SlideShare a Scribd company logo
NJ
J
2
3
4
5

Bar
3)
C.
JDROME ROTH(State No. 15948
jerome.roth@mto.com
jONATHANll. BLnVIN (Srate No.230269)
Brr
ionathan.bLdvin@m1o.com
Bar
l,AIJRAK. Lin (Stotc No.2815,12)
laura.lin(drlto.oom
LLP
TOt,T,ES OI.SON
&
MlJNCER.
560MissionStreet
Floor
Twcnty-Seventh
California
94105-2907
SanFrancisco,
' l c l e p ho n c: (4 1 5 )5 l 2 -4 0 0 0
l a c s i mi l c: (4 1 5 )5 1 2 -4 0 7 7

,{
!:,

: :
/.

4F

Atbmcys for LinlicdlnCorporation
8
9

DISI'I{ICTCoTJ[tl'
UNITEDS'I'A1'I'S

t0

OF
DIS'I]I.IC'I' CAI-IFOItNIN
NORI'IIIJITN

ll
Corporirlion,
1 2 Linl(cdln

l3

l'h intill'.

t4
t5
l6
17
t8

Ilhrough

incltrsivc,

Dckncliurts.

ITRT,

gq/ fl4 CI$
ffis

No.
Case

I,'ot':
Cornpl:rint

(l) vloLAl'roN olt 1'llEcoMPtll'ltl{
AC'l', l;-s.c.
lli
ANDAllIJSE
I,-llAUD
Qti1030li'f S[Q.i
(2)VlOl,A't'toN ol' cALll'ol{NlA
I'ENAL COr)ll S 502;
(3'IVIOI,Al'ION 0F THN I)I(;I1'AI,
MILLENNIUM coPYRIGHT Ac'r, l7

nT
u.s.c. r20r strQ.;
$$

(4) I}REACII 0I.' CONTILdCT;
(5)TRIiSPASS;
ANI)
(6) MISAPPIIOPIiIATION

l9
2A
21
22
23
24
25
26
21
28

COMPLAINT
Plainti1ll,inkedln Corporation("Linkedln" or "Plainti1l'), by and through its attorneys,

I

for
Docs I -10 (collcctivcly,the "Doe Dcfendants")
2 bringsthis ComplainragainslDcfendants

3 injunctive rcliefand danragcs.Linkcdln allegcsas follows:
4

1.

ith morcthan259 nillion
proiessional
net,olk
Linkedlnis lhc world'slargest

jn
Is
snd
the
5 nremhcrs over200 corrntrics tcfiibfics ruound globc. Linkedlns li.sston to connect
to
6 thc worlcl'sprofessionals rnakcthem more prodtlctiveand succcssful.l hroughits proprictary
historicsand
tnd
7 platlbrm. Litrkedlnallows ils nrcmbctsto ctcale,manage sh:trethcir professional
fcoruitcrs
allcl
l,inkedlnprovides
valuable
scrviccs corporate
lo
8 intcrcsts
online. in addition.
nrenrbcrs
pfoducl,
arrongLinkcclln's
with
'hichallowsthcmto idcntil.v
hcadhunters its Itecfuiler
who crcate
t 0 top candidatcs opcnposilions. thehcarlof Linkcdln'spliltlbnnarc ils nlcmbcrs,
lbr
At

lt

by
prolilcstha(scrvcils thcir prollssionllonlirrcidentitics arcaoccssiblc any othcrtrrcnlbcr.
and

t2

2.

various
irlllomatod
cnrployirlg
SinccMay 2013.unknown
pctsons
aud/ofontitics

of
(ollcrrrolercclto as"bots")havorcgistcrcd
thousands lirkcLinkcdln
l 3 soliwarcprrrg|ams

t 4 mcDrbor
accounlsand havccxlrtctcd and copieddilt fronr nlany Incnrbcrprolilc pagcs. I his
t 5 pr itcticc,knownnsdata'scrapin g . " is c x p lic it ly lx t rrc d b y l, in k c (lllr' s I J s c r, A ! , ,0 c n 1 e n l , w h i c h
or
ol
prohilljts
"lhroughscfapirrg,
spiclcring.
ofawling olhcr tcohnology
acocss Linl(cdln
to
r.rsccl acccss
wlittenconscnl Linkcdlnor its Mclnbcrc."
ol
t ' 7 sottwarc
kr
datawithouttheexprcss

l13

l.

Thc Doc l)clindrnts knowirgly and intclti(nally havcbrcachcdthis and othcr

to
ancl
in
tlscr AgrecmcDt !hichthcy agrced abidcby irr
l 9 acccss usclcslrictions Lirrkedln's
pfotcclion
barriors
crnploycd
tcchl]ical
2 0 regislering
theiraooounls andh[vc circunvcnted
variorrs
thc
2 1 by Linkccll[. lnsodoing,theyhavcviolatcd arrayoflldcral andskltclawi-.inclltding
an
Penal
Code
22 Cornputer
Fraud
andAbuseAcl, l8 U.S.C.{ 1030, scq.(the"Cl;AA"), Calilbrnia
et
"DMCA"),
2 3 $ 502et scq.,
and the l)igitalMillenniunr
Copyright
Act, l7 U.S.C.! 1201ct seq.(1hc

24 and havc engaged unluwftrlactsof hreachof contract,fiisappropriation,arrdtrespass.
in
25

4.

The l)oe Dcfendants'unla$'ful conductthreatens t-inkcdlr platform in scveral
the

26 ways. [t undcrmincs irtegrity and elfectivcness
the
ofLinkedln's protcssionalnelwork by
2 1 polluting it dth thousands iake mcinberprofiles- The world's prol'essionals
of
utilizc Linkedln

2u {'ilh

the cxpectation
that ils colltenlsarc accurate
and its uscrprofiles lcgitimale. Morcover,by

-t COMPI.AINT
I

piltbrirg data liom thc Linkedln sitc. the Doe l)efcrda[ts tlucatenlo degrade valueof
the

2 Linkcdln's ltccruitcr product,in which I-inkcdln hasinveslcdsubstantially
over the ]cars.
3 l,inke<ilnalso hassullbred additionalharrnsas a resuitofthc Doc Dcfendants'aclivitics,
4 inchlding,bul not limitcd to, incrcased
strair on and disruplion of ils network servcrs
and lhc
5 expcnditufeof limc and resourccs invcstigate respond1()this misconduclto
and
6

5.

LiDkcdln's
colc guiding
|irst. Becausc
Linkedln's
nrcrnbcrs
valueis Mcmbcrs

1 cnlfust
Linkedlnwith lhcir prolcssional
on
sitc.
histoicsand intcrcsts l,intricdltl's Linkedlr is
8 con1millcd carning kecping mcmbefs'
to
dnd
its
tr.trst evcf)'thing
in
Linkcdhrdocs.
including
its
9 prolcctirrg mcnbcrsiiom attcrnpts thirdpartics scmpclhejrdata.
b
by

li)
ll

6.

l,inkcdlnrcsponded
promptly
su'ililyto thc l)oe l)eiirldants'
actjvilies,
including

disabling llkc nrcnrbcr
thc
prolilcsand inrplcnlcnling
pn)lcclion
additioual
technical
barticrs.ln

l2 additionlo thcsenreasules, lo cnsurcthal li(urc incidcnlsdo not occur-l-inkcdln bringsthis
nnd
t3 itction idcntifythc Doc I)cl'cndants to obl:rinpcrnranon(
10
injunctivc
irnd
rclicl'halting
thcir
t4 unlawlll condtict.'l-hcl)oc l)clindarrt"il
thrcalcn
ongoing
ard
activitics. not cnioincd.
I5 irrcparablc
harmto Linkcclln.
good+ill.
including ils rcputalion sub)_tanlial
lo
and
oonsumcf
l,iniicdlnlirlher is entitled its aotual
10
statLrlory
danrngcs.
lnd/or cxcnrplary
clanngcs
as
danrtrges,

t7 a rosult thc I)oo I)cl-endaDls'
ol
miscondLlcl.
t8
19

.IUI{ISDIC'I'IONAND VIINUII
7.

This CourtIraslcdclalqucstionjurisdiotion tlrislction Lrudcr ti.S.U.
ovcr
2B

20 $$ l 33 land ll3llbecauscthisact io Da llc g e s v io la lio nlb o lc r|ls t a t u t c s , c lu d irg t h e C I . A A .
sd
in
2l

l8 tl .S.C.S 1030,ctseq.,andthe DMCA , U. S . C. g d 1 2 0 1 , c t s c q .T h c Clo u rt a s u pp l c m c n t a l
l7
l1

22 j urisdictionover lire stateiaw causcsof uctionpleadedhercin pursuantto 28 U.S.C. . l3 67.
23

11.

Vcnue is propcr in this District urdcr 28 U.S.C. g l39l, bccalNca substantiai
parl

24 ofthe evcntsor omissionsgiving rise to the claintsoccuncd in this l)istricl25

9.

In addition,Linkedln's tjscr Agreementgoverningall users'access and useof
lo

26 the l-inkcdln wcbsiteand Linlicdln's serviccsprovidcsthat courtslocatcdwilhin thc coo4tyof
2 7 SaulaCluua,Califbmia, sball h.rvejurisdiciion ovcr any disputcbetrveenLinkcdln and thc Doe
28 Dettndants.
-2,
COMP],AIN1'
I

10.

During all rclgvan!times, thc Doe Dclendants
havc repcatedly,
knowingly, and

2 intcDtionallyacc€ssed
Linkcdln's serverslooatcdin this.judicioldist ct witlrout Linkedln's
l

dnd havc qontracted suchaocess,
authorization,
lbr
bcconing lcgistcredLinkedln mcmbers

4 subiectto Lid(cdln's ljscr Agrecment. Whilc acccssing
Linkedln's scrvers,the l)oe J)cfendants
5 madc systcmaticnnd continuous
their $rongt'ul
oontacts
with this iudicial dislrict, and targeted
6 act:^ Linkcdln. which is hcadquartered this iudicial disllicl.
al
in
'l

I l.

-l'hisis an irrtcllectual
prope y action to bc assigned a districFlvidc basisunder
on

8 Civil LocalI{ulc3-2(c).
9
t0

TIII' PAII'I'IES
12.

place busincss Mounlain
Linkedluis a Dclawirccorporation
wjth its princlpal
ol
in

View. Calilbrnia.

12

13.

l hc Doc DcLcndants pcrsorls
cntitics
rcsponsiblc wholcof in pnl1flof
in
arc
and/or

thc
I 3 the wrongcloinB
AIIegccl
hc|cin. At lca"-t somcol-thcunlawlil actsallcgcdhcrcin. l)oc
I'or

l 4 I)clcndanls
rcSistcrcd
u)cnrbcr
accolints l,inkcdln,
k)
o|r
subjcct lhc l-inkcdlnIJscrAgrccnrcnt.
pu{icipalcd rdlilied,
in,
t 5 Linkcdlnis inlblnrccland
bclicvcs
thalcachol thc Doc I)clcnclants
cndoBed, wls othcn!iscinvolvcdin llte actsconrplaincd irn(llhul thcy havcliabililylbf such
or
ol

t 7 rcls. Lilrkcdlrr
intcncls scel(
to
cxpcditcd
to
and
clisoovefy lcarntho idcntityo11hcDoc DclcndaDts
I t i will arrcndthis(lomplairti1'and
or
thc
whcr thc idcntitics suchpcrsons cnliticsand/or scopc
ol
ol'
1 9 theifacti0ns
becomcs
known.
20

FACTS

2l

Thc Liukcdln ProfcssionalNetrvot.k

22

14.

prolcssional
Linkcdlnis theworld'slargesl
nctwork,
with over259 million

2 3 mcrnbers
woridwide and ovcr 84 rnillion mcmbcrsin the United Statcs. Linkedln's missionis to
connectthe wotld's prolessionals nrakethem morc productivcand succcssful.
to

25

15.

Throughits proprielaryplatform, Linkedln membersare able to creaic.manage
and

26 sharethcir protessiorlaL
ideotity online, build aDdengaSe
with thcir prolessionalneiwork, access
2'7 sharcdknowledgeand insights,and find business
oppo unitics,enablingthem to be morc
28
-3CoMPLAlr.'T
i

producti!e and succcssful. Linkedln's broadcrvision is 10creatccconomicopportunilyfor cvery

2 member
ofthc globalworkforce.
3

I6.

who crcaleindividual profilcs
At the hcarl ol Linkedln's plotibrm are its rnenlbers,

4 that servea"^
lheir pfolcssionalprofiles and are acccssible any olhcr membcr.as well as (unless
by
5 a ficnrber chooses
otherwisc)anyonewith an Intcnletconncction. Linkedln couDts
cxecutivcs
6

7

liom all 20ll lorlunc 500 compunics nrembers.
as
17.

l-inkedln's
oorcguiding,
Linl(cdlll's
rnenrbers
valucis Mcnbels l.irst. llecausc

8 c[lmst l-in](cdln
u,ithlhcir prolossional
on
historics intcrests [,inkedln's
and
sitc.Linkcdlnis
9 conmitlcdto camingand kceping nrembcrs'
its
Linkcdlnclocs,
incluriirrg
trustin evcrything
l 0 proteclingits lnenrbcfsfinll allcnrptsby lhird particsto scmpethcir dala.
1l

18.

lhc Linkcdlnreb$itc
isanoriginal
copyrightcd
work. .Anrcng significanl
thc

graphical
t 2 ofiginalclenrsnls the l-inkcdlnwcbsilcar0thedistinctivc
ol
pagclayout,
dcsign,

t 3 clenronls, organizalion
and
ol'mcnlbor
prolilcpagcs
and
andthc Linkcdlnltomcpagc nowsliccl.
t 4 l,irrkccllrr's copyriSht
IJ.S.
rcgislratioDs thc l-inkcdlnwcbsitcincluclc
Ibr
llcg. Nos.
l5

IX0007355749,
fX0007010652. 1X000745529l.
unLt
l9

Linl(cdlnhasinvcstcd nd plans cdltirLrc10invcslsubstiutial
tiorc.Iabor.
lo
skill,

t 7 and linanciol
fcsolrrccs tlre(lcvclopll]ent nraintcnnccol lhc l,inkcdlnsilc.
iulo
ilnd
t8
t9

l,inl<cdln'sUscr Agrccmcnl
20.

Linkcclln is lr,ailable al no cosl to anyonewho wtnts to_ioinond wlro agrccsto thc

2A tcflns o ,inkedli's User Agreentcntand l'ivacy Policy.r A p()spectivelncrllberfcgisteNlbf an
2 1 0ccoulrt providing a l'irsl name,last name,cmail addross, pirssword, agrccingk)
by
and
altd
22 I-ir <cdhr's
UscrAgrectnent Privacy
and
Policy.
23

21.

As dcscribedilrtlrer below, the Doe Dcfeldanls rcgistercdthousands f'ake
of

24 membcraccounts part ol thcir datascrapingactivitics. Iror cachof thoscaccounts, l)oe
as
the
25 Defendanis
agreedto bc boundby Linkedln's Uscr AgrccmeDt.
26
27 I
Ser http://wr.rrv.1ir'*edin.com/lcgal/user-agrecmenr.
28

COMPLAlNT
1

22..

l,inkedln's lJserAgleemcnt cxplainsthat membcrsare grantcda limitcd and

with the teflns ofthe Uscr Agrecmcnl.
and
2 rcvocableliccnscto acccss usc Linkcdlrr in accordance

3

23.

Linkedln's User Agrccmentspccilically conditionsmcmbers'right to acccss

and
ofdalascraping
tcolDologies rclatcd
not
the
4 LinkcdlnoDthciragreeing to do so through LNc
nonexciusive,
nonassignablc.
stalcs,"wc granl you a limitcd. rcvocable5 conduct. Ihc agreemcnl
wcb
a
available
through gcncrillly
licensc
thc
6 n<.rnsublicenseablc andrightto acccss Scrviccs,
(rrl
nrobile
or
application rol lhroughstrdPin!:spideting
7 browser.
dcvice Linkcdlnauthorizcd
v'rilletl cot1sclll
tlLtl.twithoul lh! e.pr?ss
cn!rling or othcr technt ogt or sofiru'e usr.l lo accc:ts

9 ol Linkedln or it lvlcmbcbr.k) view itllbmrrtion and usc thc ScNicesthat wc provide on
(l-nlphasis
addcd.)
$ebpagcs in aocotdancc this Agrccn1cnt."
with
t { ) I-inkcclln
irrrd

ll

24.

"Do's and Don'ts'scction
rcitcratcs l
lh
ofils ljscr Agrccmcnl
I-irrkcdln's

scripts
robots.
dericcs.
softwarc,
...
or
may not "Lrndcrtrlkc lto I lu]sonlitlluitl aulonlillcd
t 2 mcnrbcrs
or
'scrapc,'
'crarvl'ot'spidcr''any wcb pagcs olhelscrviccs
to
t 3 olhcr Illcans proocsscs llcccss,
or
"will only nraint{in
onc
lhalnrcnrbcrs
Il|.lhcrstalcs
in
l 4 containcd thc sitc." l'hc [JscrAgrccnrcnl

l 5 I-inlicdlnaooount any gi!on tinrc.""lvill usclthcirl rcll nrmc andorlly prcvidcdcoufatc
at
lirrthcr
"will not !iolrtc any riBhlsol l,inkedln."As dcscribod
to
t 6 inlirrmation Linkcdln.",rnd
ol
is
l 7 bclow.thc Doc I)clcndants'conduct in Ilagtanlviolalion eachol lhcscprovisi()rls
Linkcdln's liccrui(cr Sorvice

l8
l9

25.

rc!ruitcls
thatallowscorpurilLu
Linkedlnptoduct
is
LinkcdlnRccruitcr a prcnriLrnr

to
20 and hcadhunlcrs locatcrnd fccruit top can(lidates.U[likc I-i icdln's Iicc. basicaccounlsfbr its
1br
acccss.
Linkedlnliccruiler
rcquires
users paya nlonthlyl'ec thcir premium
ft)
2T nrcmbers.

22

26.

growingscrvices More than
Recruitcr oneofl.inkedln'sf'astcst
is
Lirtkcdln

pay
2 1 I 6,000 clicnts and companics to use Linkcdln Recruiter. Linkedln Rccrtlitcrusersiuclude
ilr
resourccs
departrnonts soDleofthc most succcsslitlcompanics lhc counlry anlong
al
24 hLLnan
and recruitingfinns Ninety of$e Fortune
25 thousands
ofodrcr large,rncdiumand small busincss
use
26 100 companics Linkedln ll.ecruiteror anothcrofLintedln's premium talent solutions

2 7 ploducls.
28
5C:OMPLAINT
i

21.

Corporaterecruitcrsand headhunters
purchase
Linkcdln Rccruitermembcrships
in

2 ordcr to searchlbr prospcctivecandidates
amongLinkedln's hundrcdsof millions or nrcrroer
3 profiles. By using Linkedln Recruitcr'srobustandexclusivescarchtools, recruircrs searcn
can
4 thc cnlire Linkcdln netwolk for top candidatcs'
namcsand ptoiiles. Recruitcrsmay locatcand

5 contactmcmbcrs,including passivecandidatcs may not be looking tbr ajob, by aocqssing
who
6 Linkcdln's plolcssionalnctwofk tluoLlghLirkcciln Rccruitcr.
7

l,inkcdln's'l echnol,gical Safcguards:rnd Sccurirv-Mc:Nurcs
T0 I'rotectLiukodln Ag:ri st UnauthorizcdAcccss

8
9

28.

LiukedlnI'astidiously
worksto protect intcgrity
the
and sccurity
ofits networklnd

(hiDgs,i1employsan trmy ol lcchnologicalsaLguardsand barricN
l0 systcms. Among olher

tl

dcsigned prcvonl
10
dalascrapcrs oihcrwrongdocrs
and
liorrrgainiDg
unauthodzcd
aoocss
to

sitc.
t2 Linkoclln's

l3

29.

Onc suchsalcguard Linkedln's
is
progranr.
I:US|-)
lr[JSI-j
inrposcs limit on thc
a

an
to
t4 activilyLhill individunll,inkcdlnuscrnrry initialcon thc sitc. lhis limil is intcndcd prcvctll
data
utilizingautonMtcd
quic[1yaoccssingsubslantidl
tcchnologics
l'ront
n
t5 woulcl-bo sorilpcrs
volunlcol rnclrlbcr
prolilcs-.

t7

30.

Similarly,
Linkcdln'sScntinel
progr nr n)onitors blockssuspicious
and
activily

with
("IP") addrcsscs.2
InlcrnclProtocol
t8 associaled parlicLrlal
l9

20

3l .

LinkedlnaLso
ilnticipatcd datasorapcrs
that
mighl dttenlpt creatc multitudc
b
a
ol'

lakc rncmbcraccounls. Accordingly,asa seconday layer of protcction,l,inkedln implenrentcd
its

to
2 1 IJCV systerrto thwart this tnisconduct. fho UCV systemuscsa nunlbcr ofparaDrcters

22

detcnnine ncw account
iIa
signupis suspicious. suspicious
lfa
signupis iclentiticd, UCV
the

23

systcmimposesbarriersintcndcdto separatc
lcgitilnateprospcclivemcmbersllom aulomatcd
data
scrapingprograms
and bos. Specifically,rhe UCV sysrcminkoducesa CAp-l CHAr ticld thal

25

rcqulresprospcctlve
ntcnlbcrsto rc-typea word or tcxt thot appears obscured,
in
coioredtype.

26

' An Il'address thiscontext alumericallabelassigncd each
in
is
to
access
pointto thc Interne(.
27 t
CAPTCHAis an
for "Completely
Automated
PublicTuringtcstto tell Computers
and
"..onym
Humans
ADart."
28

COMPLAINT
I

'l'heseobscured
words or text irrelegiblc to a rcal pcrson ancilamiliar to thosepurchasing

2 concertdckcls, lbr instance, a conlmon stcp in an online rcgistralionprocess but difl'icult for
as
3 an aulomatcdprogramor bot to recognize.By using C,APl CHA.S, IJCV syste prevenlsdala
thc
4 scraperc
rcgisteringmany new and illegitimatcrnembcraccounts.
from automatically
5

32.

l-ir (edln alsocmploys technicalprolocolsdcsigncdlo prcvcnl unauthorizcd

6 autonlated and wcbcrawlcrs
bots
parts the[,inkedln
fton accessing
othcrw-isc
of
fublicly availablc
7 site. I(nownasr fobots.txl thissaftguind
lilc,
provides scl ol instltlclions any aulonatcd
a
to
8 lcchnologies
visitingthc l-inkcdln
robots.lxl docspeDnitsomc
sitc. Whilc LiDkcdlD's
lile
(c.g.9 u'ebcrawlers
search
engiucs
suchas Googleol lling) to vicw lhc cntircsitc.il prchibjts
and

t 0 is intenclcd prcvcnt
to
rlilornetcd
programs thoscLrsed datascrapers.
likc
by
ll
t2

Thc l)oc l)ofcndants'D:rtaScrapingAclivitics
33.

llcl$ccn May 2013ancl prcscnt, Doc I)clcndants
knowinglyand
thc
thc

I 3 intenlionally
protocol
cifcLlnlvcntcd
IrtJSIi,
Scntincl, UCV systcrlr. fobots.txt
tho
and/or
othcr
thc
t 4 l.inkcrllnsccurity surcsin ordcrto cueirgc thcirdatascrapints
nrc
in
lctivilics.
I5

34.

I)urirlgthistirrrc
pcriod.the l)oc I)oloDdanls
cfoalcd
thousands r)lolnbcr
ol
irccounls

l 6 (wi1hltrl(c
nanles contlcl inlbflriltion)k) ircocss sclilpe
and
drlil liom rnanyLirrkeclln
and
Inemb0l
t't prolilcs.
It3

35.

lD ordcflo cl-ciltc
cachand cvoryonc ol-thcsc
lakenrcrnber
accour)ts, Doc
thc

l 9 l)elcndrnts to ag|ccto ahiclc thc acocss usercstficlions Linkcdln s IJser
had
by
in
Agfccment,
and
20 thich. irlur rrlrr. prolribit -'scrapirg,spidering,crawliDgor olhcr lcchnologyor soliwarc usedto
2l

access
datawithoullhc cxpress
wl-illcn
andrccluire
consel)t LinkedlD ils Mcmbers."
ol
or
that

2 2 nTembcrs only mirintair
"r.viLl
one Lirkedln account any givcnlinrc" and"rvill uscltheirllcal
at
23 nameand only providc accumleinlbtmation to Linkcdln." 'l'he Doc Delindants knou'ingly
24 violated
eachol'thesc
access uselestrictions cltgaging
and
in
inthcir unlawl.Lcollduot.
25

36.

ln May andJune2013, the Doe Defendants
FUSE wlich limits thc
circumventcd

26 volume ofactivity fbr eachindividual account- by creatiDg
thousands
ofdiflerent ncrv membcr
21 accourtsthroughthc useofvaious automatcd
technologies.Regislcringso many uniquenew
2 8 accounts
allowcd the I)oc Dcfendants view iTundrcds
oflhousandsofnrcmber profiles pcr day.
to
-7-

(ioMPI-AlNt'
1

37.

At the samctime, thc l)oc Del'cndallts
also circumvertedthe UCV systetn using
by

2 autornated
tcchnologics1olcgister thousands
without triggeting the
offikc memberaccor.lnts
3 UCV systcm's
imposilion C,P'lCIIAs. -l'hcDoc Def!nclants circr,rmvented bypassed
of
irlso
and
4

Linlcdln's robots.txtfile, which specilicallybansand is intcndedto prevcntthc useol

)

unaulhorizcd
aulomaleddatascrapingptogralnsand bols.

6

18.

In early Seplcmbcr2011,thc l)oc l)el'enda|1ts
agaii accesscd
l-inlicdln's wcbsire

7 nnd crrgaged dittascrapingthroughthe uscofautontatcddatascrapingplogrants. ln so doing.
in
8 the Doc Delindanls circumvcntcdLinl(cdln's Scnlinelprogranl.hich lirlits thc nunlberolsucccssivc
rcqucsls
madeby an Il' addrcss sctoJ ll) addresscs. hcy alsocircuntvcnted
or
l
thc

t0 frdlibitions sctli)[h i Linl(cdln's
robols.rxt
lilc.
ll

19.

[,illkcdlniniliallyidcnrilicd Doc DclrJr]dants
thc
nliscondUot
whcnit obscrvocllhrt

t2 thousdnds lirkcmcrnbcf
ol
accounts collootivcly
had
vicwcdntanylncmbcfprolllcsin a shorl
I]

pcriodol tinrc. l,inkcdlndctcrminccl thc uscrlccountswcrc llkc allcr closeinspcction
that
ol-

t4 dccounl
dolails
rcvc.rlcd
clciu paltcnls auk)nlatioD.
ol
l,inkcdlD
obscrvcd thc aul(nnalcd
lhat
bots
I 5 lhal werc un,ring
llrcsclakcaccouDts
woul(lusccachaccoull( viow n snlallnumbcr pll)lilcs.
to
ol
'
bypassing circunrvcntiug
thercby
antl
ljLlSli s pagcvicw tcslrictions. thenwoLrld
and
irovc on l()

1 7 thc ncxtrcgistercd
acoount vicw additional
lo
prolilest8

40.

Linkedlnconductcd cxtensive
ar
invcstigalion
ofthc I)oe I)clendants'
misconduct.

1 9 In lhc coufso ils invcsligatiolr, conlpilcd
of
i1
sprcadshccts
tracking IP addrcsscs by the
the
used
20 Doc l)elendants.
l,inkedlnalsoidelltificd cataloged I)oc I)eiindants'lakenrcmbcr
ard
tl]e
2l

proiiles, numbcr lcgitimatc
thc
of
profilcs
viowedby eachfakc mcmber,
andthc dales
andtimcsol'

22 the Doc Delendanls'activily on thc Linkedln ,cbsite. l,inkcdln disabledthc ti*e DrcmDef
2 3 prolilcs and implementcdadditionallechnological
sal'eguards protccl againstunauthorized
to
24 acccss lhc Linkedln site.
1()
25

41.

As a rcsult ofthis investigatio Linkedln dctct.mincd
that tlrc Doe Dcfirndants

26 accessed
Linkedln using a cioud computingplatlonn oltcred by Amazofi Web Sen,iccs
(,,AWS").
2 7 'fhis platform callcd ArnazonElasticComputcCllo[d or Amazon ]:C2 - allows userslikc the
2 8 Doe Delendants rcnt virtual computcrson which to rn their own computorprogmnlsand
to

COMPL IN'I'
I

applications.AmazonEC2 providesresizable
computingcapacity. fhis fcatureallor'susersk)

2 quickly scalecapacity,both up and down. Amazon EC2 uscrsmay temporarilyrun hundrcdsor
3 thousaldsofvirtual computingmachines.The Doc l)eftndontsuscdAmazon EC2 to create
4

5

virtual machines run automatcd
to
bots to scrapcdatal'romLinkcdln's *,ebsite.
42.

As a result Doe Delendants' ofAnrazon!C2, t,inkcdlncxpects be ableto
ol
usc
to

6 identifythc l)oc I)cfcndants serving
by
tltird-pa(ydiscovc|y AWS.a I-inkcdlnintends lilc
on
to
7 nlotions to cxpcditelhesedi$corery requcsts.
8

Doc Dclcndants
Havc Crused and'l'hrertcn Ongoingand lrrcptrable Injury to Linkcdln
43.

Ily cng.Lgiug thc datascraping
in
incidcnts
dcscribcd
abovc, l)oc l)eiendunts
thc

l0 hayccauscd, ifnol halledwill ooDtinuc cause,
and
to
ongoin!iand
irreparablc
harnt10Linkcdln,in
tl

r varielyol *ays.

l2

44.

l hc thoLrsandsllke nlcnrbcr
prolllcsoreirtocl thc Doe Delcnd ntsdisrupt
ol
by
and

t3 dcgradc
)-inkcd)n's andscNiccs rcducing accuracy inlcgrilyol thc inlbrmation
sitc
thc
and
by
lhc
t4 sitc corrlains. l-inkcdln's nrcnlbcNcxpcct thc sitc to conlainaccuratcand lcgitirnatcprolcssi(nul
t5 profllcs nol usoless
liotions
crolicdby ddtdscrtpcrs.
45.

lhc proscncc lirl(cnrcnrbcr
ol
prolilcsalsoirnpairs
lcgitirnatc
lncmbcrs'ability
10

t7 idcntilyvalid professidralcontncls. pa(i0ular,
ln
l,inkcdlncnables nrcDrbcrs vicw
bccause
i(s
Io
l 8 whichuscrs
havevie.ecl
thcir proliles,
whoscprolilcshavcbccn
legitintatc
Linkedlnuscrs
l 9 viewedby a Doc l)cfcnddnl
usinga fakcaccounl
may bc 0onlused mislcdwhentheysecthatan
or
20 unknown,
litkcmember vicwedtheirprolilcs. Indced,
has
l,inkcdlnobscrlcdsomeof its valid
2 l membersoltenpling to conncclwith theselikc nremberprofilcs after noticiug thatthc fakc
22 accounls vielved
hud
thcir profilcs.
23

46.

l his type of poliulion to thc Lil)l(cdln network,il not haltcd,threatens
ongoilg and

24 irrcparableharmto the iDlegrityofrhe Linkedln platfonn and Linkcdln's repulalion. Linkedln
25
2 6 a .See
http://portal.aws.amazon.corr/gplaws/htnl-formscontrollcr/contactuvAWSAhuse#subpocna.s
(detailingprocedures scrviogthird-party
for
discoveryon Amazon to obtain informationrelalingto "suspeclcd
lllastic
abuscof AmaT-on
Conpute Cloud (Amazon f,:C2)").
28

2'7

COMPLAINT
I

goodwill and trust,
also will suffcr ongoingand irreparablc
hann to the valuc ofils consumer

2 *.hich Linkedln hasworkcd hard for ycarsto carn irnd maintain,il the Doc l)cfcndants'conduct
l
4

continues.
47.

Irurther, pilliring mcmbcr
by
datolrom thc Linkedli site,thc l)oc Deienclanls

producL,
5 misconduct
thrcatcns degrade valuool l,inkcdln's
to
Lhe
Recruiter
whichLinkedlnhas

6 investcd
subst.rntially ovcrthc ycars.Or information bclicf,lhe Doc Dclcndants, havc
in
who
and
'1 irvested nonc ol-thcil ou,1ltimc and rcsourccs developingand builclingthe l,inkcdln platform.
into
8 havccngagcdin thcir scrapingactiviticsi|r an altempl to cstablislr
compctingrccruitingwcbsites
pKxluct.
9 andusurpLinkcdln'sl{ccruiter

10
ll

4ti.

'lhe DoeDelendants'
nrisconc|.rol hirsinposedsignitioanl
irlso
strrinb
un

LinkcdJn's
scrvcrs,
includinS
throLlSh uscol lutonlatcd
technoLogicsvicw mauymt:rrrbcr
1o
thc

1 2 p r o fi l cs.'lhcI)ocI)clcndarlts'ille g it in ra t c p ro lilo v ic ws jmp a irc d l, in l(c d ln ' s a l) i l i t y t o d c d i c a t c
t3 its seNcrst()suppor'limg activilics lcgitirnatc
thc
ol
Linkcdlnnrcnrbcrs.
l4

4.).

l.inkcdlnhi|ssul'lcrccl
and
signilicant
hr|nr to its compulcr
syslcnrs, h s cxpcndod

limc,
t5 hunun. lina cial.andtcchnological
rcsourccs,
including
hundrcds hours crnplo)cc
ol
ol
invcsligating rcsponding thc I)oc L)clcnchots'
ancl
!o
Lrnlawlirl
activilios, a cost10[.inkcdln
rt
ol'

1 7 Drorclhon lj;5,000.
t8

rlltsl

t9

Cl,AIM I,'Oll Rlll,llll'

Computcr !-raud and AbuscAct, ltl U.S.C.$1030el scq.

20

50.

Linliedln realleges
and ircorporatcsby ref'ercncc ol lhe prcccdingparagraphs.
all

2t

51.

Linkcdln-s
computcrs scrvcrs involvcdin iDlelslatc forcign
and
arc
and
conlrncrcc

22 andcommunicalion, areprotected
and
comlutefs
undcr18 U.S.C.$1030(e)(2).
23

52.

Ou inlbrmation and beliel, the Doe l)cfcndantsklowingly and intcntionall],

24 ilccesscd
Li|kgdln's computcrsand scrvelswithout aulhodzationor in exoess
ofthe aulhorization
25 permilledunderLinkedln's Uscr Agreenlentand in circumventionofvadous tcchnicalbarriers
26 includingFUSF, Scntinel,the IJCV systcm.thc robots.txtprotocol,aod additiorral
safeguards
27 Linkedln hasemployedlo proteclLinkedln's computersand scrvcrslrom unatrthodzed
acccss.
28
-10COMPLAINl
I

53.

On information belief,affcrgaining
and
unauthorircd
acc€ss Linkcdln's
to

2 computers scruers, DoeDcfcndarls
iuld
the
and
valuable
informatjon
from
obtained used
3 Linkcdln'sprotectcd
computcrs senersin tlansaclions
and
involvinginterstatc forcign
or
4 communications violation 18 U.S.C. 1030(a)(2). infornration
ir
of
This
includes,
among
othcr
S
profiles, thisuse,on inlbrmation beliet,
5 things, contcnts
the
olmany Lintcdln membcr
and
and

6 inuludcs.
lnrong
olhcr
lhings.
distributing t contcnr 6thcn,
rh
ro
7

5,1.

l-lrcDoeDcfindants
knowing)y,
willf'ully.andwith an intentto dcfraud,
acccsscd

8 Linkcdln's
computcrs scrvcrs
and
without
or
authorizationin cxcess
ofauthorization obtaincd
and
valuable
inlbrnratioD l.inkedln's
liom
and
lhat,
ancl
lhc
computcrs sclvers on inlbrrnation bcliel.
l 0 Doel)clcndauts to obluin
uscd
in
somcthing valuc violalion l8 tJ.S.C. 1030(.rxa).
ol
of
$

u

55.

Linkcdlihas
suffercd
oflhcscviolations,
including,
darnagc loss rcason
and
by

t2 withoutLinril{ti(nllufin to Linkcdln'scolnpulcr
systcms,
exl)clrses
assooiatcd bcinglbrccd
with
ano
iulq
l 3 to invcstigalc rcspond thcuflilrrthorizod andabusc ils computers sorvcrs,
and
to
acccss
ol

t4 othcrlosscs danl gc in anarnounl bc provcn trial,in cxccss
and
at
of$5.000aggrcgdtcd ir
ovcr
lo
pcfrod.
1 5 orc yoar
I6

56.

harm,
In acldition,
l,inkedln sullbrcd will continue sul'ler
dnd
to
irreparablc and
has

t7 ils rcmedy law is not itscll adcquntc compcnsatc for injuries
inllictcdby thc l)oc
ill
to
it
t8 Dclcndnts, AcootclingLy,
fciicl'.
Linkedln cntillcd injunclivc
is
to
l9

SIiCOND CI-AIM FOII RITLIEF

20

Crlifornir Comprohcnsivo
Computer
,tnd
rt
Access FraudAct,Cal.I'er!l Codc$502 scq.

2l

57.

peLragraphs.
Linkcclln
rcallcges iicorporatcs feiercnce ol theprooeding
all
and
by

22

5ll.

'Ihc DoeDctbndanls
oblaincd used
and
valuable
information
lionr
wrongfully

2 3 Linkcdln's asallcged
sitc,
abovc.
59.

TheDocDel'endants
knor,vingly,
fraudrrlcntly, withoulpermission
and
accessed
or

to
2 5 causcd beaccessed
Linkedln's
computcrs,
systcms,
and/orcomputer
nctwork
rn
computcr
vrolrtiun
ol(hl. Pcnrl
Codc 502(c)(7).
S

2'7

60.

The DoeDefendants
and
took,copied
knowingly,
fraudulcntly, withoutpcrmission

2 8 alrd)nade ofdata,andfiles liom Linkedhr's
use
conputers,
computer
systems,
and/or
computer
-t tCOMPLAIN-I
I

net$,orl(s,
including wrongfully
to
control
Code$ 502(cXl)
suchdata,in violationofCal. Pcnal

2 &(2).
3

61.

lhc Doe Delendants
knorvingly,liaudulcntly, and rvithoul pcmrissiotr
djsruptcdor

4 caLrsed disruption
the
ofl,inkedln'scomputcr
to
users
ol'Linkedln's
scrvices authorized
5 compulgrs.
colr]putersystcors,
and/orcomputcrnctworksin violation of Cal. PenalCode
6 S s02(c)(5).
'7
62.
As a dircct and proxinratcrcsultol'lllc Doc Delendants'unlawtirlconduct,thc Doe
h
U Delendanls vc causcddamageto Linkedln in an anrounllo bc pro.cnarllrial. Lil*edln is also
lo
l'enalCodc$502(c).
9 entitled fccovcrits rcasonablc
attomey's
lccspufsuant California
to

l0

63.

L,iukecLln
aclswcrervilllirlandrnalicious thal
in
bclicvcs
thatthe Doc l)cicndants'

intcul1oiulprovc Doc
tlrc
t 1 Delirldants' dcscfibed
Aots
above
wcrc donowith thc dclibemtc

1 2 I)clindanls'bLrsiDcssLinkcdln'scxpensc.
al
LinkcdJn thc|clbre
is
cnlitlccl purlilivo
k)
darnagcs.
t3

64.

ln atldition.
I-inkedln sulll.fcd
1('
harm,and
has
and4ill continuc sullir ilfcpnrxblc

inllictcdby lhc l)oc
t 4 ils rcnrcdy t lnw is nol ilsclladcquirtc conrpens il li)r injr|l.ics
tc
lo
LinkcdlD cntitlccl ir,!nctivc rclicl.
t 5 Dcl'cndants.
Accordingly,
is
lo

l6

l tIllU) cl,AIM IrOli Rlit,Ilil'

11

Violltiorts ol 'l'bc l)igi(nl MillcDniumCopyrigh(Act, l7 U,S.C.S l2{)l ct scq.

l8

65.

paragraphs.
l-inked)n
reallcges incorporatcs relcrencc ol thc prccocling
and
by
all

l9

66.

pro(ecliors including
valioushycrs o1{cchnological
FIJSE.
l,inkcdlrr
cmploys

20 Scntincl, tJCV systern,lhe
thc
robots.txt
protocol, additionalsafcguards prolect
and
- to
protcction
2 1 l-inkedln's computersand scrr'crsfiom unaulhorized
access.'fhcsc lcchnologioal

22 neasuresei1!otively control acccss drecopyrightedmatedalson Linkedln's servers,
to
including
2 3 the Lini<edIn
website.membcrprofile pages,
arrdthe Linkedh honcpageand newsieed,and
2.4 plotcct Li!)kcdln's exclusiverighls in thosccopyrightcdmarerials.
25

67.

DespiteLinftedln's besrcllbrts to protectthe Linkcdlr site liom the Doe

26 Dcfcndants'unaulhorized
access, Doc Defendanls
the
circunveuted [,inkcdln's tcchnological
2'7 safeguards ilcluding IUSE, SenliDel, UCV system,thc robots.lxl protocol,and additional
the
28
- 12'
COMPLAINT
I

safcguards and gajncdunauthorized
access i,inkedln's copyrightcdrlaterials, including
to

()1
2 wilhoutlimitation copyrighled
the
Linkcdlnwcbsite, violation l7 U.S.C.$ l20l(a).
iD

l

68.

As a resl l olthc Doc Dei'erldants'
is
r.ronglulacts, Linledln hassr.rffered.

4 conlinuing sul'fer, will continue sullcrdarnagcs be provcnal trial. Linkcdlnis lurther
to
and
to
to
5 cntitlcd io all plollls attribulableto llre Doe Dcfcndants'$ronglul acts b be provenat trial.
6 Alternatively,
uponils eleolion any tiolc bclofellnal iudgmcnt cnLercd.
is
l,inkcdlnis enlitlcd
to
ut
7 tccoverslatuluy damages om the Doe Dclcndarls
li
pursuor'rl I 7 lJ.S.C. is I 20J lbr each.rolol
10
lt

9

circunrvcnlion
commilted thc l)oc Dcfcndarnts.
by
69.

lhc I)oe Delendints circumvclrtions havccauscd
Linkcdlnilrcparable
hlrn.
also

l0

lJllless
reslraincd enjolncd. [)oc I)c]cndanls conlinuo colnmilsrich
and
thc
will
1o
acts.

tl

l,inkcdln's
renrcdics Ia$,arc adcqllatc conrpcnsale lor thcscinlliclcdandlhrc tcncd
al
u()l
it
k)

t 2 injulics, thusl,inkcdlnis 0ntitled injunctivc
and
prr)vidcd l7 tl.S.C. 1203.
by
to
rcLicfas
-s

tl

I.'OUItl'II CI,AIM I-OR ItI|I,IEF

t4

llrcach of Col|ar{ct

l5

70.

parirgraphs.
Linkcdlnrcallcgcs incoqrol'atcs |clc|cncc of thc p|cceding
and
by
all

16

7t .

scrvioos goverDcd al)d
arc
by
tjsc ofthe l-illl(cclln
wcbsitc
andusool l-inkoclln

t7 subjcctto thc [JscrAgrccnrcnt.
I8

12.

Ljnkcdlnmeurbcrs prcsctrtcd
arc
with thc t]scf Agfcemcnl
dndmuslalllrmativcly

l 9 accept lJscrAgrcenrcnl rcgistcr a l,inkcclln
thc
lo
accounl.
lbf
20
2l
22

1].

At all rclcva|tlinres.
Linkcdlnalsopr-orninently
displaycd link to the tiscr
a

Agreemenl Linkedln's
ou
hontepage.
71.

l he Doc Dcfcndants
?rnd
atlirnativelyacccltcd
acccsscd Linkedlnwcbsile
thc
and

2 3 agrccdto the UserAgrccmcntto, amongolhcr things,crcatctlre lake nrcmbcrprolilcs thal cnabled
24 the Doe Deilndantsto access
Linkedln userprofiles and scrape
ddtaf'rom Linkedln's .vcbsile.
25

75.

Ihe User Agrccmcnt is cnforceablc
and biuding on the Doc Dcfcndanls.

26

'76.

'l'he Doe Delendants
the
repeatedly
accesscd Linkcdln wcbsitewith knowledgeof

2'7 the Uscr Agrccmenrand all ol'its prohibitions. Dcspitetheir knowledgeol'thc UserAgrccmcnt
2 8 and its prohibitions.the l)oc l)clendantsauoesscd continue1()
acccss Linkcdln websiteto,
the
and
- l3COMPLAINl
l

to
crawl, or useother automated
tcchnologyor softuarc to gain access
amongothcr things, scrape,

maintaincd
2 the Linkedtn *cbsitc without the conscntof Linkedln. Moreovcr,thc Doe Defendants

3 morc thanone account(indeed,thousa[dsol'accounts)at any given timc. and did not provide lheir
4 real namcsor provide accuraleinformation1ol,inkedln.
5

11.

l,inkedln has beenunablelo contaclthc Doc De|nddnts to dcmandthat they cease

Linkedll1docsttot
desisttheir data scrapingand othcr l-inkcdln-relatcdaclivitiesbccause
6 .1nd
olthc Doc Dcttndants.
7 know theideDtilies

ti

78.

iurd
abovc,havewillfully, repeatedly,
l'hc l)oc Del'endants'
actions,us dcscribed

breached User Agreen'lcnt.
the
9 systenlatically

t0

'19.

rcquircd
ofit in
and
covcnanls, promiscs
Linkcdln haspcrformcd oolditions,
all

u,ith thc User Aglccmcnt.
t 1 accordancc

t2

80.

'l'hc I)oc Dcfcndants'conducthasdanragcdl,inkcdln, and causcd
and continucs10

incparablc
and incalculablc
harmandiniuryto l,inkcdln.
l 3 causc

l4

81.

and/or
othcr
danla8cs,
rclicl.cornpcnsalory
l-irkcdln is crllillcdlo irtiunctivc

t 5 cquitrblcrelicl.
I6

FIFTTI CI,AIM FOR RI'LIEF

t'7

'[ rcsptrss

l8

82.

pafagraphs.
all
Linkcdlnrcallcgcs inoolporatcs relercncc of thepreceding
and
by

l9

81.

'l'llc l)oc I)clcndants
acccsscclaud
intcntionally, wilhoutauthofization,
ancl

compuler
systcDls
and
l,inkcdln'swebsitc,
with
2 0 interacted l,inkcdln,ircludilrgwithoullinlitation,

2l
22

setvcts.
84.

thcrcin
The Doe Delendants'aooess l,inkedln and the inibrmationcontained
to

23 rcquiredthe Doe Delendantsto abidc by thc [JserAgrccmenl. By violating the termsofthc Uscr
and
effons to combattheir activitics,the Doe Defbndants
24 Agreement, I-inkcdln's express
wifh Linkedln, its websile,computcr
to
unla*firlly gainedaccess and intcrl'ered
aDdintermeddlcd
systcms,
and its servers.

2',7
28
- I4COMPLAINl'
I

85.

'l he Doe Defcndanls'unauthorizgd
interlerence
with and access l-inkcdln, its
to

2 wcbsite,computcrsystems, its seNcrs,anong othcr'halms,reducesl,inkcdln's capacityto
and
3 serviceits uscrsbccause occupiesand usesLinkedln's resources.
it
4

86.

'lhe Doe Defcndants'conductconstitutes
trespass
that ha$harmedand will

5 continuc hamrl,inkedln.As a result.
to
has
andwill continuc be damagcd.
to
l,inkccllD been
6
,]

87.

l,irtl<cdln sufl'erecl will continueto sui'ierirreparahlchamr,and its rencdy
has
and

at law is not itscll adequate conlpcnsate ibr injuriesinilicted by the l)oc l)ctcnclants.
to
it
Accordingly.
l,inkcdlnis eDlitlcd injurrctivc
to
rclict'.

9

sIXl'tt cl.AlM t'oR ttELIItF

t0

MisnDpropriation

tl

88.

palagraphs.
Linkcciln
rcallcgcs incoryoratcs rclcrcncc ol lhc prcccding
by
and
irll

t2

t39.

t.iDkodln investcd
has
1ime,
labof,skill,{ncl lir)oncial
rcsoufces thc
into
substantial

l 3 crcation nraintonilnce l,iDkcdln, cornplitcr
and
ol
systcms scncrs,including
aud
syslcm
aud
its
t 4 scn'cr capacily,rs wcll as thc contcnl on thc I-inkcdln websilc,lvhich is tinrc scnsilir.e.
t5
l6

90.

Wilhoutauthorizatior, l)oc l)clandants
wronglllly lcccsscd
Linkcdln's
thc

wcbsilc,
computcr
syslcnrs scf,cls. obtaiDcd
rnd
and
dirlalroul thc Linkcdlnsitcwithouthaving

t7 to rnokelhc substiLDLial
irlvcsl,ncnt tin1c,
in
skill,and linancial
rcsourccs
nradc LinkcdlD.
by
lirbof,
l8

gL

On inli)rnldtion belicl,thc l)oc l)cfindants
and
compcto
with l,inkcdlnandhavc

l 9 nradcor itrlendto nr.rke
data f'romthe Linkcdln sitc availablcto thcir riustonrcrs othcl third
and
20 partics.As such.thc l)oc f)cl_endants' ol-l,inkedln's
usc
computcr
systcnls servcrs,
and
including
2 1 syslemand scNcr oi]paoity, well asdirtaliom lhe Linl(edln si1c,constilulesliee riding on
as
22 Lirkeclln'ssubstanlial
investmcnl limc, cllbrt, andexpense.
of
23

92.

As a rcsultofthis misdppropriation, Doc Dcfendants
thc
wrongfully
compete,

and-/or
enableothcrslo compete,
,ith Linkcdln, and Linkcdln hasbeen lbrcedto cxpend
additionallimc and resourccs,
including but not limited to, investigating
and responding the
to

26 Doc Dclendants'activil.ies.
2'7

93.

LiDkcdlnhasbeenand rvill oonlinueto be danaged as thc rcsult ofthe Doc

2 8 Defendan{s'actso f misappropdation.

COMPLAINT
I

94.

to
injury,andits remedy
Linkcdlnhassuffered will continue sufcr ineparablc
and

2 at la$'is not itselfadequate comperNatefbr injuriesinflictedby theDoeDefendants.
to
it
PRAYERT'ORRELIEF
4

bc
WIIEREFORE,
Linkedlnpraysthatjudgment e eredin its favorandagainst

as
5 theDoc Dcf'cndanls, lbllowsr

6

1.

injunclion
enjoinilgand
A preliminarl,
injunction permancrlt
and

and
or
all
their
represcntatives,
agents, all persons cntities
7 rcstraining DoeDefendants, employecs,
pcrpetually
tiom
with thcmduringthependcncy
ofthis actionandtherealler
U actingin conccrt
pulpose
whatsoever,
9 accessing usingLinkedln'swcbsjtcfor any0onmercial
<I
l0

2.

data,
An ordcrrc<luiring DoeDcfcndants dcstroy documents, and
to
all
the

or
custody, control, wcrcwroDgfully
or
that
othcritems,
elcclronic olherwisc, thcir possession,
in
iiorr
websitc,
t 2 copied l.,inkedln's

t3

3.

inch.tdirrg, not limited
but
An award Linkedlnof rcstitution damagcs,
to
ard

damagcs, pcrrnitled law;
as
by
l4 to. compcnsatory,
statutory,
treble
damages, punitive
a|rd

15

4.

ofsuit,including, notlimiled
but
to,
An award Linkcdlr ils oosts
to
ol

reosonablc
AllorDey's
t'bcs, permitted law; 1d
os
by

t'7

5.

SucholherrcliefasthcCourtdeemsjust propcr.
and

t
I9

DIiMANDTOR.'URY TIIIAL
jn
lTereby
action
Linkcdln
dcmands
ajury trialolall issues theabovc-captioned lhatare

20 triablc ajury.
to

6,
22 DATED:January 2014

TOLLF]S OLSON
&
MLINGEI{,

23
24
z)

26
2't

Altomeys for Linkedln Coryortation

28
- l6COMPLAIN'I

More Related Content

Similar to Complaint

Tranasap case study pharma
Tranasap case study   pharmaTranasap case study   pharma
Tranasap case study pharma
Rasika Jayawardana
 
Tranasap case study pharma
Tranasap case study   pharmaTranasap case study   pharma
Tranasap case study pharma
Rasika Jayawardana
 
7th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Electronics and Communication ...
7th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Electronics and Communication ...7th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Electronics and Communication ...
7th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Electronics and Communication ...
BGS Institute of Technology, Adichunchanagiri University (ACU)
 
2014 Red Cross Blood Bank contract .PDF
2014 Red Cross Blood Bank contract .PDF2014 Red Cross Blood Bank contract .PDF
2014 Red Cross Blood Bank contract .PDF
JIGAR VYAS
 
1st Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
1st Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers1st Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
1st Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
BGS Institute of Technology, Adichunchanagiri University (ACU)
 
Final EIS Appendix A Part 1
Final EIS Appendix A Part 1Final EIS Appendix A Part 1
Final EIS Appendix A Part 1
Honolulu Civil Beat
 
3rd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
3rd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers3rd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
3rd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
BGS Institute of Technology, Adichunchanagiri University (ACU)
 
Nclt(amendment)rules latest one 2016 dec
Nclt(amendment)rules latest one 2016 dec Nclt(amendment)rules latest one 2016 dec
Nclt(amendment)rules latest one 2016 dec
GAURAV KR SHARMA
 
Paternity leave go(p) no 27 2013-fin dated 15-01-2013
Paternity leave go(p) no 27 2013-fin  dated  15-01-2013Paternity leave go(p) no 27 2013-fin  dated  15-01-2013
Paternity leave go(p) no 27 2013-fin dated 15-01-2013
Pradeep Kumar
 
8th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Computer Science and Informati...
8th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Computer Science and Informati...8th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Computer Science and Informati...
8th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Computer Science and Informati...
BGS Institute of Technology, Adichunchanagiri University (ACU)
 
3rd Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers
3rd Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers3rd Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers
3rd Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers
BGS Institute of Technology, Adichunchanagiri University (ACU)
 
Trinity Kings World Leadership: Assessment Evaluation Measurement of Leadersh...
Trinity Kings World Leadership: Assessment Evaluation Measurement of Leadersh...Trinity Kings World Leadership: Assessment Evaluation Measurement of Leadersh...
Trinity Kings World Leadership: Assessment Evaluation Measurement of Leadersh...
Terrell Patillo
 
2nd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
2nd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers2nd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
2nd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
BGS Institute of Technology, Adichunchanagiri University (ACU)
 
6th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers
6th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers6th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers
6th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers
BGS Institute of Technology, Adichunchanagiri University (ACU)
 
Landlord Tenant California Real Estate
Landlord Tenant California Real EstateLandlord Tenant California Real Estate
Landlord Tenant California Real Estate
realestatehistory
 
G.O.(Ms.) No,146 - HUDD - Urban Development - Chennai Metropolitan Developme...
G.O.(Ms.) No,146 - HUDD - Urban Development  - Chennai Metropolitan Developme...G.O.(Ms.) No,146 - HUDD - Urban Development  - Chennai Metropolitan Developme...
G.O.(Ms.) No,146 - HUDD - Urban Development - Chennai Metropolitan Developme...
CMDAOfficial
 
Question scaned by nasir cs 2722
Question scaned by nasir cs 2722Question scaned by nasir cs 2722
Question scaned by nasir cs 2722
Nasir Du
 
lnternational conomics, 15th Edition 45Tfhv Everybody Tra .docx
lnternational conomics, 15th Edition 45Tfhv Everybody Tra .docxlnternational conomics, 15th Edition 45Tfhv Everybody Tra .docx
lnternational conomics, 15th Edition 45Tfhv Everybody Tra .docx
SHIVA101531
 
Singapore model-composition-primary-5
Singapore model-composition-primary-5Singapore model-composition-primary-5
Singapore model-composition-primary-5
Kathleen Ong
 
Ce 451 part 3 (points & crossing)
Ce 451 part 3 (points & crossing)Ce 451 part 3 (points & crossing)
Ce 451 part 3 (points & crossing)
A. R. Atiq
 

Similar to Complaint (20)

Tranasap case study pharma
Tranasap case study   pharmaTranasap case study   pharma
Tranasap case study pharma
 
Tranasap case study pharma
Tranasap case study   pharmaTranasap case study   pharma
Tranasap case study pharma
 
7th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Electronics and Communication ...
7th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Electronics and Communication ...7th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Electronics and Communication ...
7th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Electronics and Communication ...
 
2014 Red Cross Blood Bank contract .PDF
2014 Red Cross Blood Bank contract .PDF2014 Red Cross Blood Bank contract .PDF
2014 Red Cross Blood Bank contract .PDF
 
1st Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
1st Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers1st Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
1st Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
 
Final EIS Appendix A Part 1
Final EIS Appendix A Part 1Final EIS Appendix A Part 1
Final EIS Appendix A Part 1
 
3rd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
3rd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers3rd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
3rd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
 
Nclt(amendment)rules latest one 2016 dec
Nclt(amendment)rules latest one 2016 dec Nclt(amendment)rules latest one 2016 dec
Nclt(amendment)rules latest one 2016 dec
 
Paternity leave go(p) no 27 2013-fin dated 15-01-2013
Paternity leave go(p) no 27 2013-fin  dated  15-01-2013Paternity leave go(p) no 27 2013-fin  dated  15-01-2013
Paternity leave go(p) no 27 2013-fin dated 15-01-2013
 
8th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Computer Science and Informati...
8th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Computer Science and Informati...8th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Computer Science and Informati...
8th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Computer Science and Informati...
 
3rd Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers
3rd Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers3rd Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers
3rd Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers
 
Trinity Kings World Leadership: Assessment Evaluation Measurement of Leadersh...
Trinity Kings World Leadership: Assessment Evaluation Measurement of Leadersh...Trinity Kings World Leadership: Assessment Evaluation Measurement of Leadersh...
Trinity Kings World Leadership: Assessment Evaluation Measurement of Leadersh...
 
2nd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
2nd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers2nd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
2nd Semester MBA (December-2014) Question Papers
 
6th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers
6th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers6th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers
6th Semester (December; January-2014 and 2015) Civil Engineering Question Papers
 
Landlord Tenant California Real Estate
Landlord Tenant California Real EstateLandlord Tenant California Real Estate
Landlord Tenant California Real Estate
 
G.O.(Ms.) No,146 - HUDD - Urban Development - Chennai Metropolitan Developme...
G.O.(Ms.) No,146 - HUDD - Urban Development  - Chennai Metropolitan Developme...G.O.(Ms.) No,146 - HUDD - Urban Development  - Chennai Metropolitan Developme...
G.O.(Ms.) No,146 - HUDD - Urban Development - Chennai Metropolitan Developme...
 
Question scaned by nasir cs 2722
Question scaned by nasir cs 2722Question scaned by nasir cs 2722
Question scaned by nasir cs 2722
 
lnternational conomics, 15th Edition 45Tfhv Everybody Tra .docx
lnternational conomics, 15th Edition 45Tfhv Everybody Tra .docxlnternational conomics, 15th Edition 45Tfhv Everybody Tra .docx
lnternational conomics, 15th Edition 45Tfhv Everybody Tra .docx
 
Singapore model-composition-primary-5
Singapore model-composition-primary-5Singapore model-composition-primary-5
Singapore model-composition-primary-5
 
Ce 451 part 3 (points & crossing)
Ce 451 part 3 (points & crossing)Ce 451 part 3 (points & crossing)
Ce 451 part 3 (points & crossing)
 

More from Matt Charney

The Hiring Hype Cycle: What Recruiters Should Really Care About
The Hiring Hype Cycle: What Recruiters Should Really Care AboutThe Hiring Hype Cycle: What Recruiters Should Really Care About
The Hiring Hype Cycle: What Recruiters Should Really Care About
Matt Charney
 
How to Improve Your Recruitment Marketing Through Technology
How to Improve Your Recruitment Marketing Through TechnologyHow to Improve Your Recruitment Marketing Through Technology
How to Improve Your Recruitment Marketing Through Technology
Matt Charney
 
HR’s Dual Role: Protecting a Company’s Best Interests
HR’s Dual Role: Protecting a Company’s Best InterestsHR’s Dual Role: Protecting a Company’s Best Interests
HR’s Dual Role: Protecting a Company’s Best Interests
Matt Charney
 
What the Rest of the World Wants Silicon Valley To Know.
What the Rest of the World Wants Silicon Valley To Know.What the Rest of the World Wants Silicon Valley To Know.
What the Rest of the World Wants Silicon Valley To Know.
Matt Charney
 
HiQ v Linkedin
HiQ v LinkedinHiQ v Linkedin
HiQ v Linkedin
Matt Charney
 
Should You Break Up With Your Recruitment Marketing Agency?
Should You Break Up With Your Recruitment Marketing Agency?Should You Break Up With Your Recruitment Marketing Agency?
Should You Break Up With Your Recruitment Marketing Agency?
Matt Charney
 
Elevated careers by e harmony opportunity
Elevated careers by e harmony opportunityElevated careers by e harmony opportunity
Elevated careers by e harmony opportunity
Matt Charney
 
Glassdoor Best Places to Work Awards Methodology
Glassdoor Best Places to Work Awards MethodologyGlassdoor Best Places to Work Awards Methodology
Glassdoor Best Places to Work Awards Methodology
Matt Charney
 
Top 25 Tools Every Recruiter Should Know.
Top 25 Tools Every Recruiter Should Know.Top 25 Tools Every Recruiter Should Know.
Top 25 Tools Every Recruiter Should Know.
Matt Charney
 
Data Visualization and Social Network Analysis for Recruiting.
Data Visualization and Social Network Analysis for Recruiting.Data Visualization and Social Network Analysis for Recruiting.
Data Visualization and Social Network Analysis for Recruiting.
Matt Charney
 
Marketing Fundamentals for HR and Recruiting
Marketing Fundamentals for HR and RecruitingMarketing Fundamentals for HR and Recruiting
Marketing Fundamentals for HR and Recruiting
Matt Charney
 
SHRM February 2016 990 Submission
SHRM February 2016 990 SubmissionSHRM February 2016 990 Submission
SHRM February 2016 990 Submission
Matt Charney
 
The State of Social Recruiting.
The State of Social Recruiting.The State of Social Recruiting.
The State of Social Recruiting.
Matt Charney
 
Write On: How To Create Killer Recruiting Content
Write On: How To Create Killer Recruiting ContentWrite On: How To Create Killer Recruiting Content
Write On: How To Create Killer Recruiting Content
Matt Charney
 
Big Data Recruiting Checklist
Big Data Recruiting ChecklistBig Data Recruiting Checklist
Big Data Recruiting Checklist
Matt Charney
 
Fact Sheet #71: Internship Programs Under The Fair Labor Standards Act
Fact Sheet #71: Internship Programs Under The Fair Labor Standards Act Fact Sheet #71: Internship Programs Under The Fair Labor Standards Act
Fact Sheet #71: Internship Programs Under The Fair Labor Standards Act
Matt Charney
 
SnapChat Resume
SnapChat ResumeSnapChat Resume
SnapChat Resume
Matt Charney
 
990 irs shrm 2013 submission analysis february 2015
990 irs shrm 2013 submission analysis february 2015990 irs shrm 2013 submission analysis february 2015
990 irs shrm 2013 submission analysis february 2015
Matt Charney
 
Szpyrka v Linkedin Complaint
Szpyrka v Linkedin ComplaintSzpyrka v Linkedin Complaint
Szpyrka v Linkedin Complaint
Matt Charney
 
The Evolution Of Staffing Technology
The Evolution Of Staffing TechnologyThe Evolution Of Staffing Technology
The Evolution Of Staffing Technology
Matt Charney
 

More from Matt Charney (20)

The Hiring Hype Cycle: What Recruiters Should Really Care About
The Hiring Hype Cycle: What Recruiters Should Really Care AboutThe Hiring Hype Cycle: What Recruiters Should Really Care About
The Hiring Hype Cycle: What Recruiters Should Really Care About
 
How to Improve Your Recruitment Marketing Through Technology
How to Improve Your Recruitment Marketing Through TechnologyHow to Improve Your Recruitment Marketing Through Technology
How to Improve Your Recruitment Marketing Through Technology
 
HR’s Dual Role: Protecting a Company’s Best Interests
HR’s Dual Role: Protecting a Company’s Best InterestsHR’s Dual Role: Protecting a Company’s Best Interests
HR’s Dual Role: Protecting a Company’s Best Interests
 
What the Rest of the World Wants Silicon Valley To Know.
What the Rest of the World Wants Silicon Valley To Know.What the Rest of the World Wants Silicon Valley To Know.
What the Rest of the World Wants Silicon Valley To Know.
 
HiQ v Linkedin
HiQ v LinkedinHiQ v Linkedin
HiQ v Linkedin
 
Should You Break Up With Your Recruitment Marketing Agency?
Should You Break Up With Your Recruitment Marketing Agency?Should You Break Up With Your Recruitment Marketing Agency?
Should You Break Up With Your Recruitment Marketing Agency?
 
Elevated careers by e harmony opportunity
Elevated careers by e harmony opportunityElevated careers by e harmony opportunity
Elevated careers by e harmony opportunity
 
Glassdoor Best Places to Work Awards Methodology
Glassdoor Best Places to Work Awards MethodologyGlassdoor Best Places to Work Awards Methodology
Glassdoor Best Places to Work Awards Methodology
 
Top 25 Tools Every Recruiter Should Know.
Top 25 Tools Every Recruiter Should Know.Top 25 Tools Every Recruiter Should Know.
Top 25 Tools Every Recruiter Should Know.
 
Data Visualization and Social Network Analysis for Recruiting.
Data Visualization and Social Network Analysis for Recruiting.Data Visualization and Social Network Analysis for Recruiting.
Data Visualization and Social Network Analysis for Recruiting.
 
Marketing Fundamentals for HR and Recruiting
Marketing Fundamentals for HR and RecruitingMarketing Fundamentals for HR and Recruiting
Marketing Fundamentals for HR and Recruiting
 
SHRM February 2016 990 Submission
SHRM February 2016 990 SubmissionSHRM February 2016 990 Submission
SHRM February 2016 990 Submission
 
The State of Social Recruiting.
The State of Social Recruiting.The State of Social Recruiting.
The State of Social Recruiting.
 
Write On: How To Create Killer Recruiting Content
Write On: How To Create Killer Recruiting ContentWrite On: How To Create Killer Recruiting Content
Write On: How To Create Killer Recruiting Content
 
Big Data Recruiting Checklist
Big Data Recruiting ChecklistBig Data Recruiting Checklist
Big Data Recruiting Checklist
 
Fact Sheet #71: Internship Programs Under The Fair Labor Standards Act
Fact Sheet #71: Internship Programs Under The Fair Labor Standards Act Fact Sheet #71: Internship Programs Under The Fair Labor Standards Act
Fact Sheet #71: Internship Programs Under The Fair Labor Standards Act
 
SnapChat Resume
SnapChat ResumeSnapChat Resume
SnapChat Resume
 
990 irs shrm 2013 submission analysis february 2015
990 irs shrm 2013 submission analysis february 2015990 irs shrm 2013 submission analysis february 2015
990 irs shrm 2013 submission analysis february 2015
 
Szpyrka v Linkedin Complaint
Szpyrka v Linkedin ComplaintSzpyrka v Linkedin Complaint
Szpyrka v Linkedin Complaint
 
The Evolution Of Staffing Technology
The Evolution Of Staffing TechnologyThe Evolution Of Staffing Technology
The Evolution Of Staffing Technology
 

Complaint

  • 1. NJ J 2 3 4 5 Bar 3) C. JDROME ROTH(State No. 15948 jerome.roth@mto.com jONATHANll. BLnVIN (Srate No.230269) Brr ionathan.bLdvin@m1o.com Bar l,AIJRAK. Lin (Stotc No.2815,12) laura.lin(drlto.oom LLP TOt,T,ES OI.SON & MlJNCER. 560MissionStreet Floor Twcnty-Seventh California 94105-2907 SanFrancisco, ' l c l e p ho n c: (4 1 5 )5 l 2 -4 0 0 0 l a c s i mi l c: (4 1 5 )5 1 2 -4 0 7 7 ,{ !:, : : /. 4F Atbmcys for LinlicdlnCorporation 8 9 DISI'I{ICTCoTJ[tl' UNITEDS'I'A1'I'S t0 OF DIS'I]I.IC'I' CAI-IFOItNIN NORI'IIIJITN ll Corporirlion, 1 2 Linl(cdln l3 l'h intill'. t4 t5 l6 17 t8 Ilhrough incltrsivc, Dckncliurts. ITRT, gq/ fl4 CI$ ffis No. Case I,'ot': Cornpl:rint (l) vloLAl'roN olt 1'llEcoMPtll'ltl{ AC'l', l;-s.c. lli ANDAllIJSE I,-llAUD Qti1030li'f S[Q.i (2)VlOl,A't'toN ol' cALll'ol{NlA I'ENAL COr)ll S 502; (3'IVIOI,Al'ION 0F THN I)I(;I1'AI, MILLENNIUM coPYRIGHT Ac'r, l7 nT u.s.c. r20r strQ.; $$ (4) I}REACII 0I.' CONTILdCT; (5)TRIiSPASS; ANI) (6) MISAPPIIOPIiIATION l9 2A 21 22 23 24 25 26 21 28 COMPLAINT
  • 2. Plainti1ll,inkedln Corporation("Linkedln" or "Plainti1l'), by and through its attorneys, I for Docs I -10 (collcctivcly,the "Doe Dcfendants") 2 bringsthis ComplainragainslDcfendants 3 injunctive rcliefand danragcs.Linkcdln allegcsas follows: 4 1. ith morcthan259 nillion proiessional net,olk Linkedlnis lhc world'slargest jn Is snd the 5 nremhcrs over200 corrntrics tcfiibfics ruound globc. Linkedlns li.sston to connect to 6 thc worlcl'sprofessionals rnakcthem more prodtlctiveand succcssful.l hroughits proprictary historicsand tnd 7 platlbrm. Litrkedlnallows ils nrcmbctsto ctcale,manage sh:trethcir professional fcoruitcrs allcl l,inkedlnprovides valuable scrviccs corporate lo 8 intcrcsts online. in addition. nrenrbcrs pfoducl, arrongLinkcclln's with 'hichallowsthcmto idcntil.v hcadhunters its Itecfuiler who crcate t 0 top candidatcs opcnposilions. thehcarlof Linkcdln'spliltlbnnarc ils nlcmbcrs, lbr At lt by prolilcstha(scrvcils thcir prollssionllonlirrcidentitics arcaoccssiblc any othcrtrrcnlbcr. and t2 2. various irlllomatod cnrployirlg SinccMay 2013.unknown pctsons aud/ofontitics of (ollcrrrolercclto as"bots")havorcgistcrcd thousands lirkcLinkcdln l 3 soliwarcprrrg|ams t 4 mcDrbor accounlsand havccxlrtctcd and copieddilt fronr nlany Incnrbcrprolilc pagcs. I his t 5 pr itcticc,knownnsdata'scrapin g . " is c x p lic it ly lx t rrc d b y l, in k c (lllr' s I J s c r, A ! , ,0 c n 1 e n l , w h i c h or ol prohilljts "lhroughscfapirrg, spiclcring. ofawling olhcr tcohnology acocss Linl(cdln to r.rsccl acccss wlittenconscnl Linkcdlnor its Mclnbcrc." ol t ' 7 sottwarc kr datawithouttheexprcss l13 l. Thc Doc l)clindrnts knowirgly and intclti(nally havcbrcachcdthis and othcr to ancl in tlscr AgrecmcDt !hichthcy agrced abidcby irr l 9 acccss usclcslrictions Lirrkedln's pfotcclion barriors crnploycd tcchl]ical 2 0 regislering theiraooounls andh[vc circunvcnted variorrs thc 2 1 by Linkccll[. lnsodoing,theyhavcviolatcd arrayoflldcral andskltclawi-.inclltding an Penal Code 22 Cornputer Fraud andAbuseAcl, l8 U.S.C.{ 1030, scq.(the"Cl;AA"), Calilbrnia et "DMCA"), 2 3 $ 502et scq., and the l)igitalMillenniunr Copyright Act, l7 U.S.C.! 1201ct seq.(1hc 24 and havc engaged unluwftrlactsof hreachof contract,fiisappropriation,arrdtrespass. in 25 4. The l)oe Dcfendants'unla$'ful conductthreatens t-inkcdlr platform in scveral the 26 ways. [t undcrmincs irtegrity and elfectivcness the ofLinkedln's protcssionalnelwork by 2 1 polluting it dth thousands iake mcinberprofiles- The world's prol'essionals of utilizc Linkedln 2u {'ilh the cxpectation that ils colltenlsarc accurate and its uscrprofiles lcgitimale. Morcover,by -t COMPI.AINT
  • 3. I piltbrirg data liom thc Linkedln sitc. the Doe l)efcrda[ts tlucatenlo degrade valueof the 2 Linkcdln's ltccruitcr product,in which I-inkcdln hasinveslcdsubstantially over the ]cars. 3 l,inke<ilnalso hassullbred additionalharrnsas a resuitofthc Doc Dcfendants'aclivitics, 4 inchlding,bul not limitcd to, incrcased strair on and disruplion of ils network servcrs and lhc 5 expcnditufeof limc and resourccs invcstigate respond1()this misconduclto and 6 5. LiDkcdln's colc guiding |irst. Becausc Linkedln's nrcrnbcrs valueis Mcmbcrs 1 cnlfust Linkedlnwith lhcir prolcssional on sitc. histoicsand intcrcsts l,intricdltl's Linkedlr is 8 con1millcd carning kecping mcmbefs' to dnd its tr.trst evcf)'thing in Linkcdhrdocs. including its 9 prolcctirrg mcnbcrsiiom attcrnpts thirdpartics scmpclhejrdata. b by li) ll 6. l,inkcdlnrcsponded promptly su'ililyto thc l)oe l)eiirldants' actjvilies, including disabling llkc nrcnrbcr thc prolilcsand inrplcnlcnling pn)lcclion additioual technical barticrs.ln l2 additionlo thcsenreasules, lo cnsurcthal li(urc incidcnlsdo not occur-l-inkcdln bringsthis nnd t3 itction idcntifythc Doc I)cl'cndants to obl:rinpcrnranon( 10 injunctivc irnd rclicl'halting thcir t4 unlawlll condtict.'l-hcl)oc l)clindarrt"il thrcalcn ongoing ard activitics. not cnioincd. I5 irrcparablc harmto Linkcclln. good+ill. including ils rcputalion sub)_tanlial lo and oonsumcf l,iniicdlnlirlher is entitled its aotual 10 statLrlory danrngcs. lnd/or cxcnrplary clanngcs as danrtrges, t7 a rosult thc I)oo I)cl-endaDls' ol miscondLlcl. t8 19 .IUI{ISDIC'I'IONAND VIINUII 7. This CourtIraslcdclalqucstionjurisdiotion tlrislction Lrudcr ti.S.U. ovcr 2B 20 $$ l 33 land ll3llbecauscthisact io Da llc g e s v io la lio nlb o lc r|ls t a t u t c s , c lu d irg t h e C I . A A . sd in 2l l8 tl .S.C.S 1030,ctseq.,andthe DMCA , U. S . C. g d 1 2 0 1 , c t s c q .T h c Clo u rt a s u pp l c m c n t a l l7 l1 22 j urisdictionover lire stateiaw causcsof uctionpleadedhercin pursuantto 28 U.S.C. . l3 67. 23 11. Vcnue is propcr in this District urdcr 28 U.S.C. g l39l, bccalNca substantiai parl 24 ofthe evcntsor omissionsgiving rise to the claintsoccuncd in this l)istricl25 9. In addition,Linkedln's tjscr Agreementgoverningall users'access and useof lo 26 the l-inkcdln wcbsiteand Linlicdln's serviccsprovidcsthat courtslocatcdwilhin thc coo4tyof 2 7 SaulaCluua,Califbmia, sball h.rvejurisdiciion ovcr any disputcbetrveenLinkcdln and thc Doe 28 Dettndants. -2, COMP],AIN1'
  • 4. I 10. During all rclgvan!times, thc Doe Dclendants havc repcatedly, knowingly, and 2 intcDtionallyacc€ssed Linkcdln's serverslooatcdin this.judicioldist ct witlrout Linkedln's l dnd havc qontracted suchaocess, authorization, lbr bcconing lcgistcredLinkedln mcmbers 4 subiectto Lid(cdln's ljscr Agrecment. Whilc acccssing Linkedln's scrvers,the l)oe J)cfendants 5 madc systcmaticnnd continuous their $rongt'ul oontacts with this iudicial dislrict, and targeted 6 act:^ Linkcdln. which is hcadquartered this iudicial disllicl. al in 'l I l. -l'hisis an irrtcllectual prope y action to bc assigned a districFlvidc basisunder on 8 Civil LocalI{ulc3-2(c). 9 t0 TIII' PAII'I'IES 12. place busincss Mounlain Linkedluis a Dclawirccorporation wjth its princlpal ol in View. Calilbrnia. 12 13. l hc Doc DcLcndants pcrsorls cntitics rcsponsiblc wholcof in pnl1flof in arc and/or thc I 3 the wrongcloinB AIIegccl hc|cin. At lca"-t somcol-thcunlawlil actsallcgcdhcrcin. l)oc I'or l 4 I)clcndanls rcSistcrcd u)cnrbcr accolints l,inkcdln, k) o|r subjcct lhc l-inkcdlnIJscrAgrccnrcnt. pu{icipalcd rdlilied, in, t 5 Linkcdlnis inlblnrccland bclicvcs thalcachol thc Doc I)clcnclants cndoBed, wls othcn!iscinvolvcdin llte actsconrplaincd irn(llhul thcy havcliabililylbf such or ol t 7 rcls. Lilrkcdlrr intcncls scel( to cxpcditcd to and clisoovefy lcarntho idcntityo11hcDoc DclcndaDts I t i will arrcndthis(lomplairti1'and or thc whcr thc idcntitics suchpcrsons cnliticsand/or scopc ol ol' 1 9 theifacti0ns becomcs known. 20 FACTS 2l Thc Liukcdln ProfcssionalNetrvot.k 22 14. prolcssional Linkcdlnis theworld'slargesl nctwork, with over259 million 2 3 mcrnbers woridwide and ovcr 84 rnillion mcmbcrsin the United Statcs. Linkedln's missionis to connectthe wotld's prolessionals nrakethem morc productivcand succcssful. to 25 15. Throughits proprielaryplatform, Linkedln membersare able to creaic.manage and 26 sharethcir protessiorlaL ideotity online, build aDdengaSe with thcir prolessionalneiwork, access 2'7 sharcdknowledgeand insights,and find business oppo unitics,enablingthem to be morc 28 -3CoMPLAlr.'T
  • 5. i producti!e and succcssful. Linkedln's broadcrvision is 10creatccconomicopportunilyfor cvery 2 member ofthc globalworkforce. 3 I6. who crcaleindividual profilcs At the hcarl ol Linkedln's plotibrm are its rnenlbers, 4 that servea"^ lheir pfolcssionalprofiles and are acccssible any olhcr membcr.as well as (unless by 5 a ficnrber chooses otherwisc)anyonewith an Intcnletconncction. Linkedln couDts cxecutivcs 6 7 liom all 20ll lorlunc 500 compunics nrembers. as 17. l-inkedln's oorcguiding, Linl(cdlll's rnenrbers valucis Mcnbels l.irst. llecausc 8 c[lmst l-in](cdln u,ithlhcir prolossional on historics intcrests [,inkedln's and sitc.Linkcdlnis 9 conmitlcdto camingand kceping nrembcrs' its Linkcdlnclocs, incluriirrg trustin evcrything l 0 proteclingits lnenrbcfsfinll allcnrptsby lhird particsto scmpethcir dala. 1l 18. lhc Linkcdlnreb$itc isanoriginal copyrightcd work. .Anrcng significanl thc graphical t 2 ofiginalclenrsnls the l-inkcdlnwcbsilcar0thedistinctivc ol pagclayout, dcsign, t 3 clenronls, organizalion and ol'mcnlbor prolilcpagcs and andthc Linkcdlnltomcpagc nowsliccl. t 4 l,irrkccllrr's copyriSht IJ.S. rcgislratioDs thc l-inkcdlnwcbsitcincluclc Ibr llcg. Nos. l5 IX0007355749, fX0007010652. 1X000745529l. unLt l9 Linl(cdlnhasinvcstcd nd plans cdltirLrc10invcslsubstiutial tiorc.Iabor. lo skill, t 7 and linanciol fcsolrrccs tlre(lcvclopll]ent nraintcnnccol lhc l,inkcdlnsilc. iulo ilnd t8 t9 l,inl<cdln'sUscr Agrccmcnl 20. Linkcclln is lr,ailable al no cosl to anyonewho wtnts to_ioinond wlro agrccsto thc 2A tcflns o ,inkedli's User Agreentcntand l'ivacy Policy.r A p()spectivelncrllberfcgisteNlbf an 2 1 0ccoulrt providing a l'irsl name,last name,cmail addross, pirssword, agrccingk) by and altd 22 I-ir <cdhr's UscrAgrectnent Privacy and Policy. 23 21. As dcscribedilrtlrer below, the Doe Dcfeldanls rcgistercdthousands f'ake of 24 membcraccounts part ol thcir datascrapingactivitics. Iror cachof thoscaccounts, l)oe as the 25 Defendanis agreedto bc boundby Linkedln's Uscr AgrccmeDt. 26 27 I Ser http://wr.rrv.1ir'*edin.com/lcgal/user-agrecmenr. 28 COMPLAlNT
  • 6. 1 22.. l,inkedln's lJserAgleemcnt cxplainsthat membcrsare grantcda limitcd and with the teflns ofthe Uscr Agrecmcnl. and 2 rcvocableliccnscto acccss usc Linkcdlrr in accordance 3 23. Linkedln's User Agrccmentspccilically conditionsmcmbers'right to acccss and ofdalascraping tcolDologies rclatcd not the 4 LinkcdlnoDthciragreeing to do so through LNc nonexciusive, nonassignablc. stalcs,"wc granl you a limitcd. rcvocable5 conduct. Ihc agreemcnl wcb a available through gcncrillly licensc thc 6 n<.rnsublicenseablc andrightto acccss Scrviccs, (rrl nrobile or application rol lhroughstrdPin!:spideting 7 browser. dcvice Linkcdlnauthorizcd v'rilletl cot1sclll tlLtl.twithoul lh! e.pr?ss cn!rling or othcr technt ogt or sofiru'e usr.l lo accc:ts 9 ol Linkedln or it lvlcmbcbr.k) view itllbmrrtion and usc thc ScNicesthat wc provide on (l-nlphasis addcd.) $ebpagcs in aocotdancc this Agrccn1cnt." with t { ) I-inkcclln irrrd ll 24. "Do's and Don'ts'scction rcitcratcs l lh ofils ljscr Agrccmcnl I-irrkcdln's scripts robots. dericcs. softwarc, ... or may not "Lrndcrtrlkc lto I lu]sonlitlluitl aulonlillcd t 2 mcnrbcrs or 'scrapc,' 'crarvl'ot'spidcr''any wcb pagcs olhelscrviccs to t 3 olhcr Illcans proocsscs llcccss, or "will only nraint{in onc lhalnrcnrbcrs Il|.lhcrstalcs in l 4 containcd thc sitc." l'hc [JscrAgrccnrcnl l 5 I-inlicdlnaooount any gi!on tinrc.""lvill usclthcirl rcll nrmc andorlly prcvidcdcoufatc at lirrthcr "will not !iolrtc any riBhlsol l,inkedln."As dcscribod to t 6 inlirrmation Linkcdln.",rnd ol is l 7 bclow.thc Doc I)clcndants'conduct in Ilagtanlviolalion eachol lhcscprovisi()rls Linkcdln's liccrui(cr Sorvice l8 l9 25. rc!ruitcls thatallowscorpurilLu Linkedlnptoduct is LinkcdlnRccruitcr a prcnriLrnr to 20 and hcadhunlcrs locatcrnd fccruit top can(lidates.U[likc I-i icdln's Iicc. basicaccounlsfbr its 1br acccss. Linkedlnliccruiler rcquires users paya nlonthlyl'ec thcir premium ft) 2T nrcmbers. 22 26. growingscrvices More than Recruitcr oneofl.inkedln'sf'astcst is Lirtkcdln pay 2 1 I 6,000 clicnts and companics to use Linkcdln Recruiter. Linkedln Rccrtlitcrusersiuclude ilr resourccs departrnonts soDleofthc most succcsslitlcompanics lhc counlry anlong al 24 hLLnan and recruitingfinns Ninety of$e Fortune 25 thousands ofodrcr large,rncdiumand small busincss use 26 100 companics Linkedln ll.ecruiteror anothcrofLintedln's premium talent solutions 2 7 ploducls. 28 5C:OMPLAINT
  • 7. i 21. Corporaterecruitcrsand headhunters purchase Linkcdln Rccruitermembcrships in 2 ordcr to searchlbr prospcctivecandidates amongLinkedln's hundrcdsof millions or nrcrroer 3 profiles. By using Linkedln Recruitcr'srobustandexclusivescarchtools, recruircrs searcn can 4 thc cnlire Linkcdln netwolk for top candidatcs' namcsand ptoiiles. Recruitcrsmay locatcand 5 contactmcmbcrs,including passivecandidatcs may not be looking tbr ajob, by aocqssing who 6 Linkcdln's plolcssionalnctwofk tluoLlghLirkcciln Rccruitcr. 7 l,inkcdln's'l echnol,gical Safcguards:rnd Sccurirv-Mc:Nurcs T0 I'rotectLiukodln Ag:ri st UnauthorizcdAcccss 8 9 28. LiukedlnI'astidiously worksto protect intcgrity the and sccurity ofits networklnd (hiDgs,i1employsan trmy ol lcchnologicalsaLguardsand barricN l0 systcms. Among olher tl dcsigned prcvonl 10 dalascrapcrs oihcrwrongdocrs and liorrrgainiDg unauthodzcd aoocss to sitc. t2 Linkoclln's l3 29. Onc suchsalcguard Linkedln's is progranr. I:US|-) lr[JSI-j inrposcs limit on thc a an to t4 activilyLhill individunll,inkcdlnuscrnrry initialcon thc sitc. lhis limil is intcndcd prcvctll data utilizingautonMtcd quic[1yaoccssingsubslantidl tcchnologics l'ront n t5 woulcl-bo sorilpcrs volunlcol rnclrlbcr prolilcs-. t7 30. Similarly, Linkcdln'sScntinel progr nr n)onitors blockssuspicious and activily with ("IP") addrcsscs.2 InlcrnclProtocol t8 associaled parlicLrlal l9 20 3l . LinkedlnaLso ilnticipatcd datasorapcrs that mighl dttenlpt creatc multitudc b a ol' lakc rncmbcraccounls. Accordingly,asa seconday layer of protcction,l,inkedln implenrentcd its to 2 1 IJCV systerrto thwart this tnisconduct. fho UCV systemuscsa nunlbcr ofparaDrcters 22 detcnnine ncw account iIa signupis suspicious. suspicious lfa signupis iclentiticd, UCV the 23 systcmimposesbarriersintcndcdto separatc lcgitilnateprospcclivemcmbersllom aulomatcd data scrapingprograms and bos. Specifically,rhe UCV sysrcminkoducesa CAp-l CHAr ticld thal 25 rcqulresprospcctlve ntcnlbcrsto rc-typea word or tcxt thot appears obscured, in coioredtype. 26 ' An Il'address thiscontext alumericallabelassigncd each in is to access pointto thc Interne(. 27 t CAPTCHAis an for "Completely Automated PublicTuringtcstto tell Computers and "..onym Humans ADart." 28 COMPLAINT
  • 8. I 'l'heseobscured words or text irrelegiblc to a rcal pcrson ancilamiliar to thosepurchasing 2 concertdckcls, lbr instance, a conlmon stcp in an online rcgistralionprocess but difl'icult for as 3 an aulomatcdprogramor bot to recognize.By using C,APl CHA.S, IJCV syste prevenlsdala thc 4 scraperc rcgisteringmany new and illegitimatcrnembcraccounts. from automatically 5 32. l-ir (edln alsocmploys technicalprolocolsdcsigncdlo prcvcnl unauthorizcd 6 autonlated and wcbcrawlcrs bots parts the[,inkedln fton accessing othcrw-isc of fublicly availablc 7 site. I(nownasr fobots.txl thissaftguind lilc, provides scl ol instltlclions any aulonatcd a to 8 lcchnologies visitingthc l-inkcdln robots.lxl docspeDnitsomc sitc. Whilc LiDkcdlD's lile (c.g.9 u'ebcrawlers search engiucs suchas Googleol lling) to vicw lhc cntircsitc.il prchibjts and t 0 is intenclcd prcvcnt to rlilornetcd programs thoscLrsed datascrapers. likc by ll t2 Thc l)oc l)ofcndants'D:rtaScrapingAclivitics 33. llcl$ccn May 2013ancl prcscnt, Doc I)clcndants knowinglyand thc thc I 3 intenlionally protocol cifcLlnlvcntcd IrtJSIi, Scntincl, UCV systcrlr. fobots.txt tho and/or othcr thc t 4 l.inkcrllnsccurity surcsin ordcrto cueirgc thcirdatascrapints nrc in lctivilics. I5 34. I)urirlgthistirrrc pcriod.the l)oc I)oloDdanls cfoalcd thousands r)lolnbcr ol irccounls l 6 (wi1hltrl(c nanles contlcl inlbflriltion)k) ircocss sclilpe and drlil liom rnanyLirrkeclln and Inemb0l t't prolilcs. It3 35. lD ordcflo cl-ciltc cachand cvoryonc ol-thcsc lakenrcrnber accour)ts, Doc thc l 9 l)elcndrnts to ag|ccto ahiclc thc acocss usercstficlions Linkcdln s IJser had by in Agfccment, and 20 thich. irlur rrlrr. prolribit -'scrapirg,spidering,crawliDgor olhcr lcchnologyor soliwarc usedto 2l access datawithoullhc cxpress wl-illcn andrccluire consel)t LinkedlD ils Mcmbers." ol or that 2 2 nTembcrs only mirintair "r.viLl one Lirkedln account any givcnlinrc" and"rvill uscltheirllcal at 23 nameand only providc accumleinlbtmation to Linkcdln." 'l'he Doc Delindants knou'ingly 24 violated eachol'thesc access uselestrictions cltgaging and in inthcir unlawl.Lcollduot. 25 36. ln May andJune2013, the Doe Defendants FUSE wlich limits thc circumventcd 26 volume ofactivity fbr eachindividual account- by creatiDg thousands ofdiflerent ncrv membcr 21 accourtsthroughthc useofvaious automatcd technologies.Regislcringso many uniquenew 2 8 accounts allowcd the I)oc Dcfendants view iTundrcds oflhousandsofnrcmber profiles pcr day. to -7- (ioMPI-AlNt'
  • 9. 1 37. At the samctime, thc l)oc Del'cndallts also circumvertedthe UCV systetn using by 2 autornated tcchnologics1olcgister thousands without triggeting the offikc memberaccor.lnts 3 UCV systcm's imposilion C,P'lCIIAs. -l'hcDoc Def!nclants circr,rmvented bypassed of irlso and 4 Linlcdln's robots.txtfile, which specilicallybansand is intcndedto prevcntthc useol ) unaulhorizcd aulomaleddatascrapingptogralnsand bols. 6 18. In early Seplcmbcr2011,thc l)oc l)el'enda|1ts agaii accesscd l-inlicdln's wcbsire 7 nnd crrgaged dittascrapingthroughthe uscofautontatcddatascrapingplogrants. ln so doing. in 8 the Doc Delindanls circumvcntcdLinl(cdln's Scnlinelprogranl.hich lirlits thc nunlberolsucccssivc rcqucsls madeby an Il' addrcss sctoJ ll) addresscs. hcy alsocircuntvcnted or l thc t0 frdlibitions sctli)[h i Linl(cdln's robols.rxt lilc. ll 19. [,illkcdlniniliallyidcnrilicd Doc DclrJr]dants thc nliscondUot whcnit obscrvocllhrt t2 thousdnds lirkcmcrnbcf ol accounts collootivcly had vicwcdntanylncmbcfprolllcsin a shorl I] pcriodol tinrc. l,inkcdlndctcrminccl thc uscrlccountswcrc llkc allcr closeinspcction that ol- t4 dccounl dolails rcvc.rlcd clciu paltcnls auk)nlatioD. ol l,inkcdlD obscrvcd thc aul(nnalcd lhat bots I 5 lhal werc un,ring llrcsclakcaccouDts woul(lusccachaccoull( viow n snlallnumbcr pll)lilcs. to ol ' bypassing circunrvcntiug thercby antl ljLlSli s pagcvicw tcslrictions. thenwoLrld and irovc on l() 1 7 thc ncxtrcgistercd acoount vicw additional lo prolilest8 40. Linkedlnconductcd cxtensive ar invcstigalion ofthc I)oe I)clendants' misconduct. 1 9 In lhc coufso ils invcsligatiolr, conlpilcd of i1 sprcadshccts tracking IP addrcsscs by the the used 20 Doc l)elendants. l,inkedlnalsoidelltificd cataloged I)oc I)eiindants'lakenrcmbcr ard tl]e 2l proiiles, numbcr lcgitimatc thc of profilcs viowedby eachfakc mcmber, andthc dales andtimcsol' 22 the Doc Delendanls'activily on thc Linkedln ,cbsite. l,inkcdln disabledthc ti*e DrcmDef 2 3 prolilcs and implementcdadditionallechnological sal'eguards protccl againstunauthorized to 24 acccss lhc Linkedln site. 1() 25 41. As a rcsult ofthis investigatio Linkedln dctct.mincd that tlrc Doe Dcfirndants 26 accessed Linkedln using a cioud computingplatlonn oltcred by Amazofi Web Sen,iccs (,,AWS"). 2 7 'fhis platform callcd ArnazonElasticComputcCllo[d or Amazon ]:C2 - allows userslikc the 2 8 Doe Delendants rcnt virtual computcrson which to rn their own computorprogmnlsand to COMPL IN'I'
  • 10. I applications.AmazonEC2 providesresizable computingcapacity. fhis fcatureallor'susersk) 2 quickly scalecapacity,both up and down. Amazon EC2 uscrsmay temporarilyrun hundrcdsor 3 thousaldsofvirtual computingmachines.The Doc l)eftndontsuscdAmazon EC2 to create 4 5 virtual machines run automatcd to bots to scrapcdatal'romLinkcdln's *,ebsite. 42. As a result Doe Delendants' ofAnrazon!C2, t,inkcdlncxpects be ableto ol usc to 6 identifythc l)oc I)cfcndants serving by tltird-pa(ydiscovc|y AWS.a I-inkcdlnintends lilc on to 7 nlotions to cxpcditelhesedi$corery requcsts. 8 Doc Dclcndants Havc Crused and'l'hrertcn Ongoingand lrrcptrable Injury to Linkcdln 43. Ily cng.Lgiug thc datascraping in incidcnts dcscribcd abovc, l)oc l)eiendunts thc l0 hayccauscd, ifnol halledwill ooDtinuc cause, and to ongoin!iand irreparablc harnt10Linkcdln,in tl r varielyol *ays. l2 44. l hc thoLrsandsllke nlcnrbcr prolllcsoreirtocl thc Doe Delcnd ntsdisrupt ol by and t3 dcgradc )-inkcd)n's andscNiccs rcducing accuracy inlcgrilyol thc inlbrmation sitc thc and by lhc t4 sitc corrlains. l-inkcdln's nrcnlbcNcxpcct thc sitc to conlainaccuratcand lcgitirnatcprolcssi(nul t5 profllcs nol usoless liotions crolicdby ddtdscrtpcrs. 45. lhc proscncc lirl(cnrcnrbcr ol prolilcsalsoirnpairs lcgitirnatc lncmbcrs'ability 10 t7 idcntilyvalid professidralcontncls. pa(i0ular, ln l,inkcdlncnables nrcDrbcrs vicw bccause i(s Io l 8 whichuscrs havevie.ecl thcir proliles, whoscprolilcshavcbccn legitintatc Linkedlnuscrs l 9 viewedby a Doc l)cfcnddnl usinga fakcaccounl may bc 0onlused mislcdwhentheysecthatan or 20 unknown, litkcmember vicwedtheirprolilcs. Indced, has l,inkcdlnobscrlcdsomeof its valid 2 l membersoltenpling to conncclwith theselikc nremberprofilcs after noticiug thatthc fakc 22 accounls vielved hud thcir profilcs. 23 46. l his type of poliulion to thc Lil)l(cdln network,il not haltcd,threatens ongoilg and 24 irrcparableharmto the iDlegrityofrhe Linkedln platfonn and Linkcdln's repulalion. Linkedln 25 2 6 a .See http://portal.aws.amazon.corr/gplaws/htnl-formscontrollcr/contactuvAWSAhuse#subpocna.s (detailingprocedures scrviogthird-party for discoveryon Amazon to obtain informationrelalingto "suspeclcd lllastic abuscof AmaT-on Conpute Cloud (Amazon f,:C2)"). 28 2'7 COMPLAINT
  • 11. I goodwill and trust, also will suffcr ongoingand irreparablc hann to the valuc ofils consumer 2 *.hich Linkedln hasworkcd hard for ycarsto carn irnd maintain,il the Doc l)cfcndants'conduct l 4 continues. 47. Irurther, pilliring mcmbcr by datolrom thc Linkedli site,thc l)oc Deienclanls producL, 5 misconduct thrcatcns degrade valuool l,inkcdln's to Lhe Recruiter whichLinkedlnhas 6 investcd subst.rntially ovcrthc ycars.Or information bclicf,lhe Doc Dclcndants, havc in who and '1 irvested nonc ol-thcil ou,1ltimc and rcsourccs developingand builclingthe l,inkcdln platform. into 8 havccngagcdin thcir scrapingactiviticsi|r an altempl to cstablislr compctingrccruitingwcbsites pKxluct. 9 andusurpLinkcdln'sl{ccruiter 10 ll 4ti. 'lhe DoeDelendants' nrisconc|.rol hirsinposedsignitioanl irlso strrinb un LinkcdJn's scrvcrs, includinS throLlSh uscol lutonlatcd technoLogicsvicw mauymt:rrrbcr 1o thc 1 2 p r o fi l cs.'lhcI)ocI)clcndarlts'ille g it in ra t c p ro lilo v ic ws jmp a irc d l, in l(c d ln ' s a l) i l i t y t o d c d i c a t c t3 its seNcrst()suppor'limg activilics lcgitirnatc thc ol Linkcdlnnrcnrbcrs. l4 4.). l.inkcdlnhi|ssul'lcrccl and signilicant hr|nr to its compulcr syslcnrs, h s cxpcndod limc, t5 hunun. lina cial.andtcchnological rcsourccs, including hundrcds hours crnplo)cc ol ol invcsligating rcsponding thc I)oc L)clcnchots' ancl !o Lrnlawlirl activilios, a cost10[.inkcdln rt ol' 1 7 Drorclhon lj;5,000. t8 rlltsl t9 Cl,AIM I,'Oll Rlll,llll' Computcr !-raud and AbuscAct, ltl U.S.C.$1030el scq. 20 50. Linliedln realleges and ircorporatcsby ref'ercncc ol lhe prcccdingparagraphs. all 2t 51. Linkcdln-s computcrs scrvcrs involvcdin iDlelslatc forcign and arc and conlrncrcc 22 andcommunicalion, areprotected and comlutefs undcr18 U.S.C.$1030(e)(2). 23 52. Ou inlbrmation and beliel, the Doe l)cfcndantsklowingly and intcntionall], 24 ilccesscd Li|kgdln's computcrsand scrvelswithout aulhodzationor in exoess ofthe aulhorization 25 permilledunderLinkedln's Uscr Agreenlentand in circumventionofvadous tcchnicalbarriers 26 includingFUSF, Scntinel,the IJCV systcm.thc robots.txtprotocol,aod additiorral safeguards 27 Linkedln hasemployedlo proteclLinkedln's computersand scrvcrslrom unatrthodzed acccss. 28 -10COMPLAINl
  • 12. I 53. On information belief,affcrgaining and unauthorircd acc€ss Linkcdln's to 2 computers scruers, DoeDcfcndarls iuld the and valuable informatjon from obtained used 3 Linkcdln'sprotectcd computcrs senersin tlansaclions and involvinginterstatc forcign or 4 communications violation 18 U.S.C. 1030(a)(2). infornration ir of This includes, among othcr S profiles, thisuse,on inlbrmation beliet, 5 things, contcnts the olmany Lintcdln membcr and and 6 inuludcs. lnrong olhcr lhings. distributing t contcnr 6thcn, rh ro 7 5,1. l-lrcDoeDcfindants knowing)y, willf'ully.andwith an intentto dcfraud, acccsscd 8 Linkcdln's computcrs scrvcrs and without or authorizationin cxcess ofauthorization obtaincd and valuable inlbrnratioD l.inkedln's liom and lhat, ancl lhc computcrs sclvers on inlbrrnation bcliel. l 0 Doel)clcndauts to obluin uscd in somcthing valuc violalion l8 tJ.S.C. 1030(.rxa). ol of $ u 55. Linkcdlihas suffercd oflhcscviolations, including, darnagc loss rcason and by t2 withoutLinril{ti(nllufin to Linkcdln'scolnpulcr systcms, exl)clrses assooiatcd bcinglbrccd with ano iulq l 3 to invcstigalc rcspond thcuflilrrthorizod andabusc ils computers sorvcrs, and to acccss ol t4 othcrlosscs danl gc in anarnounl bc provcn trial,in cxccss and at of$5.000aggrcgdtcd ir ovcr lo pcfrod. 1 5 orc yoar I6 56. harm, In acldition, l,inkedln sullbrcd will continue sul'ler dnd to irreparablc and has t7 ils rcmedy law is not itscll adcquntc compcnsatc for injuries inllictcdby thc l)oc ill to it t8 Dclcndnts, AcootclingLy, fciicl'. Linkedln cntillcd injunclivc is to l9 SIiCOND CI-AIM FOII RITLIEF 20 Crlifornir Comprohcnsivo Computer ,tnd rt Access FraudAct,Cal.I'er!l Codc$502 scq. 2l 57. peLragraphs. Linkcclln rcallcges iicorporatcs feiercnce ol theprooeding all and by 22 5ll. 'Ihc DoeDctbndanls oblaincd used and valuable information lionr wrongfully 2 3 Linkcdln's asallcged sitc, abovc. 59. TheDocDel'endants knor,vingly, fraudrrlcntly, withoulpermission and accessed or to 2 5 causcd beaccessed Linkedln's computcrs, systcms, and/orcomputer nctwork rn computcr vrolrtiun ol(hl. Pcnrl Codc 502(c)(7). S 2'7 60. The DoeDefendants and took,copied knowingly, fraudulcntly, withoutpcrmission 2 8 alrd)nade ofdata,andfiles liom Linkedhr's use conputers, computer systems, and/or computer -t tCOMPLAIN-I
  • 13. I net$,orl(s, including wrongfully to control Code$ 502(cXl) suchdata,in violationofCal. Pcnal 2 &(2). 3 61. lhc Doe Delendants knorvingly,liaudulcntly, and rvithoul pcmrissiotr djsruptcdor 4 caLrsed disruption the ofl,inkedln'scomputcr to users ol'Linkedln's scrvices authorized 5 compulgrs. colr]putersystcors, and/orcomputcrnctworksin violation of Cal. PenalCode 6 S s02(c)(5). '7 62. As a dircct and proxinratcrcsultol'lllc Doc Delendants'unlawtirlconduct,thc Doe h U Delendanls vc causcddamageto Linkedln in an anrounllo bc pro.cnarllrial. Lil*edln is also lo l'enalCodc$502(c). 9 entitled fccovcrits rcasonablc attomey's lccspufsuant California to l0 63. L,iukecLln aclswcrervilllirlandrnalicious thal in bclicvcs thatthe Doc l)cicndants' intcul1oiulprovc Doc tlrc t 1 Delirldants' dcscfibed Aots above wcrc donowith thc dclibemtc 1 2 I)clindanls'bLrsiDcssLinkcdln'scxpensc. al LinkcdJn thc|clbre is cnlitlccl purlilivo k) darnagcs. t3 64. ln atldition. I-inkedln sulll.fcd 1(' harm,and has and4ill continuc sullir ilfcpnrxblc inllictcdby lhc l)oc t 4 ils rcnrcdy t lnw is nol ilsclladcquirtc conrpens il li)r injr|l.ics tc lo LinkcdlD cntitlccl ir,!nctivc rclicl. t 5 Dcl'cndants. Accordingly, is lo l6 l tIllU) cl,AIM IrOli Rlit,Ilil' 11 Violltiorts ol 'l'bc l)igi(nl MillcDniumCopyrigh(Act, l7 U,S.C.S l2{)l ct scq. l8 65. paragraphs. l-inked)n reallcges incorporatcs relcrencc ol thc prccocling and by all l9 66. pro(ecliors including valioushycrs o1{cchnological FIJSE. l,inkcdlrr cmploys 20 Scntincl, tJCV systern,lhe thc robots.txt protocol, additionalsafcguards prolect and - to protcction 2 1 l-inkedln's computersand scrr'crsfiom unaulhorized access.'fhcsc lcchnologioal 22 neasuresei1!otively control acccss drecopyrightedmatedalson Linkedln's servers, to including 2 3 the Lini<edIn website.membcrprofile pages, arrdthe Linkedh honcpageand newsieed,and 2.4 plotcct Li!)kcdln's exclusiverighls in thosccopyrightcdmarerials. 25 67. DespiteLinftedln's besrcllbrts to protectthe Linkcdlr site liom the Doe 26 Dcfcndants'unaulhorized access, Doc Defendanls the circunveuted [,inkcdln's tcchnological 2'7 safeguards ilcluding IUSE, SenliDel, UCV system,thc robots.lxl protocol,and additional the 28 - 12' COMPLAINT
  • 14. I safcguards and gajncdunauthorized access i,inkedln's copyrightcdrlaterials, including to ()1 2 wilhoutlimitation copyrighled the Linkcdlnwcbsite, violation l7 U.S.C.$ l20l(a). iD l 68. As a resl l olthc Doc Dei'erldants' is r.ronglulacts, Linledln hassr.rffered. 4 conlinuing sul'fer, will continue sullcrdarnagcs be provcnal trial. Linkcdlnis lurther to and to to 5 cntitlcd io all plollls attribulableto llre Doe Dcfcndants'$ronglul acts b be provenat trial. 6 Alternatively, uponils eleolion any tiolc bclofellnal iudgmcnt cnLercd. is l,inkcdlnis enlitlcd to ut 7 tccoverslatuluy damages om the Doe Dclcndarls li pursuor'rl I 7 lJ.S.C. is I 20J lbr each.rolol 10 lt 9 circunrvcnlion commilted thc l)oc Dcfcndarnts. by 69. lhc I)oe Delendints circumvclrtions havccauscd Linkcdlnilrcparable hlrn. also l0 lJllless reslraincd enjolncd. [)oc I)c]cndanls conlinuo colnmilsrich and thc will 1o acts. tl l,inkcdln's renrcdics Ia$,arc adcqllatc conrpcnsale lor thcscinlliclcdandlhrc tcncd al u()l it k) t 2 injulics, thusl,inkcdlnis 0ntitled injunctivc and prr)vidcd l7 tl.S.C. 1203. by to rcLicfas -s tl I.'OUItl'II CI,AIM I-OR ItI|I,IEF t4 llrcach of Col|ar{ct l5 70. parirgraphs. Linkcdlnrcallcgcs incoqrol'atcs |clc|cncc of thc p|cceding and by all 16 7t . scrvioos goverDcd al)d arc by tjsc ofthe l-illl(cclln wcbsitc andusool l-inkoclln t7 subjcctto thc [JscrAgrccnrcnt. I8 12. Ljnkcdlnmeurbcrs prcsctrtcd arc with thc t]scf Agfcemcnl dndmuslalllrmativcly l 9 accept lJscrAgrcenrcnl rcgistcr a l,inkcclln thc lo accounl. lbf 20 2l 22 1]. At all rclcva|tlinres. Linkcdlnalsopr-orninently displaycd link to the tiscr a Agreemenl Linkedln's ou hontepage. 71. l he Doc Dcfcndants ?rnd atlirnativelyacccltcd acccsscd Linkedlnwcbsile thc and 2 3 agrccdto the UserAgrccmcntto, amongolhcr things,crcatctlre lake nrcmbcrprolilcs thal cnabled 24 the Doe Deilndantsto access Linkedln userprofiles and scrape ddtaf'rom Linkedln's .vcbsile. 25 75. Ihe User Agrccmcnt is cnforceablc and biuding on the Doc Dcfcndanls. 26 '76. 'l'he Doe Delendants the repeatedly accesscd Linkcdln wcbsitewith knowledgeof 2'7 the Uscr Agrccmenrand all ol'its prohibitions. Dcspitetheir knowledgeol'thc UserAgrccmcnt 2 8 and its prohibitions.the l)oc l)clendantsauoesscd continue1() acccss Linkcdln websiteto, the and - l3COMPLAINl
  • 15. l to crawl, or useother automated tcchnologyor softuarc to gain access amongothcr things, scrape, maintaincd 2 the Linkedtn *cbsitc without the conscntof Linkedln. Moreovcr,thc Doe Defendants 3 morc thanone account(indeed,thousa[dsol'accounts)at any given timc. and did not provide lheir 4 real namcsor provide accuraleinformation1ol,inkedln. 5 11. l,inkedln has beenunablelo contaclthc Doc De|nddnts to dcmandthat they cease Linkedll1docsttot desisttheir data scrapingand othcr l-inkcdln-relatcdaclivitiesbccause 6 .1nd olthc Doc Dcttndants. 7 know theideDtilies ti 78. iurd abovc,havewillfully, repeatedly, l'hc l)oc Del'endants' actions,us dcscribed breached User Agreen'lcnt. the 9 systenlatically t0 '19. rcquircd ofit in and covcnanls, promiscs Linkcdln haspcrformcd oolditions, all u,ith thc User Aglccmcnt. t 1 accordancc t2 80. 'l'hc I)oc Dcfcndants'conducthasdanragcdl,inkcdln, and causcd and continucs10 incparablc and incalculablc harmandiniuryto l,inkcdln. l 3 causc l4 81. and/or othcr danla8cs, rclicl.cornpcnsalory l-irkcdln is crllillcdlo irtiunctivc t 5 cquitrblcrelicl. I6 FIFTTI CI,AIM FOR RI'LIEF t'7 '[ rcsptrss l8 82. pafagraphs. all Linkcdlnrcallcgcs inoolporatcs relercncc of thepreceding and by l9 81. 'l'llc l)oc I)clcndants acccsscclaud intcntionally, wilhoutauthofization, ancl compuler systcDls and l,inkcdln'swebsitc, with 2 0 interacted l,inkcdln,ircludilrgwithoullinlitation, 2l 22 setvcts. 84. thcrcin The Doe Delendants'aooess l,inkedln and the inibrmationcontained to 23 rcquiredthe Doe Delendantsto abidc by thc [JserAgrccmenl. By violating the termsofthc Uscr and effons to combattheir activitics,the Doe Defbndants 24 Agreement, I-inkcdln's express wifh Linkedln, its websile,computcr to unla*firlly gainedaccess and intcrl'ered aDdintermeddlcd systcms, and its servers. 2',7 28 - I4COMPLAINl'
  • 16. I 85. 'l he Doe Defcndanls'unauthorizgd interlerence with and access l-inkcdln, its to 2 wcbsite,computcrsystems, its seNcrs,anong othcr'halms,reducesl,inkcdln's capacityto and 3 serviceits uscrsbccause occupiesand usesLinkedln's resources. it 4 86. 'lhe Doe Defcndants'conductconstitutes trespass that ha$harmedand will 5 continuc hamrl,inkedln.As a result. to has andwill continuc be damagcd. to l,inkccllD been 6 ,] 87. l,irtl<cdln sufl'erecl will continueto sui'ierirreparahlchamr,and its rencdy has and at law is not itscll adequate conlpcnsate ibr injuriesinilicted by the l)oc l)ctcnclants. to it Accordingly. l,inkcdlnis eDlitlcd injurrctivc to rclict'. 9 sIXl'tt cl.AlM t'oR ttELIItF t0 MisnDpropriation tl 88. palagraphs. Linkcciln rcallcgcs incoryoratcs rclcrcncc ol lhc prcccding by and irll t2 t39. t.iDkodln investcd has 1ime, labof,skill,{ncl lir)oncial rcsoufces thc into substantial l 3 crcation nraintonilnce l,iDkcdln, cornplitcr and ol systcms scncrs,including aud syslcm aud its t 4 scn'cr capacily,rs wcll as thc contcnl on thc I-inkcdln websilc,lvhich is tinrc scnsilir.e. t5 l6 90. Wilhoutauthorizatior, l)oc l)clandants wronglllly lcccsscd Linkcdln's thc wcbsilc, computcr syslcnrs scf,cls. obtaiDcd rnd and dirlalroul thc Linkcdlnsitcwithouthaving t7 to rnokelhc substiLDLial irlvcsl,ncnt tin1c, in skill,and linancial rcsourccs nradc LinkcdlD. by lirbof, l8 gL On inli)rnldtion belicl,thc l)oc l)cfindants and compcto with l,inkcdlnandhavc l 9 nradcor itrlendto nr.rke data f'romthe Linkcdln sitc availablcto thcir riustonrcrs othcl third and 20 partics.As such.thc l)oc f)cl_endants' ol-l,inkedln's usc computcr systcnls servcrs, and including 2 1 syslemand scNcr oi]paoity, well asdirtaliom lhe Linl(edln si1c,constilulesliee riding on as 22 Lirkeclln'ssubstanlial investmcnl limc, cllbrt, andexpense. of 23 92. As a rcsultofthis misdppropriation, Doc Dcfendants thc wrongfully compete, and-/or enableothcrslo compete, ,ith Linkcdln, and Linkcdln hasbeen lbrcedto cxpend additionallimc and resourccs, including but not limited to, investigating and responding the to 26 Doc Dclendants'activil.ies. 2'7 93. LiDkcdlnhasbeenand rvill oonlinueto be danaged as thc rcsult ofthe Doc 2 8 Defendan{s'actso f misappropdation. COMPLAINT
  • 17. I 94. to injury,andits remedy Linkcdlnhassuffered will continue sufcr ineparablc and 2 at la$'is not itselfadequate comperNatefbr injuriesinflictedby theDoeDefendants. to it PRAYERT'ORRELIEF 4 bc WIIEREFORE, Linkedlnpraysthatjudgment e eredin its favorandagainst as 5 theDoc Dcf'cndanls, lbllowsr 6 1. injunclion enjoinilgand A preliminarl, injunction permancrlt and and or all their represcntatives, agents, all persons cntities 7 rcstraining DoeDefendants, employecs, pcrpetually tiom with thcmduringthependcncy ofthis actionandtherealler U actingin conccrt pulpose whatsoever, 9 accessing usingLinkedln'swcbsjtcfor any0onmercial <I l0 2. data, An ordcrrc<luiring DoeDcfcndants dcstroy documents, and to all the or custody, control, wcrcwroDgfully or that othcritems, elcclronic olherwisc, thcir possession, in iiorr websitc, t 2 copied l.,inkedln's t3 3. inch.tdirrg, not limited but An award Linkedlnof rcstitution damagcs, to ard damagcs, pcrrnitled law; as by l4 to. compcnsatory, statutory, treble damages, punitive a|rd 15 4. ofsuit,including, notlimiled but to, An award Linkcdlr ils oosts to ol reosonablc AllorDey's t'bcs, permitted law; 1d os by t'7 5. SucholherrcliefasthcCourtdeemsjust propcr. and t I9 DIiMANDTOR.'URY TIIIAL jn lTereby action Linkcdln dcmands ajury trialolall issues theabovc-captioned lhatare 20 triablc ajury. to 6, 22 DATED:January 2014 TOLLF]S OLSON & MLINGEI{, 23 24 z) 26 2't Altomeys for Linkedln Coryortation 28 - l6COMPLAIN'I