedevice,she noticedresidue
accruing alongthe sides,whichlookedlikethe cannabisoil she’dseenin Run FromtheCure.With
nothingtolose,Shonabegancollectingandconsumingthe oil residue incapsules. Withinaweekanda
half,she noticedremarkable improvements; althoughsome abdominal paininitiallyintensified, Shona
attributed thistoscar tissue changingandfallingoff. Overthe nextfew months,aside fromperiods
where cannabiswasunavailable,Shonacontinuouslyimproved. She wentfromliterallybeingonthe
verge of deathto feelingalmostcompletelydisease-free. The detailsinherbookare trulyremarkable,
and a must-readforanyone legitimatelyinterestedinthisissue. The painShonaovercame withher
improvisedformof cannabisoil isnothingshortof incredible.Furthermore,otherpatientswithout
access to large amountsof cannabishave usedhervaporizationmethodtomake oil fromsmall
quantities. Shonarecordedabrief summaryof herstoryin2010
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4cQrT0sDxyc).Herbook LiveFree or Die isavailable inhardcopy
and the Kindle (http://www.amazon.com/Live-Free-Die-Reclaim-Life/dp/1449045561 and
http://www.amazon.com/Live-Free-or-Die-ebook/dp/B005GHM244). As of August2014, Shonaisstill
doingextremelywell.
A 14-year-oldpatientnamedColtyn TurnerhasbeenusingcannabisextractssuccessfullyforCrohn’s
disease.A September3rd
,2014 article describedhow hisconditionwastriggeredbyabacterial infection
insummer2011. He subsequentlydevelopedsevere painandstoppedgrowing
(http://www.ksdk.com/story/news/local/2014/09/02/cannabis-helps-illinois-boy-with-chrons-
disease/15001299). Traditional medicinesdidnotwork,andthe onlyotheroption,surgery,wouldstunt
37
hisgrowthfurther.The familymovedtoColoradofromIllinoistoaccesscannabisas a lastresortin
February2014. Coltynbegantakingcannabisoil incapsulesfourtimesaday,while eatinganedible at
night.By Septemberhe hadgained20 poundsand hissymptomsdisappeared.He wentfrombeing
drowsyina wheelchairtoclimbingmountains.“Iwasjustchargingup there,andeveryone else was
droppinglike flies,”Coltynsaid.
In an October26th
, 2014 video,Coltynshowedmedical documentationof the dramatic
improvementinhiscolon (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fm19RLwtnok).Hisfathercommented,
“More good news!!Coltyn'spathologycame backtodayand there isno active disease inhiscolon.
There wasa veryminute amountof inflammationinhisstomach.InJanuary2014, Coltynhad 22cm of
inflammationaswell astoomany ulcerstocount. AndthiscurrentcolonoscopyNOulcersandvery
limitedmildinflammation. AlsohisCRPwentfroman8 to 1.3 and forthe firsttime he isnot anemic. It
feelssurreal anditsimplyamazesus. Cannabisisthe onlymedicine he hastreatedhisCrohnswithsince
hislast colonoscopy. Thisisnotalternativemedicinethisshouldbe one of ourfirstoptions!!!!!”
Before Cannabis: AfterCannabis:
38
Coltynhascontinuedtodo verywell withcannabisashisprimarymedicationasof February2016. He
has evenwonat leastone majorawardfor hisactivism.
A videopostedonOctober5,2011 discussedthe storyof anelderlywomanwhoovercame
Stage IV cancerand lupuswithcannabisoil (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxis8lqaEGE).InJanuary
2011, the woman(knownas“Granny”) wastoldshe had “days,weeksatthe most” to live,asher
conditionwasespecially taxing. Inadditiontothe cancer, she wasparalyzedfromthe leftside of her
face,startingfromthe jaw, to the waist. A compassionate strangerlearnedof herstoryand donated
cannabisoil to help.A litanyof improvementsimmediatelystarted afterGrannybeganthe treatment,
includingreductionof tumors,almostcompleteeliminationof chronic pain,ceasingof constant
vomiting,andremarkable concurrentimprovementsforlupusandfibromyalgia. Grannyforewent
chemotherapyandsurgeryforthispath,and stronglybelieves,basedonthe poorprognosisfrom
doctorsand the state she wasin,that if not for cannabisoil she wouldbe dead.
Cannabisoil hasprovento be effectiveagainstevenlong-standingchronicpain
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gu5VNQHxKkU).A videoreleasedinOctober2011 featuresTomas
Harner,who for30 years enduredbackpainas a resultof accidents. Inthe last 10 years,he saidhis
39
conditionbecame worse,anddoingsimple tasks likeputtingonshoeswere becomingdifficult. Within
the firstweekof consumingcannabisoil,the sharppainswhichinhibitedhismovementswere gone.
Tomas maintains awarenessof hisinjury,butthe vastmajorityof his painhas disappearedandhisrange
of movementhasimproveddramatically. He believesthattakingmore oil willeliminate remnantsof
pain.
A medicinal cannabisoil producernamedAamannDegarthhas observed amazingresultswithcannabis
oil,andhas documentedthe resultsinsharedvideos.One November2011 account detailshisworkwith
reflex sympatheticdystrophy,nowmore commonlyknownascomplex regional painsyndrome
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xvw19POCN4g).Aamannwasreferredtothe RSD patientbya
friend,andmanagedto procure oil for her.The patienthadextremelylittleexperience withcannabis,
and Aamanntookmeasurestoensure she startedoff slowly. He packagedthe oil invariousdelivery
mechanismsandsentit off. He was unsure of what the effectswouldbe,asRSD was a conditionhe
hadn’theardof.The day afterstartingthe oil,the patientreportedbeingpainfree,rightfromthe first
dose. Aamannwassurprisedbythe speedof thisparticulartreatment. A laterJune 2012 videofrom
Aamannprovidedanupdate onRSD/CRPStreatmentswithcannabisoil,reportingthatotherpatients
had experiencedimmense success(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvEztT4VHCg). Again,even
small amountsof oil were reportedtobe effective atstoppingpain.
40
Aamannhas treatedanddocumentedawide varietyof conditions,includingallergies
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V0fgTIorzXI),ADD
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C4ljMHUW4uI),neuropathy
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p4Y0CW10RTg),insomnia
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n1odhWwHSps),cyclical vomitingsyndrome
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3tVtUf1hTQs), lymedisease
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_HAOkPSzgw)andmore. A particularlyintense case describesa
patient’sexperience withtrigeminal neuralgia,aconditionsoterrible itisnicknamed“suicidedisease.”
TN isa neuropathicdisorderthatinvolvesepisodesof intense,stabbingpaintothe face. Aamann
providedcannabis oil toa TN patientand observedthatit worked remarkablywell,withthe patient
reportingzeroproblems (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S495AUPbka0).
Before movingforward,itisimportanttohighlightthe trendregardingcannabisoilandpain.
Currently,the primarytreatmentforpainisopiates. Manypatientshave reportedthatnotonlyare
opiatesineffectiveoverthe long-term,buttheycause immense physical discomfort,cloudinessof the
mind,and otherphysical complications.Somanypatientshave stronglyinsisted thatcannabisoil isfar
more effectivethanopiateswithnone of the side effects. Theyfeel cannabinoidtreatment attacksthe
roots of theirpain,ratherthan providingamere numbingeffect.Sucheffectsare difficulttoobjectively
measure because theyare entirelysubjective,butthisremarkablystrongtrendissomethingthatcannot
be ignored.
A January2012 videofeaturingthree patients,Mike Stone, Tom,andJeff,illustratedthe
benefitsof cannabisoil formultiplesclerosis,rheumatoidarthritis,andmesothelioma
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V-uGtEHzZUE).Mike hadbeendiagnosedwithrelapsing-remitting
multiple sclerosis17 yearspriorto the video’sfilming. Tocombatthe disease,he wasprescribedalitany
of drugs,whichcreatedmanyunpleasantside effects,includingsuicidalthoughts. AfterseeingRun From
the Cure,Mike decidedtotry a 90-day cannabisoil treatmentprogram. He concurrentlyceased all use of
pharmaceuticals. He foundthe oil toworkveryeffectively,whileeliminating the remainingside effects
fromprior pharmaceutical use.
41
The nextpatientfeatured,Tom,wasdiagnosedfouryearspriortofilmingwithsevere rheumatoid
arthritis. Lack of treatmentformany yearscausedextensive damage inhishands. TommetMike Stone,
the above patient,ata May 2011 medicinal cannabisinformational meeting. Mike toldTomaboutthe
potential benefitsof cannabisoil,andTomwasable to secure some. He startedwithone small dose a
day forthe monthof June, while stilltaking hispreviouspharmaceuticals. Afteramonth,he decidedto
go for the full 90-daytreatment. InearlyAugust2011, he stoppedtakingmethotrexate,achemotherapy
drug alsousedforrheumatoidarthritis, whichcausedespeciallysevere side effects. ByAugust25th
, he
startedtakingcannabisoil three timesaday for90 days. Tom’srheumatologisttoldhimthatswelling
was an indicatorof if hisrheumatoidarthritiswasactive –afterthe treatment,Tom’sswelling
completelydisappeared,indicatingapparentinhibitionof the disease.He currentlytakesone dose of oil
a day to helphimsleepatnightandkeepthe effectsof rheumatoidarthritisatbay.
The third personinthe film,Jeff,foundouthe hadfive tumorsonhisleftlung, diagnosedas
mesotheliomainJuly2011. Like Tom,Jeff foundoutaboutcannabisoil fromMike Stone. Mike showed
42
Jeff howtomake hisowncannabisoil,andJeff begantreatinghimself byputtingtwodropsonhis
tongue everymorningwithaneyedropper. OnDecember21st
,2011, Jeff wastoldall histumorswere
gone and he was cancer free. “BestChristmaspresentIeverhad,”remarkedJeff. He alsostoppedtaking
hisbloodpressure medication, givenhisBPhad normalized. Jeff isalsosuccessfullycontrollinghis
diabetes,withhissugarlevelsneverbeingover110. He’soff hisallergymedicinesandcholesterol
medicinesaswell. He still hassome problemsbreathingasa resultof emphysema. However,overall,Jeff
feelshislifehasdrasticallyimproved.
At an eventknownas“Uncle Pete’sCannabisCamp”inJune 2012, where people are taughtaboutthe
healingeffectsof cannabisoil alongwithhow tomake it,the testimonial of Joe Crowe wasrecorded
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W0nwqBtxXKc).Joe hadafist-sizedtumorinhisupperchest,
diagnosedasHodgkin’slymphoma.Overthe course of twelve years,he receivedchemotherapyand
bone marrowtransplantswhichfailedtoeliminatethe cancer.Inthe fall of 2011, Joe was connected
witha caregiverin Michiganand beganreceivingcannabisoil.Withinthreemonthsof cannabisoil
treatment,Joe felthistumorbegantoshrink.Infive months,he wascancerfree.
43
On December4,2013, Joe releasedanupdate videostatinghe isstill cancerfree aftera year
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-spOVv8EobU).He emphasizedthe importance of continuingto
take a maintenance dose of oil topreventcancerfromreturning,especiallydue tothe large amountof
environmental toxinshumansare exposedtodaily. Joe now helps otherpeople make anduse cannabis
oil therapeutically,andatthe endof the videorecountsanexperiencewithaStage IV cancer patient
whowentintoremissionwith self-madeoil.
Brian Stewartis a CanadianMotorsportsHall of Fame inductee whohasusedmedical cannabisforself-
treatmentof cancer (http://www.crash.net/indycar/news/21342/1/mips-stewart-earns-hall-of-fame-
honours.html).Brianhasbeeninthe racingindustrysince 1966, and wonmanychampionshipsas botha
driverandteam owner(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x8W1fIMxJE4).Hislove forwinning
extendsbeyondracingtobeatingcancer. Afternoticingaprogressivelygrowingtumorinhisear,Brian
wentto hisdoctor,whosaid he wouldhave toremove the earentirelytogetthe tumor. Brian saidif
that’sthe wayit hasto be,it’sthe wayit hasto be,and an appointmenttosee aspecialistwasmade. In
the meantime,afriendtoldBrianaboutcannabisoil. Despite havingneversmokedacannabiscigarette
inhis life,Briandecidedtogive ita try topically, usingoil fromhisfriend. Withinaweek,he started
noticingresults,andinthe showerbitsof the tumorwere fallingoff. Treatmentwasinterruptedwhen
Brian tooka trip to Dallas,butuponreturninghe finishedthe treatment. Fromstartto finish,not
includinghistime inTexas,ittookthree anda half weeksforthe tumorto disappear.
Brian didn’tstopwithhisownhealing. He goesontodescribe otherpeoplehe thenhelpedwith
oil. A friend’swife hadskincancerinherear,and usingaroundthree grams of oil topicallyoverthree
and a half weeks(aboutthe same amountof time asBrian) was able to eliminate the cancer. Another
friend’swifegotmelanomaonherleg.The majoritywaseliminatedwithsurgerybutsome cancer
apparentlyremainedbetweenthe stitching. Briangave the womancannabisoil,andit“cureditup too.”
Afterseeinghisvideo,itisclearwhyBrianis oftenreferredtoasone of the greatestpersonalitiesin
Canadianracinghistory.
44
DennisHill isa friendof the author,andan established teacherof meditative practices. He haswritten
several booksonmeditationandyoga. He alsoworkedinthe fieldof cancerresearchfortenyears. In
February2010, six biopsiesrevealedhighlyinvasiveandaggressiveprostate cancer.
45
Denniswas stunnedtohearthisdiagnosis afterhavinglivedsucha healthylife,butgiventhatprostate
cancer wasprevalentinhis family,he knew the possibilityhadalwaysexisted. Priorexperience incancer
researchmade Denniswantto avoid the traditional routesof chemotherapy,radiation,orsurgery,given
the likelypainful sideeffects. He begantoresearchalternativemethodsof cancertreatment,and
learnedaboutcannabisoil. Ashe researchedfurther,he decidedthiswasthe pathfor him. Dennis’
treatmentjournal,startingonJuly8,2010, isrecordedonline
(https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/27713298/Web/cure/Treatment.html).
Priorto the firstentry,Dennishadbeenconsumingcannabis-infusedbutter,ashe had not
acquiredfull-strengthoil yet. Afterprocuringsuchoil,hisconditionsteadilyimproved,until aprostate
biopsywastakenon January25, 2011 to determineif the cancerwasgoinginto remission. OnFebruary
46
8, 2011, Dennisreceivedthe newsthathe wascancer free
(https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/27713298/Web/cure/Cured.html).The onlypharmaceutical-type
treatmentDennisreceivedthroughthisperiodwasthree injectionsof Lupron,anandrogenantagonist
whichcan potentiallyslowthe rate of cancergrowth. However,itdoesnotattack cancer cellsdirectly.
Dennisalsoappearedona programcalled“Spiral Up withAvaMarie” to tell hisstory
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7ytJu4Zcrk).
47
In early2012, a risingPSA score indicatedhiscancerhadreturned.However,hisPSA returnedtonormal
withinthree monthsof restartingthe cannabistherapy. Denniscontinues totake amaintenance dose of
cannabisoil andhas integratedcancer-fightingfoodsintohisdiettoensure he stayshealthy.
DustyFrank, a local musician,wasdiagnosedwithprostatecancerinOctober2013
(http://www.cureyourowncancer.org/dusty-franks-story-beating-prostate-cancer-with-cannabis-
oil.html). The traditionaloptionshe waspresentedwithwere notpreferabledue tonegative side
effects,andDustywantedanalternative. He quicklylearnedaboutcannabisoil,andextractedhisown
fromraw cannabis. Althoughhisdoctorsadvisedagainstthe treatmentandDustyhimself haddoubts
aboutthe oil’sefficacy,he wentaheadwithathree monthregimen.OnJanuary23, 2014, a Tesla3 MRI
reportstatedthere were nolongeranysignsof cancer (medical documentationfoundatlinkabove).
Perhapsevenmore remarkable thanthe cancerremission were all the otherside benefits. Blood
pressure normalizedandrelevantmedicationswerediscontinued. Aninflamedbigtoe jointnormalized.
Rectal bleeding,chronicspinal pain,shoulderandneckpain,andchronicinsomniawere resolved. Sinus
problems,includingpostnasal drip,resolved. Depressionresolved. Several of these issueshadplagued
Dustyfor well overadecade. Furthermore,atleasteightpharmaceutical medicationshave been
replacedwithcannabisextractmedicine,andthe onlypill Dustytakesnow isa single multi-vitamin.
48
Dustyalso sharedhisstoryon YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGPTXq6dZHg).He
intimatelydescribedhisexperience,whichrepresentswhatmostpatientswhouse thismedicinego
through. Interestinglyenough,if Dustyhadnotbegunseeingotherremarkable benefitsfromcannabis
extractsmere daysintohistherapy,he may have stoppedoutof skepticism.
A September18, 2013 article fromThe Telegramreported Paul Morrissey's experiencewithStage IV
prostate cancer (http://www.thetelegram.com/News/Local/2013-09-14/article-3389532/Man-
convinced-marijuana-oil-will-cure-his-cancer/1).He hadputoff medical treatmentsforabouta year
while tryingtosource cannabis oil. Duringthistime, the cancerbeganspreadingtohisback and lymph
nodes. Atsome pointearly inhisbattle, he usedapill medication foraboutamonth andan injection
prescribedbyhisoncologist, butrefused conventional chemotherapy orradiation
(http://www.thetelegram.com/News/Local/2014-01-18/article-3581246/Man-says-hemp-oil-is-beating-
his-cancer/1). Paul discontinued the pillsandinjections afteracquiringcannabis oil andexperiencingits
profound benefits. He saidhisprostate-specificantigen(PSA) levels(amarkerof prostate cancer)
plummeted aftersix weeks of cannabis oil ingestion.
Dr. Randy Hart, Paul'sphysician, confirmed thathisPSA levelshaddropped substantially, from
29.5 to 3.3. Some regression inhislymphnodes andabdomen wasalsoobserved. Dr.Hartsaidthere
was a "majorimprovementinhissituation,"andPaul hada "really goodresponse."He alsocautioned
that there wasno way to be certaincannabis oil wasresponsible forhisrecovery, asthe conventional
medication mayhave contributed tohislowerPSA levels.
However, Paul creditsthe cannabis oil withthe majority of hisrecovery. "Itmakesme feel 20
yearsyounger, that’swhatthe marijuanaoil does,"saidPaul. He alsoremarkedonhow he was able to
shovel snow forthree hours duringa recentblizzard. "There waspretty ferocious wind andsnow. Icame
out of it lookinglike awalkingpopsicle. Howeverafterall thatwork andso forthI was inexcellent
condition. Evenwithoutcancer, Iwouldn’tsuspectI’dlastthatlongor do that well."
49
Addingtothe likelihood thatcannabis oil worked forPaul isaJanuary 14, 2015 article, which
sharedPaul's continued wellness (http://www.thetelegram.com/News/Local/2015-01-14/article-
4006300/Marijuana-oil-advocate-still-hopes-for-clinical-trials/1).He isstill only usingcannabis oil and
has become amajor advocate forclinical trials.
MykaylaComstock,a childpatient,hasattracted significantattentionrelatedtoherbattle withcancer.
In July 2012, Mykaylawas diagnosedwithT-cell acute lymphoblasticleukemia.Feelingsickthroughout
May wasthe chief signthat somethinginMykaylawaswrong. The child’smother,ErinPurchase,
immediatelyprocuredalegal recommendationforcannabis. MykaylabeganchemotherapyonJuly17th
,
2012. Accordingto a local ABCNewsarticle, “‘Atfirst,Mykaylawasn'trespondingwell tohertreatment,
and doctorssaidshe mightneeda bone marrow transplant.Thenshe startedtakingthe cannabisoil
pills’,hermothersaid.ByearlyAugust,Mykaylawasinremissionandthe transplantwasnolonger
necessary”(http://abcnews.go.com/Health/medical-marijuana-year-sparks-
controversy/story?id=17814636). Erinalso notedthatwithcannabisoil,Mykaylawasable to avoidusing
traditional painornauseapills,andhasnotlost a single poundsince diagnosis. ByAugust6th
, lessthana
monthafterstartingtraditional therapy,Mykaylawasinremission. She isrequiredbythe medical
systemtoundergotwo-and-a-half tothree more yearsof chemotherapytobe certainthe canceris
gone. Nonetheless,the rapiddisappearance of cancerfromMykayla’sbloodandthe lackof side effects
fromchemotherapyare astoundingfacts.Evenforan adult,chemotherapy usually producesintense
side effects –fora child,sucheffectsare oftenmuchworse. More informationaboutMykayla’s
experience canbe foundhere:
http://www.bravemykayla.com/her-treatment.html
50
As of February2014, Mykayla continuestodoverywell,andhasbeenincreasinglyfeaturedinthe
media.One suchinterviewonVice.comhasreceivedalmosttwomillionviews
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TXKjRkkoIOU).The interview alsofeaturedStoneyGirl Gardensand
the work of Frankie andErin Wallace,whoare discussedlater.
Erin Purchase waspromptedtouse cannabisoil to helptreatMykayla’scancerbecause of the
experience of anotherchildpatient,CashHyde. Cash’sstoryhasbeencoveredbyseveral newsoutlets
and hishistorywas deeplyexplored inthe documentary American Drug War2: CannabisDestiny.There
was alsoa June 9, 2014 Vice article aboutCash’sexperience,alongwithanalysisof otherpatientsand
doctorsin thisfield(http://www.vice.com/read/desperately-seeking-cbd).
On May 3, 2010, Cash was diagnosedwithaStage IV braintumor. On May 5th
, surgerywas
performed,andhigh-dose chemotherapybegan. The Hydes,Mike andKalli, weretoldthatevenwith
51
bone marrowtransplants,Cashhad an 80% chance of dying. The combinationof chemotherapyand
otherpharmaceuticalsresultedina2-week ICUstay,where the Hydeswere warnedof possibleorgan
failure andbrainfailure. Asthe documentarygraphicallydepicts,Cash’sstate was mortally severe,andit
isfranklystunninghowhe wasable to survive forsolongthroughso much.
In theirsearchto findsome wayto help theirson,the Hydesdiscoveredstoriesof cannabisoil healing
cancer. The day of thisdiscovery,theymanagedtoacquire oil,andMike immediatelybegan sneakingit
intoCash’sfeedingtube withoutthe doctorsknowing. Almostinstantly,Cashstartedtodrastically
improve. Withintwoweeks,he wasable togetoff eightmedications,andhe startedtoeat and laugh
again. His qualityof life changedcompletelyforthe better. Cashwasreleasedfromthe ICUinmid-
December2010. Hisparentsbeganteachinghimhow to crawl and walkagain,as hismotor skillshad
markedlydecreasedasaresultof the cancer ordeal. InJanuary 2011, brainscans revealedCashwas
cancer free. Afterthe scans,Mike revealedtothe doctorsthathe hadbeensecretlyfeedingCash
cannabisoil. The doctorswere speechless,andthenattributedthe healingtoprayersratherthan
cannabisoil. AsMike said,"I believe inprayersand miracles,butIalsobelieveinnumbers,andatthe
endof the day itadds up."
Nonetheless,hospital staff gatheredtowitnessCashleavingcancerfree,believingtheyhad seena
miracle.
52
Giventhe potential forarecurrence,the Hydescontinuedtoprovide Cashwithcannabisoil afterthe
remissionnews. However,inMarch2011, a seriesof federal raidsonmedicinal cannabissuppliers
resultedinCash’soil supplybeingcutoff. Theyranout of medicine inJune. InOctober2011, a scan
confirmedthe Hydes’worstfear- Cash’scancer hadreturned. Theycouldnotreestablishasolid
cannabisoil supplierinMontana,andwenttoCaliforniainNovember2011 to attemptprotontherapy.
Theyalsohopedto finda cannabisoil supplierinCalifornia,andgetCash restartedonthe medicine as
soonas possible. UponarrivinginCalifornia,doctorsreaffirmedapoorprognosisforCash,and said
there wasno hope of shrinkingthe tumor. InDecember2011, the Hydeswere putin contact withRingo,
a producerwho gave thema 90-day supplyof cannabisoil forfree. Withthe combinationof proton
therapyand cannabisoil,Cashwentintoremissionforasecondtime inJanuary2012. Mike remarked
that Cash wasthe firstcancer patienttogo through30 roundsof protonradiationtreatmentwithout
usinganynauseaor pain medicationbesidescannabisoil.
Afterrunningoutof oil,the Hydesagainwere notable to finda sustainable supply. Andagain,in
July2012, Cash’scancer returnedforthe third andfinal time. Thisthirdfightwasultimatelytoomuch
for a childsoyoung,and Cash passedawayNovember14, 2012 inMike’sarms,a final momentthe
Hydesare thankful for. Hadhe died inthe hospital while underthe influenceof several powerful
pharmaceutical drugs,the passingsurelywouldnothave beenaspeaceful. Toshare Cash’sstoryand
informationaboutthe healingeffectsof cannabisoil,the Hydesstartedthe CashHyde Foundation
(http://www.cashhydefoundation.com).
53
In the November2013 issue of DOPE Magazine,the storyof SilasTedescowasdescribed
(http://issuu.com/dlistmagazine/docs/dope_nov13_web_). SilaswasdiagnosedwithPrecursorBacute
lymphoblasticleukemia,andsoonbeganchemotherapy. The treatmentswere veryharshandcaused
general sickness,insomnia,andanearlyeight-weekperiodof immobility. Silas’doctorthen
recommendedhigh-CBDcannabisoil. Asthe article concludes,
“Afteronlyeightdaysoncannabis,Silasbegantowalk,talk,smile andplayagain.Itwas a
complete turnaround.Silasisnowinremissionandrunningaroundlikeanaverage two-yearold. His
leukemiaisinremissionandisshowingimprovementseveryday.”
There are several othernotable childpatients,includingCharlotte Figi,JaydenDavid,and
LandonRiddle,whoare discussedinthe Doctors and Caregiverssection.
The most dramaticrecoveriesare those involvingterminal cancer- where apatientistoldthey
are goingto die,and doctorscan offernofurthertraditional treatmenttohelp.Eveninthese cases,
cannabisoil hasproveneffective. Corrie Yellandisone suchcase. Herself-toldfull story andmedical
documentationof herexperience withterminal anal canal cancercan be foundat
http://cannabisnationradio.com/corrie-yelland.Thesedocumentsare alsodirectlyreplicatedbelow for
convenience.
Hi, My name's Corrie. I'm 55 years old. In May of 2007, I had a heart attack and subsequently had
a double bypass . As a result of the heart surgery, for 4 plus years, I have been plagued with
54
chronic debilitating pain from a maligned sternum and post sternotomy neuralgia/syndrome. I
was ingesting copious amounts of various pain killers 24/7. They barely touched the pain. I spent
my days in agony, waiting for evening so I could try to sleep. I took sleeping pills nightly in a futile
attempt to escape the hell I was going through and failed miserably. Within 2 hours of taking the
pills, I would awake in agony. Fast forward to July of 2011. Already coping with 2 spots of skin
cancer on my collar bone, I was stunned when I was diagnosed with Anal Canal Cancer. (This is
the same cancer that took Farrah Fawcett's life.) Following 2 surgeries, the doctor told me they
did not get all the cancer and I would have to endure a regime of radiation treatments. I started
researching what this would entail, and attended a intake meeting at the Cancer Clinic. I was
informed that "this is the worst area of of the body to radiate", the radiation beam would hit both
my coccyx and pubic bone potentially causing permanent damage."
They would try not to hit my spine.
Additionally, I would suffer 2nd and 3rd degree burns vaginally, rectally, across my buttocks, as
well as my entire "nether regions", and there was a "good possibility" both my vagina and rectum
would fuse shut from the burns and subsequent scaring. The list of both short and long term side
effects was endless and horrendous, but you get the gist. I told the doctor, I needed time to think
about it. His response was hostile, as he told me I had 2-4 months, possibly 6. He murmured
something abut a "death wish" and walked out.
One day someone sent me Rick Simpson's video, Run FromThe Cure. It took me days to get
around to watching it, but when I did I was blown away. Here was this man, a seemingly super
straight small town Nova Scotian, talking about these amazing results he had seen with in himself
and other people taking Cannabis and curing themselves of a myriad of diseases including end
stage cancers. After hearing what Rick had to say, and watching the testimonials in the video, I
was feeling some hope for the first time. For 2 weeks I did nothing but research cannabis as a
medicine. I was stunned by the sheer number of studies on Pub Med indicating that cannabis
indeed has the capacity to heal. I started using cannabis 2 months ago as per Rick Simpson's
protocol from his video. (He recommends starting out small, and slowly upping the dose so ones'
body becomes accustomed to it, without being high constantly. As a person who hasn't smoked
pot since my late teens, early 20's, the non high aspect appealed to me).
I had huge hopes to cure my cancer, and embarked on my fight to live. As well as ingesting
the cannabis oil, I topically applied it to 2 spots of skin cancer on my collar bone. Within 48
hours, there were visible changes. In just over a week, the 2 spots were completely gone. Elated, I
continued ingesting the oil, in hopes it would work on the other cancer attacking my body.
Nothing prepared me for what happened next. About 2 weeks into my regime, the pain in my
sternum, as well as the nerve pain had become almost non existent. You have to understand, I had
resigned myself to a life sentence of pain and agony. It had been 4 years of pain that was with me
24/7 and never, in my wildest dreams, did I imagine I would be pain free ever again. I was able to
stand up straight, the jolting pain so intense that it would cause me to cry out, ceased completely.
I started to sleep through the night and stopped taking sleeping pills. I saw one of my doctors a
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Comprehensive Report on The Cannabis Extract Movement
Comprehensive Report on The Cannabis Extract Movement
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Comprehensive Report on The Cannabis Extract Movement
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Comprehensive Report on The Cannabis Extract Movement
Comprehensive Report on The Cannabis Extract Movement
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Comprehensive Report on The Cannabis Extract Movement

  • 1. 1 The Comprehensive Report on the Cannabis Extract Movement and the Use of Cannabis Extracts to Treat Diseases Author: Justin Kander Consulting Editor: Nicholas Davey 8th Edition February 2016 Originally Published October 2013
  • 2. 2 Abstract This report aims to be a comprehensive analysisofthe cannabis extract movement,a collectionof patients,caregivers,doctors, dispensaries,corporations,and activists that advocate for the use of cannabis extract medicine to treat seriousdiseasessuchas cancers, heart disease,diabetes, rheumatoidarthritis, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis,Crohn’s,andotherdisorders. In aggregate, the movementhas producedimmense evidence showingcannabisextracts can potentiallyeliminate various typesof cancers in humans, and can control diseasesthat traditional pharmaceuticalsare ineffective against. The ultimate goal of this report issimple – to initiate immediate trialsof cannabis extract medicine inhospice centers. Patientsin such centershave terminal diagnosesand nothingto lose by attemptinga treatment whichhas a very real chance of curing them.Moreover,cannabis extracts are completelynon-toxicandcarry no physiological risks. If proventhrough hospice trialsthat cannabis extracts can reliablyeliminate cancers,more extensive clinical trialscan beginto determine optimum treatment protocolsand the full extentof cannabinoid medicine’seffectiveness. This report integratesthe latestscientificresearchand experiential resultstomake a compellingcase that cannabis extracts are effective treatmentsfora wide variety ofdiseases. The strength of the arguments, whenanalyzedas a whole,is overwhelming. The report progressesas follows: 1. Overview of Supporting Science 2. History of Rick Simpson and Phoenix Tears 3. Individual Case Reports 4. Corporations and Dispensaries 5. Doctors and Caregivers 6. Concluding Discussion
  • 3. 3 1. Overview of Supporting Science There isan immense bodyof scientificevidence demonstratingthatcannabinoidsare effectiveagainst virtuallyanydisease,includingsome clinicaltrials. Moststudies focusonthe effectsof individual cannabinoidsincellularandanimal models. These studiesalonedonotprove effectivenessinhumans. In manyinstanceswhere newmedical compoundsare tested,cellularandanimal resultsdonot translate tohumansbecause of complex physiological differences. However,everycompoundthat worksfor humansstartsby workinginsimplermodels.Furthermore,ithasbeenunequivocallyproven that some cell-level effectsof cannabinoidsdoextendtohumans,bolstering theiruse forserious diseases. Decadesof research have exploredthe therapeuticpotential of cannabinoidsandthe cellular mechanismsbywhichtheyaffectvariouscancers anddiseases.Delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most prominentcannabinoidincannabis,andisresponsible forthe plant’spsychoactive effect. There are at leastsixtyothercannabinoids,includingcannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol(CBN), cannabigerol (CBG),cannabichromene (CBC), cannabigevarin (CBGV), tetrahydrocannabivarin(THCV),cannabicyclol (CBL),and cannabielsoin(CBE). Mostof these are non-psychoactive,andcanevenreduce the psychoactivityof THC. In theirnatural state,mostare presentintheiracidicforms. Forexample,inthe unheatedcannabisplant,THCisknownas tetrahydrocannabinolicacid(THCA),whichisalsonon- psychoactive. Whencannabisisdriedorheated,theseacidiccompoundsundergodecarboxylation;the removal of a carboxyl groupfromthe molecule. Acidiccannabinoidshave differentpropertiesthantheir decarboxylatedcounterparts,butbothtypespossessmedicinalproperties. The vastmajorityof the studiesdiscussedhere exploredecarboxylatedcannabinoids. The role of terpenoidsandflavonoids, some of the non-cannabinoidcompoundsincannabis,will alsobe reviewed. One of the firstpositive studieswascarriedoutatthe Medical College of Virginiain1974. The study,while intendedtoprove thatcannabisuse damagesthe immune system, foundthatTHC slowed Lewislungadenocarcinomaandleukemiagrowthinadose-dependentrelationship (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1159836). A 2005 studyfurtherdemonstratedthatTHCcan induce apoptosis(programmedcell death) inthree typesof leukemia cells - acute lymphoblastic leukemia,acute promyelocyticleukemia,anderythroleukemiacells (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15454482). The effectof THC on braincancer is well documentedbyDr.Manuel Guzmánand histeamof researchersinSpain. In1998, theypublishedastudydocumentingTHC’sabilitytoinduce apoptosisin gliomacells(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9771884). In2005, Dr. Guzmán’steamidentified that THC and syntheticcannabinoids coulddecreaseproductionof vascularendothelial growthfactor (VEGF) andmitigate activationof the relatedreceptorVEGFR-2, helpingtoprevent angiogenesis (the formationof bloodvesselstotumors) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15313899). Through this mechanism,culturedgliomacellsandmouse gliomaswere reduced. In2008, the team foundgliomacell invasionisinhibitedbyTHC throughthe down-regulationof matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18339876). In the previoustwostudies,researcherslocally
  • 4. 4 administeredTHCto twohumanpatients,andfoundthatTHC decreasedVEGFandMMP-2 levelsin bothpatients Othercancers have beenexaminedbyDr.Guzmán.A 2003 study showed activationof cannabinoidreceptorswasassociatedwithapoptosisof skincancercells,whilehealthycellsremained unaffected(http://www.jci.org/articles/view/16116).A 2006 studyon pancreaticcancer demonstrated THC inducedapoptosisinfour pancreaticcancercell linesandreducedtumorgrowthintwoanimal models(http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/66/13/6748.full). Italsofound thatsome cancercells express higherlevelsof cannabinoidreceptorsthanhealthycells.Inthiscase,the role of the CB2 receptorwascritical,as blockingthe receptorpreventedTHC-inducedapoptosis;blockingthe synthesis of ceramide,aproapoptoticcompound,alsopreventedapoptoticeffects.Below are resultsfromthe in vivo model. THC is effectiveagainstlungcancerboth in vitro and in vivo.A 2007 Harvard studyshowedthatTHC inhibitedandinducedapoptosisinnon-small celllungcancercell linesandthatTHC-treated,cancerous mice had 50% reductionsintumorweightandvolume,and60% reductionsinmacroscopiclesions (http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/v27/n3/full/1210641a.html).A laterApril 2012 studyfoundthat CBD alsohad an anti-metastaticeffectonone of the same lungcancer cell lines,A549,as well asthe linesH358 andH460 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22198381). CBD isalsoable to induce apoptosisinA549 andH460 cells(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23220503). Both THC and CBD are alsoeffectiveagainstskincancer.AnOctober2015 studyin Life Sciences usedTHC to reduce melanomatumorsinmice,shrinkingthe cancersby50% (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25921771). THC workedviathe immune system, mitigatingthe pro-inflammatorymicroenvironmentof the cancercells.
  • 5. 5 A June 2015 studyinthe Journalof InvestigativeDermatology illuminatedthe powerof THCand CBD's synergisticactionsagainstmelanoma(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25674907). First,THC was shownto activate autophagyandinduce apoptosisinBRAFwild-type(CHL-1) andmutated(A375 and SK-MEL-28) melanomacell lines. Usingverysmall dosesof THCand CBD togetherresultedinsubstantial lossof viabilityinCHL-1,A375, and SK-MEL-28 cells.THCalone wassomewhateffective;temozolomide, a standard single-agenttreatmentformetastasticmelanoma,hadlittle effect.
  • 6. 6
  • 7. 7 Researchersalsoassessedthe in vivo anticanceractionof cannabinoidswithamouse CHL-1 xenograft tumor model.THCand the THC+CBD combinationreducedtumorcell proliferationandincreased autophagyandapoptosiscomparedtocontrol or temozolomideconditions.The authorsconcluded, "Collectively,thesedatasuggestthatTHC and Sativex-L[THC+CBD] are more effective than temozolomide intermsof apoptosisinductionandantitumorresponse,furthervalidatingthe therapeuticrelevance of cannabinoidtreatmentformelanoma." A September1999 studyfoundthat THC couldinduce apoptosisinthe prostate cancercell line PC3,and these effectsoccurredindependentlyof cannabinoidreceptors (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10570948). Additionally,asummarizingstudyonthe endocannabinoidsystemandprostate cancerdiscussedthe potential role of the systeminmaintaining prostate homeostasis,aswell asthe abilityof several cannabinoidsto reduce prostate cancercell proliferationandmigration(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21912423). Cholangiocarcinoma,anespeciallyrare cancer,can be substantially reduced withTHC (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916793). At low concentrations,THCinhibitedcancercell proliferation,migration,andinvasion. Athighconcentrations,itdirectlyinducedapoptosis. Anotherrare cancer, ErbB2-positive breastcancer,wasshowntorespondto THC and a syntheticcannabinoidinaJuly 2010 MolecularCancer study(http://www.molecular-cancer.com/content/9/1/196).Bothcannabinoids inhibitedcancercell proliferationandimpairedangiogenesis,aswell asinducedapoptosis. Theyalso workedin vivo againsttumorgrowth.
  • 8. 8 A July2011 Cell Death and Differentiation article alsotestedTHCanda syntheticcannabinoid,finding theybothreducedthe viability andinducedapoptosisin twohepatocellular(liver)carcinomacell lines throughCB2 activation (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21475304). An in vivo model confirmed the cell-leveleffectsextendedtoanimals. THC was foundto be a potentinhibitorof oral cancercell respirationina2010 Pharmacology study, whichconcludeditwastoxicto the highlymalignantTu183 cell line andeffectswereconcentration- dependent(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20516734). Researchhasshownthat cannabinoidsexertpositive benefitsatthe geneticlevel. A studybyDr. SeanMcAllisterinNovember2007 showedthatCBD coulddown-regulate Id-1gene expressionin aggressive breastcancercells,limitingtheirmetastaticpotential (http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/6/11/2921.long).A furtherstudyinAugust2011 clarifiedthe pathwaysbywhichId-1 expressionwasinhibited(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20859676). A September2004 studyfrom the Departmentof Medical OncologyinLondonshowedthatTHCwas a potentinducerof apoptosisinmultiple leukemiccell linesatleastpartiallythroughchanginggene expressionlevels(http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/105/3/1214.full). A 2012 studyinthe British Journalof Pharmacologyshowed CBDinhibitedangiogenesisof several tumorsthroughmultiple mechanisms (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22624859). Anotherstudyinthe same journal publishedJanuary2013 showedCBDsignificantlyinhibitedcell viabilityinseveral typesof prostate cancerandinducedapoptosisthroughintrinsicapoptoticpathways (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22594963). The studyalsoshowedthat several otherpure cannabinoidsandcannabisextractswere effective againstprostate cancer,withthe full-spectrum extractsgenerallybeingstronger.Anti-cancerstrengthismeasuredwiththe IC50value,whichinthis case isthe concentrationrequiredtoreduce cell viabilityby50% comparedto a control. A lowerIC50 value indicatesgreaterpotency. Incaseswhere 50% inhibition wasnotreached,the inhibitionreached at maximumconcentrationtestedisputinparentheses.Asshown,THCV,THCVA,andCBDV all have anti-cancerproperties,althoughtheyare relativelyweakerthanothercannabinoids.
  • 9. 9 A 2005 studydemonstrated CBDinhibitsgliomacellmigration throughareceptor-independent mechanism(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1576089). A 2010 studyshowedthatCBD enhancesthe inhibitoryeffectsof THCon glioblastomacell proliferationandsurvival (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20053780). As withthe above chart, thisarticle indicatesthe importance and relevance of synergybetweencannabinoids. An October2013 studyfoundthatCBD inhibitedcellproliferationof the U87-MG and T98G gliomacell linesanddecreasedexpressionof proteinsassociatedwithgrowth,invasion,and angiogenesis(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24204703). CBD isparticularlyeffectiveagainst gliomasdue toits abilitytotargetgliomastem-likecells(GSCs).These poorlydifferentiatedcellsare highlyresistanttoradiationandchemotherapy.AnOctober2015 studypublishedinthe International Journalof CancershowedhowCBD promotesthe differentiationof GSCsandinhibitstheirproliferation (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25903924). By promotingdifferentiation,CBDabrogatedthe resistance of these cellstochemotherapyandinhibitedcell viabilitydirectly. CBD can also directlykill gliomacells.A November2003 studyin JPET illuminatedhow CBD inducedapoptosisinthe humangliomacell linesU87and U373 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14617682). ResearchersfoundthataddingCBD to cultures dramaticallyreducedmitochondrial oxidative metabolismandcell viabilityinaconcentration- dependentmanner.The studyalsoimplantedU87 gliomacellsinmice,andtreatmentwithonly0.5mg of CBD permouse significantlyinhibitedthe glioma’sgrowth.
  • 10. 10 A November2013 studyin InternationalJournalof Cancer testedthe effectsof CBDalone andin combinationwithachemotherapeuticagentagainst multiple myeloma (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24293211). CBD workedbyitself orinsynergywithbortezomib to stronglyinhibitgrowth,arrestcell cycle progression,andinduce cell deathinmultiple myelomacells. A 2010 studyby Germanresearchersfromthe Universityof Rostockdemonstratedthe abilityof CBD to inhibitinvasionof cervical cancercellsaswell asinhibitviability (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19914218). The studyalsoshowedthatCBD inhibitedthe metastasisof lungcancercells. Kaposi's sarcomais a cancer characterizedbythe growthof abnormal tissue underthe skinorin the liningof the mouse,nose,orthroat;it usuallyaffectsinHIV/AIDSpatientsdue totheirweakened immune systems.ItiscausedbyKaposi sarcoma-associatedherpesvirus(KSHV).A studyin Genes& Cancerpublishedin2012 provedthat CBD can inhibitproliferationandinduce apoptosisincellsinfected withKSHV (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23264851). A 2010 studyin Urology showedthatCBD inducedapoptosisoccurredviathe regulationof calciuminflux throughthe TRPV2channel protein,atrans-membrane channel in humanT24 bladder cancer cells (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20546877). CBD can alsoinduce apoptosisand reduce viabilityinhumanleukemiacells throughinteractionswithintrinsicandextrinsicapoptotic pathways(http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/70/3/897.full). A 2011 MolecularCancerTherapeutics article showedCBDinducedbreastcancercell death throughreceptor-independentmechanisms(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21566064). CBD workedagainstbothestrogenreceptor-positive andestrogenreceptor-negative cells,withincreasing efficacyathigherconcentrations.
  • 11. 11 The November2011 issue of AnticancerResearch featuredanarticle aboutCBD and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN-55,212-2’sabilitiestoinduce apoptosisinprostate andcoloncancercellsthroughthe modulationof complex cell signaling(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22110202). WIN-55,212-2 can alsoinduce apoptosisinchemotherapy-resistantstomachcancerviaactivatingcannabinoid receptors(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23749906). Anothersyntheticcannabinoid,HU-210, has beenshowntobe veryeffectiveagainstanaggressive rhabdomyosarcomasubtype (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19509271). ViaactivatingCB1 receptors,inductionof apoptosis was achieved.THCwasalsoeffectiveatreducingcell viabilityandinducingapoptosis.The study demonstratedCB1receptorswere upregulatedincanceroustissue.Anin vivo experimentwithHU-210 showedmarkedresults.
  • 12. 12 A July2014 studyin Biochemical Pharmacology demonstratedaremarkable methodbywhich cannabinoidsworkwiththe body’simmune systemtokill lungcancercells (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25069049). CBD, THC, and an endocannabinoidwere shownto upregulate ICAM-1,anadhesionmolecule, onA549 and H460 lungcancer cell lines. Thisincreased susceptibilityof the cancercells toadhere to LAKcells,a type of white bloodcell thatbreaksdown tumors.Afteradhesion,the whitebloodcellsdestroythe cancervialysis. AlthoughTHCand CBD have receivedthe bulkof attentionwhenitcomestoresearch,other cannabinoidsalsopossessanti-cancereffects. A September2006 article analyzedthe effectsof several cannabinoidson twohumanbreastcarcinomacell lines,MCF-7andMDA-MB-231. CBD wasfoundto be the most potentinhibitorof cancercell growth;THC, CBG, CBC,THCA, CBDA,THC-rich andCBD-rich extractswere foundtobe effective aswell (http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/318/3/1375.full).All cannabinoidsandbothextractswere alsofoundtoinhibitgrowthof prostate (DU-145),colorectal (CaCo-2),gastricadenocarcinoma(AGS),glioma(C6),thyroid(KiMol),andleukemiccancercells (RBL- 2H3). The followingchartillustratesthe relativestrengthsof eachcannabinoidagainst eachcell line,as measuredwithIC50values(the concentrationrequiredtoreduce growthby50% as comparedto a control). Asexplainedearlier,lowerconcentrationsindicate greaterpotency,asitrequireslessof the cannabinoidtoreduce growthby50%. As mentioned,CBDwasthe most potent anti-cancercompound, withCBG beinggenerallythe secondmostpotentandCBC generallythe thirdmostpotent(there are some exceptions).
  • 13. 13 An October2013 article in AnticancerResearch foundthatsix cannabinoids, includingCBD,CBG,CBGV, and theiracidicforms,could independently inhibitthe proliferationof leukemiacells (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123005). However,whenthe cannabinoids were combined, the anticancereffectwasevengreater,indicatingasynergisticeffect. Endocannabinoids,the cannabinoid-likemoleculesproducedwithinthe body,have apoptosis- inducingeffectsaswell. A February2006 studyin ExperimentalCell Research foundthat an analogue of the endogenouscannabinoidanandamideinhibitedthe adhesionandmigrationof breastcancercells, and that the endocannabinoidsystemregulatessuchcancercell proliferation (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16343481). A June 2003 studyin Prostateshowedanandamide inducedapoptosisinmultipleprostate cancercell lines,includingthe PC3line,whichhasproven susceptibletoTHC as well (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12746841). Evenmetastaticgrowth was inhibited. Additionally,the ceramidepathway of apoptosiswasbolsteredfurther,withthe study concludingthe cytotoxicactionsof anandamide mayoccurviaintracellularceramide production. Ina January2008 study,increasedendocannabinoidlevelswereshowntoreduce the developmentof precancerouscolonlesionsinmice (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755791). Anandamide canalsocause cell deathinapoptosis-resistantcolorectalcancercells,asdemonstratedin a 2010 studyin the InternationalJournalof Oncology (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20514410). An October2011 studydemonstratedthatanandamideandtworelatedcompounds could reduce the viabilityof mice neuroblastomacells (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203169). Priorto this,a 2000 studyin The Journalof
  • 14. 14 Biological Chemistry showedthatanandamide inducedapoptosisinhumanneuroblastomaand lymphomacells(http://www.jbc.org/content/275/41/31938.full).A July2009 study in The Journalof SurgicalResearch showedthatanandamide inducedapoptosisinstomachcancercellsand synergisticallyenhancedthe cancer-killingeffectsof the chemotherapeuticagentpaclitaxel (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19394652). A May 2014 studyin Head & Neck showed anandamide,butnot2-AG,inhibitedproliferationof headandnecksquamouscell carcinomacellsby increasingreactive oxygenspeciesthroughareceptor-independentmechanism. Cannabinoidreceptorsingeneral were implicatedinimprovingdisease-free survival of liver cancer patients. A November2006 studyfoundthatdisease-free survivalwasmuchbetterinpatients withhighexpressionlevelsof CB1and CB2 receptorsthanthose withlow-level expression (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17074588). In 2005, a Swedishresearchteamfoundthat activatingcannabinoid receptorswithsyntheticcannabinoidsandendocannabinoidscoulddecrease the viabilityof mantle cell lymphoma(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16337199). An article in2010 by a Chinese researchteamdiscussedthe effectsof cannabinoidreceptoractivationonhepatomacells, and foundactivationinducedapoptosisandinhibitedproliferation (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20368112). An excellentstudysummarizingthe anti-cancereffectsof bothcannabinoidsand endocannabinoidswaspublishedJanuary2013 issue of Progressin Lipid Research (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23103355). The abstract states, “Many disease-ameliorating effectsof cannabinoids-endocannabinoidsare receptormediated,butmanyare not,indicatingnon-CBR signalingpathways.Cannabinoids-endocannabinoidsare anti-inflammatory,anti-proliferative,anti- invasive,anti-metastaticandpro-apoptoticinmostcancers, in vitro and in vivo inanimals.Theysignal throughp38, MAPK,JUN,PI3, AKT,ceramide,caspases,MMPs,PPARs,VEGF,NF-κB,p8,CHOP,TRB3 and pro-apoptoticoncogenes(p53,p21waf1/cip1) to induce cell cycle arrest,autophagy,apoptosisand tumourinhibition.”Alsomentioned isthe factsome studiessuggest cannabinoidscanbe anti-apoptotic and pro-proliferative insome cancers. There verywell couldbe cases,especiallyincell culturesoutside organismswithfunctioningendocannabinoidsystems,whereanisolated cannabinoidmay demonstrate these effects. However, suchstudies are overwhelminglyoutnumberedbyothers demonstratinganti- cancer properties,andthe above paperevenconcludesbystating clinical trialsare “urgentlyrequired” to determine the fullpotential of cannabinoidcancertherapy. Furthermore,pro-proliferativeeffects usuallyoccurwithnanomolarconcentrationsof cannabinoids,whileanti-proliferative effectsbeginto occur at the micromolarconcentrationlevel(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2241751). Cannabinoidtreatmentutilizesconcentrationsatthe higherend,andevenlow-dose cannabisextracts are well above nanomolarconcentrations. The most powerful scientificevidence demonstratinganticancereffectsof cannabisextractsin humansisa November2013 article inCaseReportsin Oncology (http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3901602). The article describedthe case of a14-year old female withterminal acute lymphoblasticleukemiawitha Philadelphiachromosome mutation. This formof leukemiaismuchmore aggressive thanothertypes. 34 monthsof chemotherapyandradiation failedtostopthe cancer, and the patientwasplacedinpalliative home care. The familydecidedtouse cannabisoil as a lastresort afterconductingresearchindicatingpotential effectiveness.
  • 15. 15 The firstdose of extractwasgivenonFebruary21st , 2009. Priorto this,fromFebruary4th to the 20th , the patient’sleukemicblastcell countrose from51,490 to 194,000. Evenafterbeginningthe oil,the count continuedtorise,peakingat374,000 on February25th . However,there wassubsequentlyasharp decrease inblastcount,whichcorrelatedwithanincrease indose. ByDay39, the blastcounthad decreasedto300. The total treatmentlasted78 days,at whichpointthe leukemicblastcellswere almostcompletelygone.Unfortunately,the patientpassedawaydue toa bowel perforation,which apparentlywas causedbythe side effectsof the priorintense chemotherapyregiment. The study concluded, “The resultsshownhere cannotbe attributedtothe phenomenonof ‘spontaneousremission' because a dose response curve wasachieved.Three factors,namelyfrequencyof dosing,amountgiven (therapeuticdosing) andthe potencyof the cannabisstrains,were critical indeterminingresponse and disease control.Byviewingfigure 6,itcan be seenthatintroducingstrainsthatwere lesspotent,dosing at intervals>8 h and suboptimal therapeuticdosingconsistentlyshowedincreasesinthe leukemicblast cell count.It couldnot be determinedwhichcannabinoidprofilesconstituteda‘potent'cannabisstrain because the resinwasnotanalyzed.Researchisneededtodeterminethe profile andratiosof cannabinoidswithinthe strainsthatexhibitantileukemicproperties. These resultscannotbe explainedbyanyothertherapies,asthe childwasunderpalliativecare and wassolelyoncannabinoidtreatmentwhenthe response wasdocumentedbythe SickKidsHospital. The toxicologyreportsruledoutchemotherapeuticagents,andonlyshowedhertobe positive forTHC (tetrahydrocannabinol) whenshe had‘arecentmassive decrease of WBCfrom350,000 to 0.3' inducing tumor lysissyndrome,asreportedbythe primaryhematologist/oncologistatthe SickKidsHospital. Thistherapyhas to be viewedaspolytherapy,asmanycannabinoidswithinthe resinousextract have demonstratedtargeted,antiproliferative,proapoptoticandantiangiogenicproperties.Thisalso needstobe exploredfurther,asthere ispotential thatcannabinoidsmightshow selectivitywhen attackingcancer cells,therebyreducingthe widespreadcytotoxiceffectsof conventional chemotherapeuticagents.Itmustbe notedthatwhere ourmost advancedchemotherapeuticagents had failedtocontrol the blastcountsand had devastatingside effectsthatultimatelyresultedinthe deathof the patient,the cannabinoidtherapyhadnotoxicside effectsandonlypsychosomatic properties,withanincrease inthe patient'svitality.”
  • 16. 16 (Note:HempOil referstoTHC-richcannabis-derivedextract,nothempseedoil) A January2016 article in BMC Cancerofferedadditional evidenceof THC'seffectivenessagainst leukemiaandreferredtothe above case (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26775260). German researcherswiththe UniversityHospital Tübingen showedthatTHCinducedapoptosisandinhibited proliferationinleukemiacells.Theyalsoofferedinsightintothe potential anticancereffectsof dronabinol,asyntheticformof THC,in a humanpatient. The abstract includes,"We have anecdotal evidence thatTHCmay have contributedtodisease control inapatientwithacute undifferentiated leukemia."Researchersextractedplasmafromthe patient'sbloodandtesteditonleukemiacells,and foundthe cellsunderwentapoptosis.Whilethis isnotdirectproof thatdronabinol exerted an anticancereffectinthe patient,itis a potentiallyimportantobservation.Furthermore,the authors testedTHC onseveral typesof leukemiaanddeterminedwhichtypesweremostsusceptibletoTHC. Theystated, "In thiscontext,acase reportof a 14 yearold girl withrefractoryBCR-ABL1(Ph+) ALL was recentlypublished [the above-mentioned CaseReportsin Oncology study] demonstratingdramaticblast reductioninan individual therapyapproachusingescalatingdoses of acannabis extract.It is remarkable,thatthe selectedcase fitsintothe definedrespondercohortof ourstudy."Furtherresearch fromthe UniversityHospitalTübingen willhopefullyshedmore lightintohow THCfightsleukemia. The National CancerInstitute hasacknowledgedthe preclinical evidence showingthe anticancer propertiesof cannabinoids,andexploresthematthe followinglink: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/cannabis/healthprofessional/page4. Before movingontostudiesregardingotherseriousdiseases,itisimportantto examinethe endocannabinoidsystem(ECS).Ashasbeensuggestedthroughthe cancer-relatedstudiesalone,the importance of the ECS iscritical. It consistsof a networkof cannabinoidreceptorsand endocannabinoids,foundthroughoutthe entire body. Phytocannabinoids(derivedfromcannabis), endocannabinoids,andsyntheticcannabinoids caninduce apoptosisincancercellsthrough numerous mechanisms. The factthat some cancercellsexpresshigherlevelsof cannabinoidreceptorsthannormal
  • 17. 17 cellsisremarkably intriguinginlightof endocannabinoidanticancerproperties. Evenwithout phytocannabinoids,the bodyhas anexcellentdefense systemagainstabnormal cells. Whencells become malignant,theydevelopmore cannabinoid receptorsandbecome more susceptible to endocannabinoids, thusenablingtheirefficientdisposal.However,itappearsthatdue to nutritional and environmental factors,the capabilitiesof endocannabinoidsare oftennotenough,and phytocannabinoidsupplementationisnecessarytorestore balance. Several studieshave pointedtothe homeostatic-maintenance propertiesof the ECS. Homeostasisisthe restingconditionof healthof anorganism, includingbutnotlimitedtofactorssuch as hydration,energy,temperature,andmaintenance of properenzyme,hormone,andneurotransmitter levels. Maintaininghomeostasisisof paramountimportance,forif it istoo strongly impaired,an organismwill die. Researchisbeginningtoindicate thatthe ECSis theprimaryregulatorof homeostasis inthe body. If thisisthe case,thenthe astoundingmedicinal propertiesof phytocannabinoidsbecome much more understandable. Alldisease ultimately stemsfromanimbalance of some kind. Althoughthis statementisanimmense simplificationof the complexoriginsandmechanismsof variousdiseases,it still accuratelydescribesthe fundamental nature of disease –imbalance,irregularity,abnormality. Theoretically,phytocannabinoidsfunctioningwithinthe ECScouldrestore homeostaticbalance and thus eliminatebodilydisease. Giventhe factthatin practice humansare usingconcentrated phytocannabinoidstosuccessfullytreatamultitude of diseases, thesehigh-level theoriesonthe ECS mustbe givenmore weight. Asadditional researchisconducted,the exactmechanismsbywhich cannabinoidsheal individualdiseasesandmaintainorganism-wide homeostasiswilldoubtlessbe revealed. Dr. RobertMelamede, formerCEOand Presidentof CannabisScience andAssociate Professorat Universityof ColoradoColoradoSprings,haspioneeredsignificantresearchonthe ECS. Dr. Melamede’s paperon endocannabinoidsasglobal homeostaticregulatorsdiscussesthe remarkablydiverse methods of ECS function(http://necsi.edu/events/iccs6/viewpaper.php?id=70).Otherresearchhasconfirmedthe regulatorypropertiesof the ECS.A January2005 studydiscussedhow the ECSappearedearlyin evolutionandmodulatescritical functionslike the autonomicnervoussystem, immune systemand microcirculationin all vertebrates (http://alcalc.oxfordjournals.org/content/40/1/2.short).A 2006 study inInternationalJournalof Obesity spoke of the ECSas a regulatorof energyhomeostasis,participatingin functionslike fatmetabolismandappetite (http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v30/n1s/full/0803276a.html). A June 2010 studyin Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior elaboratedonveryintriguing ideas,includingthe role of the ECSin regulatingvariousaspectsof embryological developmentand homeostasis(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305710000924). The study primarilysuggestedthatthere were aspectsof the ECSwhichbecame dysfunctional inobese people. Since CB1 receptorswere knowntobe involvedinappetite,CB1antagonistdrugswere developedto blockthe activationof the receptorsandthus decrease appetite. Whilethiswaspartiallyeffective, numerousside effectsoccurredandthe use of such antagonistswasdiscontinued. Giventhe widespread functionof cannabinoidreceptorsbeyondappetite,the verypoorresultsof CB1blockade are not surprising. The studyconcludesbysayingalternativecannabinoid-basedtherapiesshouldbe openfor consideration. Anotheraspectof the endocannabinoidsystem’sregulatorymechanisms,post-synaptic feedback,isdiscussedinthe Doctors and Caregiverssection.
  • 18. 18 The ubiquitousnature of the endocannabinoidsystemisdemonstratedbythe fact that it is somehowinvolvedinagreat array of diseases.Althoughthe purpose of thisreportisnotto examine everyscientificarticle oncannabinoids,itisimportanttounderstandthe profoundlyversatile,positive, and diverse benefits of cannabinoids. A January2008 article in Neuropharmacologynotedhow CBD-treated,non-obese diabetes- prone female mice hadonlya32% incidence of diabetesdiagnosis,comparedto100% in the untreated group(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2270485). The studyalsoreferencedanearlier workwhere cannabidiol loweredthe incidence of diabetesinmice. A June 2007 studyproposedthatthe ECS regulatesglucose homeostasisthroughcoordinatedactionsof CB1and CB2 receptors,whilealso showingactivationof CB2receptorsimprovedglucose tolerance (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001429990700249X). Intriguingly,the study showed activatingCB2 receptorsresultsinsimilaractionsasblockingCB1receptors,demonstratingthe integral relationshipbetweenbothreceptortypes. A 2010 studyinthe Journalof theAmerican College of Cardiology,partiallyauthoredbyDr. Raphael Mechoulam(the firsttoisolate THC),concludedthatCBDmay have greattherapeuticpotential for diabetes,throughthe attenuationof oxidative/nitrative stress,inflammation,celldeath,andfibrosis (http://www.natap.org/2010/newsUpdates/marijuana.pdf).Benefitforcardiovasculardisorderswas alsosuggested. AnotherstudyinFebruary2008 concludedthatcannabinoidsmaybe aneffective treatmentforinflammationandfibrosisinchronicpancreatitis (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2253501). A 2002 studyin Bulletin of ExperimentalBiology and Medicine linkedthe activationof cannabinoidreceptorswithcardioprotective effects,demonstratingthatcannabinoidscanpreventthe deathof healthycellsduringaheartattack (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=12428278). A later March 2006 studyfoundthat the ECS, throughactivationof CB2 receptors,wasimportantforprotection frommyocardial ischemia,aconditionresultingindecreasedbloodflow tothe heart (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16618028). Cannabinoids exertsignificantliverprotective effects. A December2003 studyin Molecular Pharmacology showedthatasyntheticcannabinoidcouldinhibitinflammatoryliverdamage inmice, partiallythroughpromotingthe earlyexpressionof protective genes (http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/64/6/1334.full).A later2008 studyin the same journal concludedthatTHC couldinhibithepatitisinmice byreducinglivertissue injury (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2828293). The studyalsofoundTHC suppressed inflammationandsignificantlyincreasedspecializedliverregulatorycells. HIV is one of the mostdestructive virusesfacinghumanitytoday,and cannabismaybe the solution. Patientshave continuouslyreportedthatcannabisuse improvessymptoms,includingappetite, muscle pain,nausea,anxiety,nervepain,anddepression (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15857739). Evidence alsosuggeststhatcannabinoidscaninhibit the HIV virusdirectly. Muchinsightcomesfromresearchintosimianimmunodeficiencyvirus(SIV),the primate formof HIV. AnApril 2010 study usingRhesusmacaques foundthatchronicTHC treatment resultedin lowerplasmaviral load,lowerlymphnodeproviral DNA,andlowerviral gagRNA,irrespective of disease stage (http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/24/1_MeetingAbstracts/752.6).
  • 19. 19 A June 2011 studyin AIDSResearch and Retroviruses confirmedmanyof these results,showingthat chronicTHC administrationdecreasedearlymortalityfromSIV infectionin macaques,withanassociated decrease inplasmaandCSF viral loads(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131805). The studyalsoanalyzed THC in vitro,findingthe compound decreasedSIV viral replicationinMT4-R5 cells. A December2011 studyin Journalof NeuroimmunePharmacology revealedTHCandanother cannabinoidknownasCP55940 couldreduce the migrationof microglial-like cellstowardsthe protein Tat. Thisis significantbecauseTatisimplicatedinHIV neuropathogenesis; thus,inhibitingTatcan potentiallyhelpcontrol HIV (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21735070). Anothersignificant studycarriedout by the Mount Sinai School of Medicine andpublishedMarch2012 demonstratedthat activatingCB2 receptors,butnotCB1 receptors,“reducedinfectionof primaryCD4+T cellsfollowing cell-freeandcell-to-celltransmissionof CXCR4-tropicvirus” (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0033961).The report concludedthatCB2 agonistsmay be beneficial fortheirantiviral effectsagainstCXCR4-tropicvirusesin late HIV-1infectionstages. The role of cannabinoidsfortreatmentof epilepticconditionshasbeengainingpopularity recently,andseveral veryprominenttreatmentcasesare discussedin the case sections. A 1981 studyin the Journalof Clinical Pharmacology suggestedthatCBDcouldbe therapeuticallyeffective againstthree of the fourmajor typesof epilepsy,includinggrandmal,cortical focal,andcomplex partial seizures (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6975285). A September2003 studyin JPET useda rat pilocarpine model of epilepsytotestthe effectivenessof THCand anothercannabimimeticonseizures – treatment“completelyabolishedspontaneousepilepticseizures” (http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/307/1/129.full).The studyalsotestedaCB1 antagonist,and foundusingitto blockCB1 receptorssignificantlyincreased seizure duration. Anotherobservationwas that an endogenouscannabinoidknownas 2-arachidonylglycerol significantlyincreasedduringseizures, suggestingthatendocannabinoidsalongwithphytocannabinoidsmodulate seizure activitythroughCB1 activation. A verycomprehensive June2012 studyin Seizure describedthe effectsof CBDonthree models of seizures(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22520455). A previousstudybythe same team showedthatcannabidiol reducedseizure severityandlethalityin the in vivo model of pentylenetetrazole-inducedgeneralisedseizures. Inthisstudy,the acute pilocarbinemodelof temporal lobe seizure andthe penicillinmodel of partial seizure were examinedthroughCBDadministrationto rodentsat levelsof 1,10, and100mg/kg. Inthe pilocarbine model,all levelsof CBDdosessignificantly reducedthe numberof animals experiencingthe mostsevere seizures. Inthe penicillinmodel,CBD dosesof 10mg/kg and 100mg/kg significantlyreducedpercentage mortalityasaresultof seizures,but all levelsof dosesdecreasedthe numberof animalsexperiencingthe mostsevere tonic-clonicseizures. Inflammationisatthe core of manydiseases,andmanystudiesimplicate cannabinoidsin controllingexcessive inflammation. Dr.Raphael Mechoulam, amongothers,holdsapatentonthe use of CBD to treat inflammatorydiseases. The diseaseslistedinthe patentincluderheumatoidarthritis, multiple sclerosis,ulcerativecolitis,andCrohn’sdisease (http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6410588/fulltext.html).A detailed studyinthe Journalof Clinical Investigation alsodescribedthe abilityof the ECSto mediate protectivesignalsthatreduce inflammation(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC385396).Anotherstudypointedtothe
  • 20. 20 abilityof cannabinoidstomodulateinflammatoryanddegenerativeneuronal damage inmultiple sclerosis,alsoindicatingthatthe ECSis dysregulatedinthe disease (http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/130/10/2543.full). The resultspointtothe needforexternally regulatingthe ECSto achieve effective MStreatment.Furthermore,aJuly2003 studyfoundthat cannabinoidsinhibitedneurodegenerationandprovidedneuroprotectionfrominflammatorydiseases (http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/126/10/2191.full). Furthermore, apatentexistsonTHCfor treatingandpreventingsymptomsof MS (http://www.patentstorm.us/applications/20060167084/fulltext.html).A summarizingstudyinthe Journalof the NeurologicalSciences hypothesizedthatthe ECScan provide neuroprotectioninCNS inflammatorydiseases(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15894331). THC, CBD, CBG, andtheir acidicformswere shownto mitigate inflammationbyinhibitingcyclooxegenase enzyme activityina 2011 study(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21532172). The potential of cannabinoidstopreventorreverse Alzheimer’sdisease isverypromising. Atthe heartof Alzheimer’sisthe accumulationof beta-amyloidplaque,whichimpairsbrainfunctionandleads to the host of symptomsassociatedwithAlzheimer’s. A September2013 studyin Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences positedthatbeta-amyloidplaque buildupoccurredbecause of impairedclearance of the plaque acrossthe blood-brainbarrier(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23831388). It testedhow the applicationof cannabinoidreceptoragonistsinfluencedthe transportof plaque outof the brain, findingagonistssignificantlyenhancedplaqueclearance. Theyalsoelevatedlevelsof LRP1,the beta- amyloidtransportprotein,whichexplainshow receptoractivationinduced theseresults.Inhibiting cannabinoidreceptorsstopped beneficialeffects,indicatingthe importance of receptoractivationin fightingAlzheimer’s. A 2013 Journalof Alzheimer’sDisease studyshowedthe CB2 agonistJWH-133 improved cognitionof mice geneticallyalteredtohave Alzheimer’scharacteristics (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515018). The improvementwas associatedwithdecreased microglial activityandreductionof fourpro-inflammatorycytokines. “Inconclusion,the presentstudy lendssupporttothe ideathat stimulationof CB2receptorsamelioratesseveral alteredparametersin Alzheimer'sdisease such asimpairedmemoryandlearning,neuroinflammation,oxidative stressdamage and oxidativestressresponses,selectedtaukinases,andtauhyperphosphorylationaroundplaques.” An August2014 studyon Alzheimer’sexploredthe use of CBDintreatinggeneticallyaltered mice (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24577515). These mice hadimpairmentsinsocial recognitionand novel objectrecognition,whichchronicCBDtreatmentreversed. However,anxiety- relatedbehaviorswerenotaffected. “Itbasicallybringsthe performance of the animalsbacktothe level of healthyanimals.Youcouldsayit curedthem, butwe will have togoback and lookat theirbrainsto be sure,”saidDr. TimKarl,one of the study’sauthors(http://www.smh.com.au/national/cannabis-may- help-reverse-dementia-study-20130206-2dxsk.html).InaTIME article onhow cannabinoids mayslow brainaging,Dr. Gary Wenk,professorof neuroscience,immunology,andmedical geneticsatOhioState University,stated, “I’ve beentryingtofindadrugthat will reduce braininflammationandrestore cognitive functioninratsforover25 years;cannabinoidsare the firstandonlyclassof drugsthat have everbeeneffective.Ithinkthatthe perceptionaboutthisdrugischangingandin the future people will be lessfearful”(http://healthland.time.com/2012/10/29/how-cannabinoids-may-slow-brain-aging).
  • 21. 21 A 2015 fromresearchersinSpainshowedthe importance of usingTHCandCBD forAlzheimer's (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25125475). The cannabinoidsworkedtogethertoreduce the harmful effectfromthe mosttoxicformof the beta-amyloidplaque,aswell asexertedsynergistic anti- inflammatoryeffects.A January2016 studyoutof Israel confirmedthatTHC-richcannabisoil benefits Alzheimer'spatients(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26757043). 10 patientscompletedthe trial and experiencedimprovementsinthe followingmeasures:Delusions,agitation/aggression,irritability, apathy,and sleepandcaregiverdistress.Researchersconcludedthatusingcannabisoil forADpatients was a safe and promisingtreatmentoption. Amyotrophiclateral sclerosisisafatal neurodegenerativedisease whichisespeciallyhardto treat.Prolongedexcitationof nerve cellsbythe neurotransmitterglutamate isapotential cause,among manyother factors. A 2008 studyin CurrentPharmaceuticalDesign describedthe role of the endocannabinoidsysteminmanagingALS(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18781981). Through the activationof CB1 andCB2 receptors,cannabinoidscan exertanti-glutamatergiceffects. Receptor activationcanalso reduce inflammationanddecrease microglial secretionof neurotoxicmediators. The studyconcluded,“The abilityof cannabinoidstotargetmultipleneurotoxicpathwaysindifferentcell populationsmayincrease theirtherapeuticpotential inthe treatmentof ALS.” Anearlierstudyina dedicatedALSjournal testedTHCina mouse model of the disease (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15204022). Administrationof THCbefore or afteronsetof symptomswaseffective indelayingmotorimpairmentandprolongingsurvival. The studyalsofound THC was “extremelyeffective”atreducingoxidativedamage inspinal cordcultures,andwasanti- excitotoxicinvitro. Anotherstudyinthe same journal testedCBN inmice,whichfounditsignificantly delayeddisease onsetbutdidnotaffectsurvival (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16183560). An August2010 studyinthe American Journalof Hospiceand Palliative Care calledforclinical trialsof cannabisforALS due to its remarkable therapeuticversatility (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439484). The article states,“Ideally,amultidrugregimen, includingglutamate antagonists,antioxidants,acentrallyactinganti-inflammatoryagent,microglial cell modulators(includingtumornecrosisfactoralpha[TNF-alpha] inhibitors),anantiapoptoticagent,1or more neurotrophicgrowthfactors,anda mitochondrial function-enhancingagentwouldbe requiredto comprehensivelyaddressthe knownpathophysiologyof ALS.Remarkably,cannabisappearstohave activityinall of those areas.” Chronicpainis a symptomof many diseasesandaconditioninitself. Painisthe ultimate driver of desperationandthe sensationthatdestroysall happinessinlife. Itleadspeopletodepressionand suicide. Currentmethodsfordealingwith severepainrely largelyon opiates, whichare notsuitedfor providinglong-termreliefand canhave many terrible side effects,suchasconstipation,mental disconnection, addiction, andwithdrawal. Otherpharmaceutical medicationscantreatpain,butlike opiatespossessunpleasantside effects. The scientificandexperiential evidence suggest that cannabinoidsare abetteroptionforpainmanagement. A February2003 studystatedCB2 activationinhibitsacute,inflammatory,andneuropathicpain responses(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12550743). Later thatyear,a studyin Anesthesiology referredtocannabinoidreceptoragonists’abilitiestoinhibitinflammatoryhyperalgesia,anincreased sensitivitytopain (http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Fulltext/2003/10000/Inhibition_of_Inflammatory_Hyperalgesi
  • 22. 22 a_by%20.31.aspx).A July2006 studyin CurrentNeuropharmacology demonstratedthatactivationof cannabinoidreceptorsmodulatedpainthresholds,reducedinflammation,andevenworked synergisticallywiththe endogenousopioidsystem (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2430692). An earlier1999 studylinkedanandamide withpainmodulation(http://www.pnas.org/content/96/21/12198.full).In2010, a Public Library of Science article postulatedcannabinoiduse asatreatmentformanagingpostoperativepain,andstated that endocannabinoidsinhibitednociceptive painprocessingthroughactivationof bothCB1 andCB2 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2878341). A 2006 studyin CurrentMedicalResearch and Opinion testedTHCtreatmentonfibromyalgiapatientswheresignificantreductionof painwas observed,although severalpatientswithdrew fromthe studydue toadverse side effects,mostlikely psychoactive innature (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16834825). A May 2012 studyin The Journalof Neurosciencedemonstrated thatthe CB1 receptorwasassociatedwithbothreducedpainand neurotoxicityproducedbychemotherapy,specificallythe chemotherapeuticagentcisplatin (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3366638/). A fantasticsummaryof cannabinoidpain-reductioneffectsisdetailedinthe June 2003 issue of Journalof Pain and SymptomManagement,viaalettertothe editor (http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924(03)00142-8/fulltext).The overview statesthat, “Cannabinoidsblockpainresponsesinvirtuallyeverylaboratorypainmodel tested.Inmodelsof acute or physiological pain, cannabinoidsare highlyeffective againstthermal,mechanical,andchemical pain, and are comparable toopioidsinpotencyandefficacy.Inmodelsof chronicpain,cannabinoidsexhibit efficacyinthe modulationof bothinflammatory andneuropathicpain.”The article alsodescribesthree caseswhere mere smokedcannabiswasable toreduce heavyopiate use byconsiderable amounts. Giventhatsmokedcannabis delivers cannabinoids inahighlyinefficientmanner,itisnotable that smokingstill worksmore effectivelythanpharmaceutical-grade opiates. A survey of over1,300 fibromyalgiapatients bythe National PainFoundationfoundthat cannabiswasfar superiortothe only three FDA-approveddrugsforfibromyalgia
  • 23. 23 (http://nationalpainreport.com/marijuana-rated-most-effective-for-treating-fibromyalgia- 8823638.html). The graphs belowdemonstratethe remarkablesuperiorityof cannabistothe drugs.At most,10% of people reportedtwoof the FDA-approveddrugsveryeffective fortreatingsymptoms.In the case of cannabis,62% of people reportedthe medicine veryeffective. Anotherpage onNationalPainReport.comsummarizedthe resultsof a September2015 surveybyCare By Design,anorganizationthatproducesCBD-richcannabisproductsinCalifornia (http://nationalpainreport.com/medical-marijuana-great-for-migraine-fibromyalgia-and-irritable-bowel- syndrome-survey-finds-8828409.html).621 people were interviewedforthe survey,includingpatients withcancer,multiple sclerosis,Parkinson's,epilepsy,spinalcordinjury,neuropathicpain,arthritis,PTSD, depression,andmore.Incredibly, 100%of patientswithfibromyalgia,headachesandmigraines, irritable bowel syndrome,andspinal cordinjuryreportedadecrease inpainordiscomfortafterusing CBD-richcannabistherapyforat least30 days. 100% of patientswithPTSD reportedanimprovementin mood. There were dramaticeffectsof CBDon wellbeingforall patients (http://blog.sfgate.com/smellthetruth/files/2015/09/CBD-Patient-Survey-September2015.pdf).
  • 24. 24
  • 25. 25 Cannabinoidspossessremarkable andimportantantibacterialproperties. A 2008 studyin Journalof NaturalProducts foundthatTHC, CBD,CBN, CBG, and CBCall displayedpotentactivityagainstmany strainsof methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481). While the majorityof thisanalysishasfocusedoncannabinoids,the role of terpenoidsand flavonoidscannotbe forgotten. Thesecompounds are foundinfruitsandvegetables, andlikelywork synergisticallywithcannabinoids. Dr.EthanRusso,a prominent cannabisresearcher,publisheda January2011 paperin British Journalof Pharmacology whichextensivelyreviewedthe effectsof various terpenoidsandtheirsynergisticpotential withcannabinoids (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165946). He evenidentifiedwhichcannabinoidswork synergisticallywithwhichterpenoids. Terpenoidspresent include limonene,alpha-pinene,beta-myrcene,linalool,beta-caryophyllene, and others. Theypossessmanyof the same traitscannabinoidsdo,suchas beinganti-inflammatory, antibacterial,anticonvulsant,anti-anxiety,anti-fungal,pro-apoptotic,andmore. Beta-caryophyllene, one of the mostprominentterpenoidsincannabis,isgastriccytoprotective,anti-inflammatory,andanti- malarial. Limonene,commonlyfoundinlemons,caninduce apoptosisinbreastcancercells. Flavonoidsare seeminglylessprevalentincannabisthanterpenoids,but stillprovide remarkable benefits.Inapapertitled, Cannabisand CannabisExtracts:GreaterThan the Sumof Their Parts?,Dr. Russo describedthe therapeuticbenefitsof severalflavonoids (http://files.iowamedicalmarijuana.org/science/misc/McPartland-Russo-JCANT%201(3-4)-2001.pdf). Apigenin,quercetin,beta-sitosterol,andcannflavinA all appearinsmall concentrations. Theyexert antioxidant,anticancer,antimutagenic,andanti-inflammatoryproperties. CannflavinA isunique to cannabis,andat leastone studypointstoitbeing30 timesaspowerful ananti-inflammatoryasaspirin. Reportsof successwithcannabisstretchback to the post-Civil Warera. The March 1868- February1869 issue of TheMedical Record recordsseveral casesof physiciansusingcannabisextractsin theirpractice (http://books.google.ca/books?id=8DVYAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover).Twocasesare attachedbelow.
  • 26. 26 Thisconcludesthe study-level analysis,buthundredsof furtherstudiesandnewsarticlescanbe found at http://www.letfreedomgrow.com/cmu/Grannys%20List%20January%202013.pdf.The listof studies, collectedbyanactivistknownasGranny Storm Crow,features researchshowingthe effectivenessof cannabinoidsfornearlyanydisease imaginable. Inadditiontothe diseasesdiscussedabove,the list containsstudiesrelatingtoADD/ADHD,addiction,depression,Parkinson’s,and osteoporosis. Effectson lesswell knowndiseasesare alsodocumented,likeMeige’ssyndromeandNiemann-Pickdisease. Cannabisisfurtheruseful forconditionswe donotthinkof as serious,suchas the hiccups. Much is lefttobe learnedaboutthe endocannabinoidsystemandits complex interactions with phytocannabinoids. The exactmechanismsof ECSfunction,anddysfunction, are still notentirely understood. Despite the vastmysteriouslandscapeahead,manyconcrete observationscanbe gleaned fromthe existingresearch,whichthankfullyisstillquite robust. First,bothendocannabinoidsand phytocannabinoids exerttherapeuticeffectsforvirtuallyanydisease. Evensyntheticcannabinoidshave beenshowntoinduce benefitthroughactivationof cannabinoidreceptors. The ECShas beenimplicated inmaintaininghomeostasisthrough manybodysystems; thishomeostaticregulatorypropertywould explainwhycannabinoidsare effective againstsomanydifferentconditions.Whenexaminedapartfrom anecdotal data,thisresearchissimplypromising,andnomore. However,giventhathumansare actually usingconcentratedcannabinoidstoachieve cure-levelresultsforconditionswhere curativepowers are potentiallyimplied, thisresearchmustbe takenfarmore seriously. Infact,evenif thisresearchdidn’t exist, the magnitude of the humanexperiences isimpossible toignore. Currentscientificstudiesgrant legitimate credibilityandilluminate cellularmechanismsbywhichthese curative resultsare occurring. In the future,more researchwill revealnotonly more abouthow the ECS functions,butthe beststrains, dosages,andconstituentsforcannabisextractmedicine. As more researchisconductedintocannabinoidmedicine,furtherinnovationsandusesare boundto be discovered. Fornow, the scientificevidence supports the claims.
  • 27. 27 2. History of Rick Simpson and Phoenix Tears Giventhe multitude of referencestoRickSimpsonthroughoutthisreport,andhiscritical importance to the beginningof the moderncannabisextractmovement,hishistoryis describedindetail below. Rick Simpsonwasbornin Springhill,NovaScotiaonNovember30,1949. He beganworkat the age of 16, and transitionedtoacareer inpowerengineeringat18. Rickworkedas an engineeruntil 1997, whenhe sufferedawork-relatedinjuryandwasdiagnosedwithpost-concussionsyndrome. He wasprescribeda numberof drugs to alleviatehiscondition,butnone were effective. In late 1998, Rick watchedan episode of “The Nature of Things”,inwhichDr.David Suzuki interviewed medical marijuanapatientswhohadachievedastoundingresultswithcannabis. ThispromptedRickto try it forhimself. He quicklynoticedthatsmokingcannabisdidmore forhisconditionthananyof the pillshe wastaking. Despite the effectivenessof his self-administeredmedication,Rick’sdoctorwould not provide alegal prescriptionforcannabis,statingthe herbwas“badfor the lungs”. In response,Rick askedif it wouldbe bettertoextractthe essential oilsfromcannabis,knowingsuchamethodwould bypassthe needforsmoking. Hispleafailed,asthe doctorstill refusedtowrite aprescription. Nonetheless,Rickdecidedtopursue thiscourse anyway,andthroughtrial-and-errordevelopedan acceptable methodforproducingcannabisoil. Until 2001, Rickcontinuedtakingprescriptionmedicinesuntilhisdoctortoldhimthere was nothingmore theycoulddo. Rickthenceaseduse of pharmaceuticals,leavingcannabisoil ashisonly medication. Thiscourse greatlyimprovedhiscondition. In late 2002, Rick wasdiagnosedwithskincancer,whichwaspresentonthree partsof his body; twopatcheson hisface andone on hischest. In January2003, Rickhad one area of skincancerremoved surgically,withthe remainingtwopartsscheduledtobe removedlater.Shortlyafterthe surgery,Rick recalledaradioshowhe’dheardabout the 1974 Universityof Virginiastudyindicating tetrahydrocannabinol inhibitedcancergrowth(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1159836).Rick knewcannabisoil containedconcentratedTHC,sohe decidedtophysicallytestitonhimself. He applied
  • 28. 28 homemade oil tobandagesandplacedthemdirectlyonthe skincancersites. Infourdays,the cancers were gone. Excited,Rickwentbacktohisdoctor’s office toinformthemthathe had curedhimself with cannabisoil,butthe reactionsfromboththe receptionistanddoctorwere negative. Afterhisincrediblepersonalexperiences,Rickdecidedhe wantedtohelpothers. He began growingcannabisinmassive quantitiesinhisbackyard,usingittoproduce thousandsof gramsof oil, whichhe gave away forfree to anyone inneed. He quicklyobservedthatcannabisoil exertedpanacea- like effects. Iteliminatedanytype of cancerhe came across and reversednearlyanytype of medical condition. Diabetes,chronicpain,multiple sclerosis,nervedamage,inflammatoryandautoimmune disorders,andmental conditionsbecame completelycontrolledordisappeared. Mostpatientscame to Rick as a lastresort,not believingsomethingassimple ascannabisoil couldreallywork. The standard treatmentprovidedwas60 gramsto be usedover90 days;thiswas the dosinglevel Rickobservedwas necessarytoachieve curative effects. However,as massingevidence indicates,sometimesmuchlessor much more cannabis oil isneededtorealize sucheffects. Rick’sactivitiesattractedbothmediaandlaw enforcementattention. Inlate 2006, storiesabout Rick appearedonGlobal National NewsandGlobal Maritimes EveningNews,twopopularCanadian newsprograms. Priorto that,on August3rd , 2005, the Royal CanadianMountedPolice raidedRick’s home,andconfiscated1,190 cannabisplants(http://www.cumberlandnewsnow.com/Justice/2007-09- 13/article-370849/Seized-marijuana-plants-had-value-up-to-830000-RCMP/1).Althoughthe citedarticle states1,190, Rick saidthe plantcount wasactually1,620; one of the newsreportsalsomentionsacount numberaround1,600. The raidledto a trial in September2007, where Rickfacedchargesincluding possessionof lessthan30 grams of cannabis,possessionof lessthanthree kilogramsof tetrahydrocannabinol forthe purpose of trafficking,andunlawful productionof cannabis. He wasfound guiltyonall charges. Whendiscussinganadjournmentforsentencing,Ricksaidthe followingtoJudge Felix Cacchione: “It may be betterto lockme up rightnow.As soonas I get home I’mgoingto treatmy patients. I’mgoingto grow that plantuntil the dayI die,soI mightas well be putin jail today.Ican’t stopin the middle of [treatment].People’slivesare atstake here.” (http://www.cumberlandnewsnow.com/Justice/2007-09-19/article-381209/Simpson-guilty/1). Simpsonwasscheduledtoreturntocourt forsentencingon November30, 2007. However, while awaitingsentencing,SimpsonwasarrestedagainfortraffickingTHC,andwas remandedforfour daysuntil beingreleased. WhenSimpsonwassentencedforhisfirstcharges,he receiveda$2,000 fine, prohibitiononownershipof firearms(asisthe case withmostdrug charges),andone day custody, deemedservedbyhiscourtappearance. Judge Cacchione explainedhisdecision,saying,“Mr.Simpson has a sincere belief he hasa cure withthisoil and shouldbe commended,butin reality,he broke the law”(http://www.cumberlandnewsnow.com/Justice/2008-02-11/article-382416/Simpson-considers- leaving-country/1).Inearly2008, Rickreturnedtocourt to face the charge relatedtohis secondarrest, and wassentencedtoeightdaysincustodyby Judge Carole Beaton. Aswiththe firstcase,the custody time wasdeemedservedbyRick’spreviousremandtime. “Mr. Simpsonisinan unusual position,because unlike otherpeople engagedinthe drugtrade, he was not engagedintraffickingforfinancial gain,"saidJudge CaroleBeaton."He wasengagedinan altruisticactivityandwasfirminhisbelief thathe washelpingothers”(http://www.salem- news.com/articles/december052009/rick_simpson_bk.php).
  • 29. 29 Withtwo separate legal incidentshappeningonlymonthsapart,Rickwasforcedto cease his activitiesforsome time. InNovember2009, Rickwentto Amsterdamtoreceive the HighTimesFreedom Fighterof the Year Award(http://www.hightimes.com/read/rick-simpson-seeks-political-refuge- europe). WhileinEurope,Rick’shome wasraidedagainbypolice,resultinginmore cannabisproduction and possessioncharges,alongwithchargesrelatedtothe breakingof hisfirearmsprohibition. (http://www.cumberlandnewsnow.com/Justice/2009-12-17/article-818327/Summons-issued-for- cannabis-crusader/1).Asaresult,Rickdecidedtostayin Europe forseveral years,where he continued to educate people personallyandthroughhisorganization,PhoenixTears. The 2009 charges were withdrawnin2012 by CrownattorneyDoug Shatfordaftera forfeiture applicationof seizeditemswas approved(http://www.cumberlandnewsnow.com/News/Local/2012-05-14/article-2978460/Charges- against-Simpson-withdrawn/1). Rick Simpson’sendeavortoheal people with cannabisoilwaspublicizedinthe documentary Run From theCure, releasedFebruary2008 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pjhT9282-Tw).The documentaryelaboratesuponRick’sstoryandhow he discoveredcannabisoil couldeliminate various cancers andotherdiseases. The filmalsoprovidesstep-by-stepinstructionsonhow to make cannabisoil and featuresinterviewswithcuredpatients,includingthose once deemedterminal. Itisof note that much betterprocessesforextractingcannabisoil have beendiscoveredsince the publishingof Run From the Cure. Alcohol,vegetableoil,carbondioxide,andothernon-petroleum-basedsolventsare fast becomingthe choice waystoprocesscannabisintoextracts. Furtherdiscussedinthe documentaryisanincidentinvolvingRickDwyer,formerpresidentof the Maccan Branch of the Royal CanadianLegion. AfterseeingsuccesswithhisfatherEdforterminal lungcancer, Dwyertriedtoshare the informationthroughhis Legionbranch. However,uponlearningof whatthe branchwas promoting,ProvincialCommandintervenedandremovedDwyerfromhisposition, claimingthatadvocatingthe use of an illegal substance wasunacceptable (http://www.canada.com/globaltv/national/story.html?id=70817eb6-a515-4af7-bf0d-3050413f0ebc). Thistrendof disregardanddisbelief forcannabisextractmedicinehasbeenaperpetuallystrong presence. RickDwyer’sincidentwasonlythe beginning –Rick Simpsonalsoexperiencedrejectionfrom everyorganizationhe contacted,includingcancerresearchcenters. He offeredtopresentevidence directlyfrompatientsprovingthe effectivenessof cannabisoil,butnoone listened. Itwasnotevenuntil August2013 that the firsttrulymainstreamtestimonialforcannabisextractmedicine wasshowntothe world,inthe formof Dr. SanjayGupta’s Weed documentaryandits discussionof child-patientCharlotte Figi. Throughthe use of non-psychoactive high-cannabidioloil (whichdiffersfromtraditional psychoactive high-THCoil),Charlotte’sseizuresdroppedfrom300 grand mal seizures aweektoless than three minorseizuresamonth. The use of cannabisoil wascommencedonlyaftereverypossible combinationof powerfulpharmaceuticalsfailed. Charlotte’scase isjustthe latestinanincrediblylong and diverse listof successesthathave beenachievedsince the release of Run FromtheCure. Interestinglyenough,RickSimpsoniscitedinthe November2013 CaseReportsin Oncology study inthe previoussection,ashe helpedassistthe studiedpatientwithproducingherownoil. Run From theCure was directedbyChristianLaurette,whohimself hadavery positive healing experience withcannabisoilforbackproblems. He iscurrentlydirecting Run FromtheCure2, whichwill feature manyof the developmentsthathave occurredsince the firstfilm.
  • 30. 30 3. Individual Case Reports Patientshave alwaysbeenthe central focusof the cannabisextractmovement;real people whohave facedreal prospectsof painand death,yetrecoveredsuccessfully throughthe use of cannabisextract medicine. The followingtestimonialsare pulledprimarilyfromsocial mediaandnewssources,aswell as frompersonal interviewsof the author.Severalcasesalsoinclude official medical documentationof diagnosisandsubsequentremission. The most fittingplace tostart isthe documentary Run Fromthe Cure,whichfeaturedseveral patientswhoexperiencedincrediblehealingbenefits. Eric Donkinhad fouropen-heartsurgeriesandfive pacemakers,andthroughthe use of Rick’s oil,wasable to live life nearlypainfree andgobackto work. Doctors had toldhimhe wouldonlybe able to siton the couch and watch TV for the rest of hislife. Ericalsoremarkedthatthe oil waseffectivefor hisfather’scancer,and itwas because of hisfatherthat he beganon the oil as well. Rick Dwyersufferedfrommajordepressionsince 27,along withpanicattacks. Three back injuriesresultedinchronicbackpainwithconstantaching. The oil cut downhispanicattacks, reduced back aches,and continuouslyimproveddepressionandanxietysymptoms. Debbie Donkinhadsuspectedskincanceronher shoulder,andafterusingthe oil fortwoweeks (byputtingthe oil ona bandage,andreapplyingoil/changingthe bandage afew timesthroughout),the site wascompletelyclear. Cecil Hoeghad melanomaonhisface,whichhadpreviouslybeentreatedmanytimeswith radiation. Althoughthe radiationtreatmentswere ineffective, Rick’scannabisoilproved effectiveat finallygettingridof the cancer. Margaret Dwyerusedcannabisoil withefficacyformigraines,anovariancyst,arthritis,skin allergies, stomachproblems,andevensnoring. The most dramaticcase featuredisJamesLeBlanc,apatientwithterminal cancerwhowas healedwithcannabisoil. While James’storyisrelativelybrief inthe documentary,the authorof this reportspoke extensivelywithJamesin2008, and recorded several importantdetails.Some information isalso takenfromthe original incarnationof the Phoenix Tearswebsite.
  • 31. 31 Jameswasdiagnosedwithstomachcanceron May 18, 2005. Overthe subsequentfew months,LeBlanc enduredsurgery,chemotherapy,andradiationtreatments. OnNovember30th ,2005, the cancer was virtuallygone. ItreturnedinOctober2006, and thistime had spreadthroughoutJames’lymphnode system. InNovember2006, LeBlancwasgiventwomonthsto live,as the cancer wascompletely untreatable. Onlypalliativemedicinewasprescribed. ItwasinDecember2006 that LeBlancbecame aware of cannabisoil,andwasbrought to AmhersttomeetRickSimpson. He wasinitiallyskeptical of the endeavor– like mostpeople atthe time,he wasusingcannabisoil asa lastresort withlittle hope. AfterspeakingextensivelywithRick,LeBlanc’shopeswere raisedandhe startedthe oil onJanuary 1st , 2007. On April 4th ,2007, LeBlanchad hisfirstCT scan since starting the oil and receivedthe resultson April 24th . The doctor presentedJameswithextremelygoodnews;notonlywasthe cancer not spreading,butitwasdying. By late July,the secondCTscan showedthatonlya small bitof cancer remained,andbythe final CTscan in December2007, the cancer wascompletelygone.Afterbeating terminal cancer,Jamesreturnedtowork. Rick Dwyer,apatientmentionedabove andformerpresidentof the Maccan Branch of the Royal CanadianLegion,spoke onGlobal MaritimesEveningNewsinDecember2006. He spoke aboutissues withthe RCMP and the successhisfather, 82-year-oldEdDwyer, experienced throughcannabisoil consumption. The treatmenthelpeddrainfluidfromEd’slungs,repairhisprostate,andeliminate his needforinsulintocontrol hisdiabetes. Throughthe use of cannabisoil,the fluidfromEd’slungswas drained,hisprostate wasrepaired,andhe nolongerneededtotake insulinforcontrollinghisdi abetes. Most importantly, Ed’sterminal lungcancerwasheld atbay,despite atone pointhavinga prognosisof only24 hoursto live. Later inthe documentary,RickDwyerdiscussedhow he came tomeetRick Simpson andlearn the truth of his claims bytalkingwithcuredpatients. AsDwyerstated,“IinvestigateditasIshould’ve.” Despite effortstoshare the informationwithProvincial Commandandsolicitanhonestreview of the claims,theydidnotlisten.Dwyerevenstartedapetitionaskingparliamenttoenactlegislationin supportof clinical testingoncannabisoil.
  • 32. 32 Insteadof examiningthe evidence,LegionCommandcame inandshutdownthe Maccan Branch. Rick Dwyer’seffortstoshare the scientificandhumanevidence were ignored. ProvincialCommandonly cared that the Royal CanadianLegionname and insigniawere notusedtopromote illegal information. Steve Wessel,CommandChairmanof NovaScotia,saidsharingsuchinformationcoulddamage the integrityandreputationof the Legion. Giventhatno actual medical documentationof curative resultswere includedin Run Fromthe Cure,the documentary wasinitially,andstill tothisday,metwithheavyskepticism. Tocounterthis skepticism, Rick Simpsonsimplystated,“If youdon’tbelieveme,putsome oil onaskincancer, and watch itdisappear.”Indeed,since the 2008 release of Run Fromthe Cure,thousandsof people have takenthischallenge andmore,seeingRick’sseeminglyabsurdclaimsconfirmedtime andtime again. DavidTripletttreatedskincanceronhisnose withcannabisoil,anddocumented the resultsin a short filmtitled Cured:A CannabisStory,releasedinJuly2010. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JPm0Jq9bj98).
  • 33. 33
  • 34. 34 A womannamedMaggie Perondiscussedthe use of cannabisoil forher65-year oldfather,whohad squamouscell carcinomaonhishands (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ui68B_rjzLk).He hadto deal withconstantscabs,pus, sores,andpain. Maggie boughtcannabisoil fromGersh Avery,whooftengoes by the pseudonymPeanutButter. She convincedherdadtotry ittopicallyone night,andthe verynext day he reportedsubstantiallyreducedpain. Overamonth,the scabsand soresalmostcompletely disappeared. There washardlyanyscaring,andpushad gone awaycompletely. “That’sthe mainthing, there’snopain,”saidMaggie. GershAveryhas treatedmanypeople andinformallycollected some reportedresultsinaspreadsheet. He insistedthiswasnota formal study, justobservations frompatients. Ratingsare ona 1 to 10 scale, with1 beingthe leastsevereand10 beingthe mostsevere symptomintensity. These symptomsstem fromCrohn’sdisease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, orulcerativecolitis. Measuredsymptomsinclude acid,tension,gurgling,diarrhea,andpain.
  • 35. 35 A newsreportonABC NewsChannel 13discussedthe use of cannabisoil forneckcancer (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0F3mTf1z3Yo).BrettStraussfirsthadcancerin 2007, andafter beatingittraditionally,the cancerreturnedinthe formof five malignanttumorsinJanuary2010. He decidedtotry topicallyusingacannabisextractbalmonhisneck,and in March 2010, doctors confirmed onlyone tumorwas malignant. Afterthisexperience,Brettwantedtoresearchthe effectsof cannabis oil forother cancerpatients. However,theredoesnotseemtobe anyfurtherinformationavailable abouthis intendedresearch. ShonaBanda isa particularlyunique patientandactivistwhohas Crohn’sdisease. Shonabattledfor eightyearsagainsta verysevere case of Crohn’s,usinganarray of powerful pharmaceuticalsincluding Remicade,which oftenhasseriousandpainful side effects. Whenshe beganusingcannabisoilinMarch 2009, herconditiongreatlyimproved. The drastic,overwhelmingsuccesspromptedShonatowrite a
  • 36. 36 bookabout herexperience called LiveFree or Die. The bookstartedas a journal that Shonakeptto documentthe effectsof cannabisoil,andshe expandeduponthe journal withotherinformation to create her book.Live Free or Die isespeciallypowerful because of Shona’scourage toreveal the specific waysin whichCrohn’saffectedherlife.Onseveraloccasionsshe thoughtshe wasgoingtodie. The other interestingaspectof Shona’sstoryisthe wayshe producedcannabisoil. Havingseen Run From theCure and knowingshe couldn’tacquire the recommendedamountsof cannabisto make oil from(inthe documentary,apoundor as little asone ounce isrecommended),Shonabelievedshe wouldnevertryit.However,aftervaporizingcannabisinaglobe-typedevice,she noticedresidue accruing alongthe sides,whichlookedlikethe cannabisoil she’dseenin Run FromtheCure.With nothingtolose,Shonabegancollectingandconsumingthe oil residue incapsules. Withinaweekanda half,she noticedremarkable improvements; althoughsome abdominal paininitiallyintensified, Shona attributed thistoscar tissue changingandfallingoff. Overthe nextfew months,aside fromperiods where cannabiswasunavailable,Shonacontinuouslyimproved. She wentfromliterallybeingonthe verge of deathto feelingalmostcompletelydisease-free. The detailsinherbookare trulyremarkable, and a must-readforanyone legitimatelyinterestedinthisissue. The painShonaovercame withher improvisedformof cannabisoil isnothingshortof incredible.Furthermore,otherpatientswithout access to large amountsof cannabishave usedhervaporizationmethodtomake oil fromsmall quantities. Shonarecordedabrief summaryof herstoryin2010 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4cQrT0sDxyc).Herbook LiveFree or Die isavailable inhardcopy and the Kindle (http://www.amazon.com/Live-Free-Die-Reclaim-Life/dp/1449045561 and http://www.amazon.com/Live-Free-or-Die-ebook/dp/B005GHM244). As of August2014, Shonaisstill doingextremelywell. A 14-year-oldpatientnamedColtyn TurnerhasbeenusingcannabisextractssuccessfullyforCrohn’s disease.A September3rd ,2014 article describedhow hisconditionwastriggeredbyabacterial infection insummer2011. He subsequentlydevelopedsevere painandstoppedgrowing (http://www.ksdk.com/story/news/local/2014/09/02/cannabis-helps-illinois-boy-with-chrons- disease/15001299). Traditional medicinesdidnotwork,andthe onlyotheroption,surgery,wouldstunt
  • 37. 37 hisgrowthfurther.The familymovedtoColoradofromIllinoistoaccesscannabisas a lastresortin February2014. Coltynbegantakingcannabisoil incapsulesfourtimesaday,while eatinganedible at night.By Septemberhe hadgained20 poundsand hissymptomsdisappeared.He wentfrombeing drowsyina wheelchairtoclimbingmountains.“Iwasjustchargingup there,andeveryone else was droppinglike flies,”Coltynsaid. In an October26th , 2014 video,Coltynshowedmedical documentationof the dramatic improvementinhiscolon (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fm19RLwtnok).Hisfathercommented, “More good news!!Coltyn'spathologycame backtodayand there isno active disease inhiscolon. There wasa veryminute amountof inflammationinhisstomach.InJanuary2014, Coltynhad 22cm of inflammationaswell astoomany ulcerstocount. AndthiscurrentcolonoscopyNOulcersandvery limitedmildinflammation. AlsohisCRPwentfroman8 to 1.3 and forthe firsttime he isnot anemic. It feelssurreal anditsimplyamazesus. Cannabisisthe onlymedicine he hastreatedhisCrohnswithsince hislast colonoscopy. Thisisnotalternativemedicinethisshouldbe one of ourfirstoptions!!!!!” Before Cannabis: AfterCannabis:
  • 38. 38 Coltynhascontinuedtodo verywell withcannabisashisprimarymedicationasof February2016. He has evenwonat leastone majorawardfor hisactivism. A videopostedonOctober5,2011 discussedthe storyof anelderlywomanwhoovercame Stage IV cancerand lupuswithcannabisoil (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxis8lqaEGE).InJanuary 2011, the woman(knownas“Granny”) wastoldshe had “days,weeksatthe most” to live,asher conditionwasespecially taxing. Inadditiontothe cancer, she wasparalyzedfromthe leftside of her face,startingfromthe jaw, to the waist. A compassionate strangerlearnedof herstoryand donated cannabisoil to help.A litanyof improvementsimmediatelystarted afterGrannybeganthe treatment, includingreductionof tumors,almostcompleteeliminationof chronic pain,ceasingof constant vomiting,andremarkable concurrentimprovementsforlupusandfibromyalgia. Grannyforewent chemotherapyandsurgeryforthispath,and stronglybelieves,basedonthe poorprognosisfrom doctorsand the state she wasin,that if not for cannabisoil she wouldbe dead. Cannabisoil hasprovento be effectiveagainstevenlong-standingchronicpain (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gu5VNQHxKkU).A videoreleasedinOctober2011 featuresTomas Harner,who for30 years enduredbackpainas a resultof accidents. Inthe last 10 years,he saidhis
  • 39. 39 conditionbecame worse,anddoingsimple tasks likeputtingonshoeswere becomingdifficult. Within the firstweekof consumingcannabisoil,the sharppainswhichinhibitedhismovementswere gone. Tomas maintains awarenessof hisinjury,butthe vastmajorityof his painhas disappearedandhisrange of movementhasimproveddramatically. He believesthattakingmore oil willeliminate remnantsof pain. A medicinal cannabisoil producernamedAamannDegarthhas observed amazingresultswithcannabis oil,andhas documentedthe resultsinsharedvideos.One November2011 account detailshisworkwith reflex sympatheticdystrophy,nowmore commonlyknownascomplex regional painsyndrome (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xvw19POCN4g).Aamannwasreferredtothe RSD patientbya friend,andmanagedto procure oil for her.The patienthadextremelylittleexperience withcannabis, and Aamanntookmeasurestoensure she startedoff slowly. He packagedthe oil invariousdelivery mechanismsandsentit off. He was unsure of what the effectswouldbe,asRSD was a conditionhe hadn’theardof.The day afterstartingthe oil,the patientreportedbeingpainfree,rightfromthe first dose. Aamannwassurprisedbythe speedof thisparticulartreatment. A laterJune 2012 videofrom Aamannprovidedanupdate onRSD/CRPStreatmentswithcannabisoil,reportingthatotherpatients had experiencedimmense success(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvEztT4VHCg). Again,even small amountsof oil were reportedtobe effective atstoppingpain.
  • 40. 40 Aamannhas treatedanddocumentedawide varietyof conditions,includingallergies (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V0fgTIorzXI),ADD (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C4ljMHUW4uI),neuropathy (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p4Y0CW10RTg),insomnia (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n1odhWwHSps),cyclical vomitingsyndrome (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3tVtUf1hTQs), lymedisease (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_HAOkPSzgw)andmore. A particularlyintense case describesa patient’sexperience withtrigeminal neuralgia,aconditionsoterrible itisnicknamed“suicidedisease.” TN isa neuropathicdisorderthatinvolvesepisodesof intense,stabbingpaintothe face. Aamann providedcannabis oil toa TN patientand observedthatit worked remarkablywell,withthe patient reportingzeroproblems (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S495AUPbka0). Before movingforward,itisimportanttohighlightthe trendregardingcannabisoilandpain. Currently,the primarytreatmentforpainisopiates. Manypatientshave reportedthatnotonlyare opiatesineffectiveoverthe long-term,buttheycause immense physical discomfort,cloudinessof the mind,and otherphysical complications.Somanypatientshave stronglyinsisted thatcannabisoil isfar more effectivethanopiateswithnone of the side effects. Theyfeel cannabinoidtreatment attacksthe roots of theirpain,ratherthan providingamere numbingeffect.Sucheffectsare difficulttoobjectively measure because theyare entirelysubjective,butthisremarkablystrongtrendissomethingthatcannot be ignored. A January2012 videofeaturingthree patients,Mike Stone, Tom,andJeff,illustratedthe benefitsof cannabisoil formultiplesclerosis,rheumatoidarthritis,andmesothelioma (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V-uGtEHzZUE).Mike hadbeendiagnosedwithrelapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis17 yearspriorto the video’sfilming. Tocombatthe disease,he wasprescribedalitany of drugs,whichcreatedmanyunpleasantside effects,includingsuicidalthoughts. AfterseeingRun From the Cure,Mike decidedtotry a 90-day cannabisoil treatmentprogram. He concurrentlyceased all use of pharmaceuticals. He foundthe oil toworkveryeffectively,whileeliminating the remainingside effects fromprior pharmaceutical use.
  • 41. 41 The nextpatientfeatured,Tom,wasdiagnosedfouryearspriortofilmingwithsevere rheumatoid arthritis. Lack of treatmentformany yearscausedextensive damage inhishands. TommetMike Stone, the above patient,ata May 2011 medicinal cannabisinformational meeting. Mike toldTomaboutthe potential benefitsof cannabisoil,andTomwasable to secure some. He startedwithone small dose a day forthe monthof June, while stilltaking hispreviouspharmaceuticals. Afteramonth,he decidedto go for the full 90-daytreatment. InearlyAugust2011, he stoppedtakingmethotrexate,achemotherapy drug alsousedforrheumatoidarthritis, whichcausedespeciallysevere side effects. ByAugust25th , he startedtakingcannabisoil three timesaday for90 days. Tom’srheumatologisttoldhimthatswelling was an indicatorof if hisrheumatoidarthritiswasactive –afterthe treatment,Tom’sswelling completelydisappeared,indicatingapparentinhibitionof the disease.He currentlytakesone dose of oil a day to helphimsleepatnightandkeepthe effectsof rheumatoidarthritisatbay. The third personinthe film,Jeff,foundouthe hadfive tumorsonhisleftlung, diagnosedas mesotheliomainJuly2011. Like Tom,Jeff foundoutaboutcannabisoil fromMike Stone. Mike showed
  • 42. 42 Jeff howtomake hisowncannabisoil,andJeff begantreatinghimself byputtingtwodropsonhis tongue everymorningwithaneyedropper. OnDecember21st ,2011, Jeff wastoldall histumorswere gone and he was cancer free. “BestChristmaspresentIeverhad,”remarkedJeff. He alsostoppedtaking hisbloodpressure medication, givenhisBPhad normalized. Jeff isalsosuccessfullycontrollinghis diabetes,withhissugarlevelsneverbeingover110. He’soff hisallergymedicinesandcholesterol medicinesaswell. He still hassome problemsbreathingasa resultof emphysema. However,overall,Jeff feelshislifehasdrasticallyimproved. At an eventknownas“Uncle Pete’sCannabisCamp”inJune 2012, where people are taughtaboutthe healingeffectsof cannabisoil alongwithhow tomake it,the testimonial of Joe Crowe wasrecorded (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W0nwqBtxXKc).Joe hadafist-sizedtumorinhisupperchest, diagnosedasHodgkin’slymphoma.Overthe course of twelve years,he receivedchemotherapyand bone marrowtransplantswhichfailedtoeliminatethe cancer.Inthe fall of 2011, Joe was connected witha caregiverin Michiganand beganreceivingcannabisoil.Withinthreemonthsof cannabisoil treatment,Joe felthistumorbegantoshrink.Infive months,he wascancerfree.
  • 43. 43 On December4,2013, Joe releasedanupdate videostatinghe isstill cancerfree aftera year (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-spOVv8EobU).He emphasizedthe importance of continuingto take a maintenance dose of oil topreventcancerfromreturning,especiallydue tothe large amountof environmental toxinshumansare exposedtodaily. Joe now helps otherpeople make anduse cannabis oil therapeutically,andatthe endof the videorecountsanexperiencewithaStage IV cancer patient whowentintoremissionwith self-madeoil. Brian Stewartis a CanadianMotorsportsHall of Fame inductee whohasusedmedical cannabisforself- treatmentof cancer (http://www.crash.net/indycar/news/21342/1/mips-stewart-earns-hall-of-fame- honours.html).Brianhasbeeninthe racingindustrysince 1966, and wonmanychampionshipsas botha driverandteam owner(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x8W1fIMxJE4).Hislove forwinning extendsbeyondracingtobeatingcancer. Afternoticingaprogressivelygrowingtumorinhisear,Brian wentto hisdoctor,whosaid he wouldhave toremove the earentirelytogetthe tumor. Brian saidif that’sthe wayit hasto be,it’sthe wayit hasto be,and an appointmenttosee aspecialistwasmade. In the meantime,afriendtoldBrianaboutcannabisoil. Despite havingneversmokedacannabiscigarette inhis life,Briandecidedtogive ita try topically, usingoil fromhisfriend. Withinaweek,he started noticingresults,andinthe showerbitsof the tumorwere fallingoff. Treatmentwasinterruptedwhen Brian tooka trip to Dallas,butuponreturninghe finishedthe treatment. Fromstartto finish,not includinghistime inTexas,ittookthree anda half weeksforthe tumorto disappear. Brian didn’tstopwithhisownhealing. He goesontodescribe otherpeoplehe thenhelpedwith oil. A friend’swife hadskincancerinherear,and usingaroundthree grams of oil topicallyoverthree and a half weeks(aboutthe same amountof time asBrian) was able to eliminate the cancer. Another friend’swifegotmelanomaonherleg.The majoritywaseliminatedwithsurgerybutsome cancer apparentlyremainedbetweenthe stitching. Briangave the womancannabisoil,andit“cureditup too.” Afterseeinghisvideo,itisclearwhyBrianis oftenreferredtoasone of the greatestpersonalitiesin Canadianracinghistory.
  • 44. 44 DennisHill isa friendof the author,andan established teacherof meditative practices. He haswritten several booksonmeditationandyoga. He alsoworkedinthe fieldof cancerresearchfortenyears. In February2010, six biopsiesrevealedhighlyinvasiveandaggressiveprostate cancer.
  • 45. 45 Denniswas stunnedtohearthisdiagnosis afterhavinglivedsucha healthylife,butgiventhatprostate cancer wasprevalentinhis family,he knew the possibilityhadalwaysexisted. Priorexperience incancer researchmade Denniswantto avoid the traditional routesof chemotherapy,radiation,orsurgery,given the likelypainful sideeffects. He begantoresearchalternativemethodsof cancertreatment,and learnedaboutcannabisoil. Ashe researchedfurther,he decidedthiswasthe pathfor him. Dennis’ treatmentjournal,startingonJuly8,2010, isrecordedonline (https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/27713298/Web/cure/Treatment.html). Priorto the firstentry,Dennishadbeenconsumingcannabis-infusedbutter,ashe had not acquiredfull-strengthoil yet. Afterprocuringsuchoil,hisconditionsteadilyimproved,until aprostate biopsywastakenon January25, 2011 to determineif the cancerwasgoinginto remission. OnFebruary
  • 46. 46 8, 2011, Dennisreceivedthe newsthathe wascancer free (https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/27713298/Web/cure/Cured.html).The onlypharmaceutical-type treatmentDennisreceivedthroughthisperiodwasthree injectionsof Lupron,anandrogenantagonist whichcan potentiallyslowthe rate of cancergrowth. However,itdoesnotattack cancer cellsdirectly. Dennisalsoappearedona programcalled“Spiral Up withAvaMarie” to tell hisstory (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7ytJu4Zcrk).
  • 47. 47 In early2012, a risingPSA score indicatedhiscancerhadreturned.However,hisPSA returnedtonormal withinthree monthsof restartingthe cannabistherapy. Denniscontinues totake amaintenance dose of cannabisoil andhas integratedcancer-fightingfoodsintohisdiettoensure he stayshealthy. DustyFrank, a local musician,wasdiagnosedwithprostatecancerinOctober2013 (http://www.cureyourowncancer.org/dusty-franks-story-beating-prostate-cancer-with-cannabis- oil.html). The traditionaloptionshe waspresentedwithwere notpreferabledue tonegative side effects,andDustywantedanalternative. He quicklylearnedaboutcannabisoil,andextractedhisown fromraw cannabis. Althoughhisdoctorsadvisedagainstthe treatmentandDustyhimself haddoubts aboutthe oil’sefficacy,he wentaheadwithathree monthregimen.OnJanuary23, 2014, a Tesla3 MRI reportstatedthere were nolongeranysignsof cancer (medical documentationfoundatlinkabove). Perhapsevenmore remarkable thanthe cancerremission were all the otherside benefits. Blood pressure normalizedandrelevantmedicationswerediscontinued. Aninflamedbigtoe jointnormalized. Rectal bleeding,chronicspinal pain,shoulderandneckpain,andchronicinsomniawere resolved. Sinus problems,includingpostnasal drip,resolved. Depressionresolved. Several of these issueshadplagued Dustyfor well overadecade. Furthermore,atleasteightpharmaceutical medicationshave been replacedwithcannabisextractmedicine,andthe onlypill Dustytakesnow isa single multi-vitamin.
  • 48. 48 Dustyalso sharedhisstoryon YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGPTXq6dZHg).He intimatelydescribedhisexperience,whichrepresentswhatmostpatientswhouse thismedicinego through. Interestinglyenough,if Dustyhadnotbegunseeingotherremarkable benefitsfromcannabis extractsmere daysintohistherapy,he may have stoppedoutof skepticism. A September18, 2013 article fromThe Telegramreported Paul Morrissey's experiencewithStage IV prostate cancer (http://www.thetelegram.com/News/Local/2013-09-14/article-3389532/Man- convinced-marijuana-oil-will-cure-his-cancer/1).He hadputoff medical treatmentsforabouta year while tryingtosource cannabis oil. Duringthistime, the cancerbeganspreadingtohisback and lymph nodes. Atsome pointearly inhisbattle, he usedapill medication foraboutamonth andan injection prescribedbyhisoncologist, butrefused conventional chemotherapy orradiation (http://www.thetelegram.com/News/Local/2014-01-18/article-3581246/Man-says-hemp-oil-is-beating- his-cancer/1). Paul discontinued the pillsandinjections afteracquiringcannabis oil andexperiencingits profound benefits. He saidhisprostate-specificantigen(PSA) levels(amarkerof prostate cancer) plummeted aftersix weeks of cannabis oil ingestion. Dr. Randy Hart, Paul'sphysician, confirmed thathisPSA levelshaddropped substantially, from 29.5 to 3.3. Some regression inhislymphnodes andabdomen wasalsoobserved. Dr.Hartsaidthere was a "majorimprovementinhissituation,"andPaul hada "really goodresponse."He alsocautioned that there wasno way to be certaincannabis oil wasresponsible forhisrecovery, asthe conventional medication mayhave contributed tohislowerPSA levels. However, Paul creditsthe cannabis oil withthe majority of hisrecovery. "Itmakesme feel 20 yearsyounger, that’swhatthe marijuanaoil does,"saidPaul. He alsoremarkedonhow he was able to shovel snow forthree hours duringa recentblizzard. "There waspretty ferocious wind andsnow. Icame out of it lookinglike awalkingpopsicle. Howeverafterall thatwork andso forthI was inexcellent condition. Evenwithoutcancer, Iwouldn’tsuspectI’dlastthatlongor do that well."
  • 49. 49 Addingtothe likelihood thatcannabis oil worked forPaul isaJanuary 14, 2015 article, which sharedPaul's continued wellness (http://www.thetelegram.com/News/Local/2015-01-14/article- 4006300/Marijuana-oil-advocate-still-hopes-for-clinical-trials/1).He isstill only usingcannabis oil and has become amajor advocate forclinical trials. MykaylaComstock,a childpatient,hasattracted significantattentionrelatedtoherbattle withcancer. In July 2012, Mykaylawas diagnosedwithT-cell acute lymphoblasticleukemia.Feelingsickthroughout May wasthe chief signthat somethinginMykaylawaswrong. The child’smother,ErinPurchase, immediatelyprocuredalegal recommendationforcannabis. MykaylabeganchemotherapyonJuly17th , 2012. Accordingto a local ABCNewsarticle, “‘Atfirst,Mykaylawasn'trespondingwell tohertreatment, and doctorssaidshe mightneeda bone marrow transplant.Thenshe startedtakingthe cannabisoil pills’,hermothersaid.ByearlyAugust,Mykaylawasinremissionandthe transplantwasnolonger necessary”(http://abcnews.go.com/Health/medical-marijuana-year-sparks- controversy/story?id=17814636). Erinalso notedthatwithcannabisoil,Mykaylawasable to avoidusing traditional painornauseapills,andhasnotlost a single poundsince diagnosis. ByAugust6th , lessthana monthafterstartingtraditional therapy,Mykaylawasinremission. She isrequiredbythe medical systemtoundergotwo-and-a-half tothree more yearsof chemotherapytobe certainthe canceris gone. Nonetheless,the rapiddisappearance of cancerfromMykayla’sbloodandthe lackof side effects fromchemotherapyare astoundingfacts.Evenforan adult,chemotherapy usually producesintense side effects –fora child,sucheffectsare oftenmuchworse. More informationaboutMykayla’s experience canbe foundhere: http://www.bravemykayla.com/her-treatment.html
  • 50. 50 As of February2014, Mykayla continuestodoverywell,andhasbeenincreasinglyfeaturedinthe media.One suchinterviewonVice.comhasreceivedalmosttwomillionviews (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TXKjRkkoIOU).The interview alsofeaturedStoneyGirl Gardensand the work of Frankie andErin Wallace,whoare discussedlater. Erin Purchase waspromptedtouse cannabisoil to helptreatMykayla’scancerbecause of the experience of anotherchildpatient,CashHyde. Cash’sstoryhasbeencoveredbyseveral newsoutlets and hishistorywas deeplyexplored inthe documentary American Drug War2: CannabisDestiny.There was alsoa June 9, 2014 Vice article aboutCash’sexperience,alongwithanalysisof otherpatientsand doctorsin thisfield(http://www.vice.com/read/desperately-seeking-cbd). On May 3, 2010, Cash was diagnosedwithaStage IV braintumor. On May 5th , surgerywas performed,andhigh-dose chemotherapybegan. The Hydes,Mike andKalli, weretoldthatevenwith
  • 51. 51 bone marrowtransplants,Cashhad an 80% chance of dying. The combinationof chemotherapyand otherpharmaceuticalsresultedina2-week ICUstay,where the Hydeswere warnedof possibleorgan failure andbrainfailure. Asthe documentarygraphicallydepicts,Cash’sstate was mortally severe,andit isfranklystunninghowhe wasable to survive forsolongthroughso much. In theirsearchto findsome wayto help theirson,the Hydesdiscoveredstoriesof cannabisoil healing cancer. The day of thisdiscovery,theymanagedtoacquire oil,andMike immediatelybegan sneakingit intoCash’sfeedingtube withoutthe doctorsknowing. Almostinstantly,Cashstartedtodrastically improve. Withintwoweeks,he wasable togetoff eightmedications,andhe startedtoeat and laugh again. His qualityof life changedcompletelyforthe better. Cashwasreleasedfromthe ICUinmid- December2010. Hisparentsbeganteachinghimhow to crawl and walkagain,as hismotor skillshad markedlydecreasedasaresultof the cancer ordeal. InJanuary 2011, brainscans revealedCashwas cancer free. Afterthe scans,Mike revealedtothe doctorsthathe hadbeensecretlyfeedingCash cannabisoil. The doctorswere speechless,andthenattributedthe healingtoprayersratherthan cannabisoil. AsMike said,"I believe inprayersand miracles,butIalsobelieveinnumbers,andatthe endof the day itadds up." Nonetheless,hospital staff gatheredtowitnessCashleavingcancerfree,believingtheyhad seena miracle.
  • 52. 52 Giventhe potential forarecurrence,the Hydescontinuedtoprovide Cashwithcannabisoil afterthe remissionnews. However,inMarch2011, a seriesof federal raidsonmedicinal cannabissuppliers resultedinCash’soil supplybeingcutoff. Theyranout of medicine inJune. InOctober2011, a scan confirmedthe Hydes’worstfear- Cash’scancer hadreturned. Theycouldnotreestablishasolid cannabisoil supplierinMontana,andwenttoCaliforniainNovember2011 to attemptprotontherapy. Theyalsohopedto finda cannabisoil supplierinCalifornia,andgetCash restartedonthe medicine as soonas possible. UponarrivinginCalifornia,doctorsreaffirmedapoorprognosisforCash,and said there wasno hope of shrinkingthe tumor. InDecember2011, the Hydeswere putin contact withRingo, a producerwho gave thema 90-day supplyof cannabisoil forfree. Withthe combinationof proton therapyand cannabisoil,Cashwentintoremissionforasecondtime inJanuary2012. Mike remarked that Cash wasthe firstcancer patienttogo through30 roundsof protonradiationtreatmentwithout usinganynauseaor pain medicationbesidescannabisoil. Afterrunningoutof oil,the Hydesagainwere notable to finda sustainable supply. Andagain,in July2012, Cash’scancer returnedforthe third andfinal time. Thisthirdfightwasultimatelytoomuch for a childsoyoung,and Cash passedawayNovember14, 2012 inMike’sarms,a final momentthe Hydesare thankful for. Hadhe died inthe hospital while underthe influenceof several powerful pharmaceutical drugs,the passingsurelywouldnothave beenaspeaceful. Toshare Cash’sstoryand informationaboutthe healingeffectsof cannabisoil,the Hydesstartedthe CashHyde Foundation (http://www.cashhydefoundation.com).
  • 53. 53 In the November2013 issue of DOPE Magazine,the storyof SilasTedescowasdescribed (http://issuu.com/dlistmagazine/docs/dope_nov13_web_). SilaswasdiagnosedwithPrecursorBacute lymphoblasticleukemia,andsoonbeganchemotherapy. The treatmentswere veryharshandcaused general sickness,insomnia,andanearlyeight-weekperiodof immobility. Silas’doctorthen recommendedhigh-CBDcannabisoil. Asthe article concludes, “Afteronlyeightdaysoncannabis,Silasbegantowalk,talk,smile andplayagain.Itwas a complete turnaround.Silasisnowinremissionandrunningaroundlikeanaverage two-yearold. His leukemiaisinremissionandisshowingimprovementseveryday.” There are several othernotable childpatients,includingCharlotte Figi,JaydenDavid,and LandonRiddle,whoare discussedinthe Doctors and Caregiverssection. The most dramaticrecoveriesare those involvingterminal cancer- where apatientistoldthey are goingto die,and doctorscan offernofurthertraditional treatmenttohelp.Eveninthese cases, cannabisoil hasproveneffective. Corrie Yellandisone suchcase. Herself-toldfull story andmedical documentationof herexperience withterminal anal canal cancercan be foundat http://cannabisnationradio.com/corrie-yelland.Thesedocumentsare alsodirectlyreplicatedbelow for convenience. Hi, My name's Corrie. I'm 55 years old. In May of 2007, I had a heart attack and subsequently had a double bypass . As a result of the heart surgery, for 4 plus years, I have been plagued with
  • 54. 54 chronic debilitating pain from a maligned sternum and post sternotomy neuralgia/syndrome. I was ingesting copious amounts of various pain killers 24/7. They barely touched the pain. I spent my days in agony, waiting for evening so I could try to sleep. I took sleeping pills nightly in a futile attempt to escape the hell I was going through and failed miserably. Within 2 hours of taking the pills, I would awake in agony. Fast forward to July of 2011. Already coping with 2 spots of skin cancer on my collar bone, I was stunned when I was diagnosed with Anal Canal Cancer. (This is the same cancer that took Farrah Fawcett's life.) Following 2 surgeries, the doctor told me they did not get all the cancer and I would have to endure a regime of radiation treatments. I started researching what this would entail, and attended a intake meeting at the Cancer Clinic. I was informed that "this is the worst area of of the body to radiate", the radiation beam would hit both my coccyx and pubic bone potentially causing permanent damage." They would try not to hit my spine. Additionally, I would suffer 2nd and 3rd degree burns vaginally, rectally, across my buttocks, as well as my entire "nether regions", and there was a "good possibility" both my vagina and rectum would fuse shut from the burns and subsequent scaring. The list of both short and long term side effects was endless and horrendous, but you get the gist. I told the doctor, I needed time to think about it. His response was hostile, as he told me I had 2-4 months, possibly 6. He murmured something abut a "death wish" and walked out. One day someone sent me Rick Simpson's video, Run FromThe Cure. It took me days to get around to watching it, but when I did I was blown away. Here was this man, a seemingly super straight small town Nova Scotian, talking about these amazing results he had seen with in himself and other people taking Cannabis and curing themselves of a myriad of diseases including end stage cancers. After hearing what Rick had to say, and watching the testimonials in the video, I was feeling some hope for the first time. For 2 weeks I did nothing but research cannabis as a medicine. I was stunned by the sheer number of studies on Pub Med indicating that cannabis indeed has the capacity to heal. I started using cannabis 2 months ago as per Rick Simpson's protocol from his video. (He recommends starting out small, and slowly upping the dose so ones' body becomes accustomed to it, without being high constantly. As a person who hasn't smoked pot since my late teens, early 20's, the non high aspect appealed to me). I had huge hopes to cure my cancer, and embarked on my fight to live. As well as ingesting the cannabis oil, I topically applied it to 2 spots of skin cancer on my collar bone. Within 48 hours, there were visible changes. In just over a week, the 2 spots were completely gone. Elated, I continued ingesting the oil, in hopes it would work on the other cancer attacking my body. Nothing prepared me for what happened next. About 2 weeks into my regime, the pain in my sternum, as well as the nerve pain had become almost non existent. You have to understand, I had resigned myself to a life sentence of pain and agony. It had been 4 years of pain that was with me 24/7 and never, in my wildest dreams, did I imagine I would be pain free ever again. I was able to stand up straight, the jolting pain so intense that it would cause me to cry out, ceased completely. I started to sleep through the night and stopped taking sleeping pills. I saw one of my doctors a