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TOPIC:
“Comparison of Consumer Behavior of
Millennials and Generation Z in Pre and Post
Covid Era”
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Table of Contents
Introduction........................................................................................................2
Literature review.................................................................................................2
Conceptualizing Consumer behavior.................................................................3
Comparison of behavior in millennials and generation Z ...................................4
Comparison of consumer behavior of Millennials and Generation Z in pre and
post-Covid era .................................................................................................5
Factors affecting consumer behavior for comparison of Millennials and
Generation Z....................................................................................................7
Perception.....................................................................................................7
Motivation....................................................................................................7
Expectation...................................................................................................8
Psychological and cognition ..........................................................................8
Impact of Covid-19 on consumer buying behavior.............................................9
Theoretical framework...................................................................................10
Theory of Planned Behavior ........................................................................10
Psychoanalytic Theory................................................................................10
Visual perception theory..............................................................................11
Methodology ....................................................................................................11
Data Analysis ...................................................................................................13
Discussion........................................................................................................15
Conclusion .......................................................................................................16
References........................................................................................................18
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Introduction
Covid 19 has impacted the world that we live in a variety of ways. From an individual’s daily
routine to their outlook on life, the pandemic has evolved us in every aspect. In this transformation,
the consumer behavior of individuals has also evolved and the techniques that used to work for
marketers in the past have become obsolete now. Therefore, for marketers to succeed and brands
to be profitable, it is crucial to understand the evolved consumer behavior of individuals and
groups. Although it is undeniable that we have evolved, the pandemic has influenced different
generations and cultural groups in unique ways, and it is important to understand how different
groups and their consumer behavior have advanced.
The objective of this report is to compare the consumer behavior of Millennials and Generation Z
in the pre and post-Covid era. As consumer behavior is an important part of marketing and
therefore is important to understand its evolution concerning time, this research caters to
understand the impact of the life-altering era that the consumers are now going through.
Consumers are clustered by marketers concerning their age groups or which generation (Baby
Boomers, Millennials, Gen Z) they belong in as people belonging to the same group share similar
consumer behavior. This research focuses on two such groups that are millennials and generation
Z. Moreover, it aims to understand the key factors that stimulate the differing consumer behavior
amongst both the groups and how their behavior has evolved in the pre and post-Covid era.
Literature review
Consumer behavior incorporates all behaviors and actions that a certain consumer may display
when seeking, purchasing, utilizing, post-purchase evaluating, and disposing of a specific product
or service which they consider would satisfy their specific needs. This behavior is influenced via
a variety of factors such as personal, social, and decision-making and marketers should deeply
scrutinize consumer behavior when articulating their marketing strategy.
A marketer needs to comprehend what propels the customer to buy a particular product and
pinpoint the cues which prompt the consumer buying behavior process. Once the marketer has
acquired this understanding and has identified the consumer needs, they can successfully drive a
marketing strategy that directs the consumers towards your product in addition to creating new
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needs and wants in the minds of the consumer. Thus, consumer behavior plays a critical role in
any company’s strategy for marketing.
Consumer behavior is one of the most critical aspects that have been researched by numerous
authors. The subject is left unclear still and many extractions can be done such as comparison can
be done between the behavior of Millennials and generation Z. For Generation Z, as the global
connectivity has increased, the generational shifts have an important part to play than the other
socio-economic influence (Lissitsa & Kol, 2019). Once examining the changes in behavior, the
various instrument is important for predicting information for generation Z and Millennials. Thus,
both generations have their set of own values and systems and each generational shift analyzes
shopping behavior on their terms and multiple factors affect their decision-making dynamics
(Bray, 2008).
Conceptualizing Consumer behavior
Values are constant constructs and tough to review, particularly behavior between millennials and
generation Z have different values regarding analyzing different aspects. The constant question
arises on whether or not they are "real", that is, whether or not they will truly be shown to possess
a motivating influence on an individual’s behavior. Generally, once intercultural researchers
search around for the same relationship between consumer behavior and the mixture of information
on varied aspects of cultural values, they see values as different from one generation to another
that may outline and predict behavior (de Mooij, 2017). While individuals might not simply deal
with ambiguities, they are not comfortable just accept new trends, products, or any other stimuli.
On the opposite hand, such changes in consumer behavior from people who like security.
Behaviors are associated expressions of values. If behaviors or pictures do not adapt to the values
of a culture, it is troublesome to clarify the message.
Conceptualizing consumer behavior from a cultural perspective, the national culture and social
mindsets affect consumer behavior and the difference can be seen in different cultures. The
consumer behavior of an Asian consumer varies from the behavior of a consumer in the West. The
motivation factor of someone belonging to Asian culture varies from that of an individual
belonging to the West and their respective needs should be met accordingly. Although similarities
are there at the physical level amongst the consumer of Asia and the West, in Asia, everyone faces
stronger pressure corresponding to group norms as compared to western civilizations.
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In the Western world, the concept of individualism prevails where the conception of self and
temperament are considered temporary entities with a particular set of attributes, qualities, and
completely different characteristics. The withdrawal of those actions causes behavior differently.
People's participation and action ought to be systematically represented in each situation that
changes with the case or situation (De Mooij & Hofstede, 2011). In collective cultures, people's
ideal characteristics vary from character to character, and behavior is driven through different
factors. Consumer behavior can be conceptualized as a study that deals to predict individual
behavior and how several stimuli are affecting attitudes that cause behavior.
Comparison of behavior in millennials and generation Z
The changes in consumption expenditure can best be understood by taking a generation approach.
Consumer motivation and purchase relations mostly lie beneath the surface of age, a deeper
understanding can be gained by understanding the buying behavior of different generations. The
baby boomer group, which is aging now has been the driver for the economy through its purchasing
power. Although it is still a dominant market segment, there is another even larger segment that
spends a considerable amount of consumer goods. This group is called Generation Y or Millennials
which has become a major force in the marketplace. (Ordun, 2015)
For Gen Z, brand loyalty and trend are very distant attributes however quality and service are
closely grouped. They are positively influenced by availability, quality, price, service, and variety
and are unlikely to be influenced by brand name, trend, and advertisement. Millennials, on the
other hand, prefer brand name as well along with all the factors that millennials are influenced by.
However, the degree of influence quality, price, service, and variety have on both groups differs
majorly. Moreover, Gen Z is more influenced by recommendations and less influenced by brand
name as compared to Millennials. It is undeniable that perception and motivation vastly differ
amongst both groups (Ordun, 2015).
Globally, Generation Z already makes up 2 hundredths of the UK population. McKinsey collects
the market research through a survey, analyzing the behavior of this new generation and the factors
that influence their consumption patterns. Generation Z makes up a significant population in each
state and the role that generation Z play regarding purchases is an important concern for the
organizations (Koksal, 2019).
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A major chunk of existing works considers millennials and Gen Z as a homogenous marketing
sector. Although both cohorts favor online shopping, their decision-making styles with regards to
e-shopping vary significantly from each other as they both exhibit different consumer behavior.
Moreover, Generation Z is more enthusiastic about online shopping in comparison to that
Millennials. (Packiaraj, Pramod, & Bibhas, 2021)
Millennials are more likely to indulge in impulse buying however, gen Z is not strongly driven by
impulse buying. Gen Z does not look for immediate satisfaction in online purchases as the
Millennial generation does. Therefore, Gen Z is driven by their need for cognition when shopping
online. While Millennials compare on more websites, spend longer periods on a website, visit more
pages on that site, considering prices, size, and other attributes, Gen Z can navigate and identify
their best option faster, visiting fewer pages. (Lauring & Steenburg, 2019)
By analyzing consumer behavior of Generation Z and millennials, corporations establish and
choose a target market and develop effective selling methods. Moreover, several alternative factors
are analyzed for consumer behavior like internal or psychological factors, social factors, cultural
factors, economic factors, and other factors (Koksal, 2019). However, the changes in the
perception of both the generation have caused organization hurdles to predict human behavior.
Comparison of consumer behavior of Millennials and Generation Z in pre and post-Covid era
Both the generation have a significant difference in their behavior as the perception, motivation,
expectation, and psychological differences that are changed dramatically that affect the purchase
development of both the generation.
At the start of 2020, there was a world crisis in the shape of the COVID-19 epidemic (Banerjee,
2020). As a result, consumers' everyday behavior has changed in drastic ways. In the times of
Covid-19, generation Z's buying behavior has changed as they want to make an ease for
themselves. However, Millennials are less ready to accept and take decisions based on their
benefits. Such as not only shopping behavior, but also decisions that are taken for their personal
life is also more based on their economic benefits (Su et al. 2017). They are less willing to accept
any facts and details.
Such behavior influences Generation Z’s view of consumption and behavior such as relationship
with the brands. They are more focused on sustainable actions that are done by the corporate sector
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as compared to the Millennials and other generations. Generational Z focuses on the given value
in the times of Covid-19 and how the world is putting out efforts to decrease the negative causes
and consequences (Bona et al. 2020). As compared to the previous generation, they are more
influenced by the actions that affect their own lives. Barriers such as Covid, whether or not
dramatically, economically or otherwise, dramatically and for good amendment user behavior,
produce distinctive individual challenges and opportunities for brands. For example, recent history
offers several samples of this trend and teaches the world; however, good advertisers will move
forward by leaning towards digital channels and targeting millennials customers (Chaturvedi,
Kulshreshtha, & Tripathi, 2020).
The intentions of both Millennials and Generation Z can be found in the post-covid-19 situation
that all the consumer shopping and purchasing transferred to the digital platform, where generation
Z has found minimal difficulty as compared to Millennials (Thangavel, Pathak, & Chandra, 2021).
Gen Z faced an overload of information on social media which resulted in hiking fatigue and fear
of COVID-19 hence declining the usage of social media amongst this generation. It impacted their
consumer behavior as their buying behavior is impacted by social media marketing. (Liu, Liu,
Yoganathan, & Osburg, 2021)
The Millennials, on the other hand, turned towards hoarding and over-stocking as a means to tackle
Covid 19 and its challenges. They prioritized essential food supplies and wanted them to be readily
available. Online purchasing of foods also encountered a boost that has never been witnessed
before. Necessity items became a priority during the Covid era. (Zwanka & Buff, 2021)
However, the current literature does not vastly capture the consumer behavior of Millennials and
Generation Z but majorly explores the changes in buying behavior of consumers as a single unit.
There is much to explore about the unique changes in perceptions and expectations of these two
groups concerning Covid 19.
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Factors affecting consumer behavior for comparison of Millennials and Generation Z
There is a list of factors that are impacting consumer behavior of both Generation Z and
Millennials.
Perception
Perception is a psychological variable that plays a critical role in every individual’s purchase
decision process that is known to impact consumer behavior. However, its degree of influence
varies amongst both the groups i.e., Millennials and Generation Z and therefore, this research
considers perception as a factor and will work towards identifying its degree of influence on
consumer behavior.
Both the generations that are millennials end Generation Z have different perceptions in every
situation which influences their consumer behavior differently. This different perception of both
generations can be considered as a factor when comparing the consumer behavior of these
generations.
Throughout the years, the perception has changed that changes consumer behavior of both
Generation Z and Millennials. Additionally, to the fundamental 5 (touch, taste, smell, sight,
hearing) senses of direction, the sense of balance, the path selection, each sense provides a
continuous supply of knowledge to the brain (Su et al. 2017).
The data that enters the brain offers an entire analysis of the globe around you that is different for
both the generation. The perception that is made for Generation Z are done based on the stimuli
experience that made thoughts and sense (Septiari & Kusuma, 2016). As for the Millennials, the
perception is made through analyzing past trends. Making a clear picture and map for themselves
are similar steps for both generations; however, the perception-building process is different that
adds value to their behavior.
Motivation
A goal is often outlined as a drive or needs that a person seeks satisfaction. Once an individual
achieves satisfaction through the acquisition of one thing, it becomes an obtaining goal. Need that
leads an individual to the method of shopping for something to satisfy different varieties of needs,
basic needs, and secondary needs. Therefore, motivation is that the force that motivates purposeful
behavior (Nurse, Onozaka, & McFadden, 2012).
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Motivation acts as propulsion that forces a person to require action to fulfill their wants. The
motivation is different in both generations such as security for generation Z is more preferred and
as compared to Millennials, they are not very competitive. Security becomes one of every one of
the internal factors influencing customer behavior. Once the intensity is reached to the specified
level for generation Z, it becomes the stimulation of the necessity for them.
Motivation can come through word of mouth, personal opinions, emotional attachment, or through
the influence of friends and family. This research will evaluate the aforementioned dimensions of
motivation as a factor that influences consumer behavior and will work towards identifying its
degree of influence on consumer behavior of Millennials and Generation Z.
Expectation
The third facet is the expectation, which is an emotional and psychological one. Consumers
create expectations about a product or service with regards to the marketing offers and make their
buying decisions based on these expectations.
Shoppers are divided into various groups as they are grouped by their differing expectations. These
expectations can differ concerning cultural and personal aspects. The expectations change
dramatically through different age groups, and the expectations were derived by numerous
variables. Especially in pre and post-Covid situations, the expectation holds vital value. Something
that is seen as acceptable in one country may be thought of as extraordinarily offensive in another
(Victor et al. 2018). That is why it is important to know that interaction with both generations can
be different due to cultural variations. Generation Z is more expected to be active in activities than
Millennials especially in the times of Covid-19, generation Z is expected to be more
entrepreneurial than Millennials.
Psychological and cognition
the relationship between consumers' affection and brand loyalty is influenced by
consumers' cognition. This relationship strengthens with increasing levels of cognition. This
relationship mediates consumer satisfaction which impacts brand loyalty for older adult
consumers.
An individual’s mental attitude reinforces completely different underlying stimuli and behaviors.
The changing mindset among different ages is to find out concerning current trends, information
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of latest developments, or some set of skills for additional improvement and development (Victor
et al. 2018). During this manner, they are less involved concerning maturity level and other
changes psychologically.
The psychological mindset and thinking process is quite changed as Millennials are emotionally
attached through face-to-face shopping experience and prefer to shop in-store rather than digitally.
Generation Z however is more inclined towards buying digitally and feel satisfied via buying
online (Vieira et al. 2020).
The above factors and variables were taken as the main research factor that can be assessed
to develop effective knowledge and information. All the factors can be compared to each other in
evaluating Generation Z and Millennials.
Impact of Covid-19 on consumer buying behavior
At an equivalent time, each epidemic in recorded history has an instantaneous result on the
first Social human reactions. They directly influence health, money security, and quality of life so
on. COVID-19 has also affected consumers of different ages in various ways. The COVID-19
pandemic has been mostly decreased the density of mass socialization in cultural, social
gatherings, and business events (Yang & Tan, 2019). As a result, most of the world's states have
taken steps on issues like isolation. A lot of clearly enforced social isolation economic isolation
between totally different states or regions, in addition to the population between totally different
economic sectors. Therefore, interactions between these internments are blocked food systems that
cowl each stage of food production and delivery.
The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown and social distancing orders have upset the customer's
propensities for purchasing just like shopping. Buyers are figuring out how to make do and learn
new habits. For instance, buyers cannot go to the store, so the store comes home. While purchasers
return to old habits, all things considered, they will be altered by new guidelines and systems in
the manner buyers shop and purchase items and services. New propensities will likewise arise by
innovation advancements, changing socioeconomics, and creative ways purchasers have figured
out how to adapt to blurring the work, recreation, and education boundaries. (JagdishSheth, 2020)
The impact of Covid-19 on consumer behavior can be extracted as that the buying or purchase
patterns were disturbed and affected negatively. The physical shopping trend was disrupted and
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each brand moved towards digital buying (He, and Harris, 2020). Covid-19 has impacted the
Generation Z differently than millennials because the purchasing behavior and other consumer
knowledge is different for both the generation.
Theoretical framework
Following are the theories that are incorporated to understand the research subject.
Theory of Planned Behavior
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was coined in 1980 as a theory that aims to reason
the action to predict somebody's intent to interact in behavior at a selected time and place. The
speculation aims to elucidate all the behaviors that folks have the flexibility to regulate. A key part
of this model is that the intent to behave (Lortie & Castogiovanni, 2015). Active possibilities are
influenced by the behavior which will cause a subjective assessment of the expected consequences
of this behavior and the risks and advantages which will result (Ajzen, 2020).
The theory created links between behavior and belief and how it affects the development of
behavior among people. TPB has related to predicting behavior based on perception and
motivation. Both the variables are the center of research. The TPB has the same that the attainment
of behavior depends on each dependence (intention) and competency (overcoming behavior)
through changing motivation of individuals. It distinguishes between 3 forms of beliefs - behavior,
principle, and management (Conner, 2020).
Motivation is the major factor or variable that affects behavior. Moreover, the theory relates with
the other variable that was taken in this research which is expectations that were built through
belief (Miller, 2017).
Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic theory relates the concepts to the personality and how it changes
concerning the situation. Observing that the majority of patients speak freely while not
psychological state, Fred developed the technique of thought of ideas. Noting that individuals
generally have a problem forming temporary associations, analysts finished that some traumatic
experiences are suppressed, or that they need lost consciousness (Elliott, 2015). According to
Sigmund Freud, the emotional connection operates against the cognitive and unconscious level of
consciousness. That is a part of the temperament related to the psychological understanding of
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each individual and how it grows to be an important one in setting up emotions related to each
aspect. The psychoanalytic theory deals to develop a cognitive mind and how it works in taking
any decisions. The perception variable was mainly considered by the development of this theory.
The perception was studied by the author and how it changes with the external factors faced by a
human.
Visual perception theory
For most of the twentieth century, visuals have been important. (Mafitabar, Kateb, &
Hesami, 2018). The psychological feature incorporates several of the fundamental principles for
making individual perception. The idea of perception isn't controlled by facts or assumptions
regarding sensory theories or theoretical physiology. The perception and ideas that was the major
variable of theory taken in this study are generated by the visuals that are seen in a lifetime and
the change in the personality occurs due to it. Most people have changed their beliefs according to
it.
Studying the world entails studying our perceptions and ideas, and the world is primarily a world
of perceptions, images, and ideas. Understanding these factors allows us to recognize not only the
validity and reliability of sensory data but also to better understand the limits of our sensibility,
which allows us to enhance it (for example, by increasing its range and sensitivity) and even to
create new — artificial perceptive systems.
Methodology
To conduct this research a pragmatic approach has been taken. Along with a deep analysis of
existing literature, a survey has also been conducted for qualitative and quantitative research.
Moreover, the researchers have also relied on their background and position when reporting the
findings, making assessments, and determining the angle of approach while making sure to rely
on a deductive approach.
Data Collection
The information collected for research will follow the simultaneous blended method of secondary
quantitative and qualitative data. The accompanying passages will provide details about data
sources, the reason for the information, the time horizon, any connected ramifications or
impediments, and the research methodology.
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● Research Strategy
The research which is done is based on the quantitative survey strategy. As it is discussed
previously, consumer behavior varies to a great extent with regards to the generation an individual
belongs in and it is necessary that before making strategic decisions a company should be well
informed. For gathering wider knowledge, it is very important to conduct an in-depth inquiry of
the research topic.
● Secondary Data
Secondary data is utilized by collecting evidence from the books, internet, previous studies,
journal articles, statistics, reports, etc. Enough existing research encompassing the consumer
behavior of Millennials and Gen Z is incorporated. The secondary data is utilized for this study
as the usage of numerous sources produces further transparent views.
● Data Sources
To offer samples of numerical research, quantitative data is gathered which is then examined and
presented in addition to subjective findings. Qualitative secondary data is largely gathered from
Google Scholar including journal articles and books.
● Time Horizon
As the structured timescale of the research is limited, the consumer behavior of the Millennials
and Gen Z around the globe cannot be captured in a limited time and therefore a snapshot of
customers of major countries has been considered.
Analysis Method
Reliable data in both quantitative and qualitative dimensions are gathered and compared with the
literature review. The quantitative analysis of the data gathered has been finished utilizing key
programming, i.e., SPSS is used as an instrument to draw out findings, relations amongst variables
to present the conclusion from the information. To assess and investigate the variety of subjective
information, thematic analysis has been conducted. This information type follows a methodical
and bound-together system to ensure consistency over the extent of data.
Research Quality
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In this research, the legitimacy of research may be weakened by two components i.e., researcher
bias and researcher error. Although it is difficult to eliminate researcher bias, the researcher took
due care and consideration while finalizing information assortment and examination to ensure the
legitimacy of data is at maximum. As referenced already, an abstract methodology including
outside perspectives and sentiments and individual hierarchical insights will be kept to a base to
diminish the danger of predisposition within the research.
Data Analysis
SPSS Analysis:
Different measures were tested in the surveys which include the social influence of culture, people,
an environment that affects an individual’s buying behavior during COVID times.
The correlation was tested between the difficulties in buying things digitally versus the people still
buying online.
Correlations
Difficulty in Online
Purchase Brand Loyalty _ Covid
Difficulty in Online Purchase Pearson Correlation 1 .270
Sig. (2-tailed) .212
N 23 23
Brand Loyalty _ Covid Pearson Correlation .270 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .212
N 23 23
As seen by the Pearson correlation, the correlation is much related as it indicates that people who
are not comfortable buying things online chose not to buy much during COVID times as well.
Independent Sample T-test is used to test the variables against the gender group male and
females.
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T-Test
Group Statistics
Gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Socialinfluence1_culture Male 19 4.32 .820 .188
Female 4 3.50 1.291 .645
Socialinfluence2_wordofmouth Male 19 3.58 .838 .192
Female 4 3.75 .957 .479
BrandLoyalty_covid Male 19 3.53 1.219 .280
Female 4 3.00 1.826 .913
SpendTimeinShopping Male 19 2.47 1.073 .246
Female 4 1.50 .577 .289
As shown by the mean values of Different variables across males, it can be concluded that there is
not much significance in the variables across different genders. Both males and females have
somewhat responded the same to testing variables in the sample. However, some difference is
observed when it comes to spending time shopping. Males have responded to spend more time
shopping compared to females and they have shown slightly higher loyalty towards online
shopping as well compared to females.
Oneway
ANOVA
socialinfluence3_familyfriends
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups .508 2 .254 .411 .668
Within Groups 12.361 20 .618
Total 12.870 22
One way ANOVA (Age vs Social influence) indicates mean differences which is significant as the
significance value is greater than 0.05. This implies that social influence of family and friends
greatly differs among different age groups which indicate buying behavior of different age group.
Young ones are less to be influenced by the opinions of their family and friends compare to elder
ones over 30 plus.
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Discussion
The consumer behavior of millennials and generation Z differs from each other to a large extent.
Millennials and Generation Z are two different consumer groups who cannot be grouped as the
same marketing tactics may not work on them effectively.
According to the existing literature, Generation Z is highly inclined towards online shopping while
Millennials prefer in-store shopping. This is the behavior that prevailed in both these consumers
groups before the pandemic and as the consumer behavior is evolving due to the COVID-19
situation, and E-shopping experienced a boom, the group of individuals who were not inclined
towards online shopping before the pandemic still preferred not to shop online as they prioritize
the in-store shopping experience which is not available to them in an online setting. Therefore,
millennials resorted to hoarding and when the lockdown was lifted, they switched back to in-store
shopping. Generation Z on the other hand who was already tech-savvy trusted the e-commerce
industry and relied on online shopping became more heavily dependent on E-shopping during the
Covid era and this reliance will only strengthen over time.
The reason for this differentiated consumer behavior of both the groups is the difference of
perception that they have of online shopping. While Generation Z finds e-commerce to be reliable
and trustworthy, millennials find online shopping to be difficult and hence are less inclined towards
buying online.
Generation Z consumer behavior is highly influenced by the quality and the service as well as the
variety and the price of the product or service. They are not highly impacted by the brand name or
its advertisement. Their expectations are not tied down to the brand name, but RE rather builds
around the experience being offered. Moreover, they are motivated by the security being offered
to them in their consumer journey which motivates them to become a loyal customer of a certain
product or a brand. Millennials on the other side are motivated by the name of the brand, word of
mouth, advertisements while the degree of influence that price quality and service have on
Millennials is comparatively lesser than that of Generation Z.
Furthermore, millennials are more likely to be easily motivated to purchase a certain product and
are therefore more likely to indulge in impulse buying. Generation Z who is continuously
bombarded with social media advertisements, however, is less likely to make impulse buying
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decisions. Due to the pandemic and the prevalence of stay-at-home culture, as people are spending
more time with family, in the kitchen, and working from home, they are learning to appreciate
little things around them. As this appreciation for little moments increases, impulse buying is more
likely to decline amongst millennials.
Both millennials and Generation Z are influenced by the culture that they live in. However, within
the group, the degree of influence that culture has on males and females does not differ to a great
extent. Although millennials are influenced by word of mouth, within the group, the influence does
not vary to a notable extent among both genders. Moreover, the degree of brand loyalty amongst
the males and females in the post-Covid era does not have a notable difference.
Millennial’s expectations are influenced by their friends and family and word of mouth.
Generations Z on the other hand is not highly influenced by other expectations and is more focused
on their expectations which are driven by their personal experiences or interactions with the brand
or a product.
Conclusion
Covid 19 has and will continue to impact individuals, groups, economies, and consumers as well
as brands. The world is evolving, and it is important to understand evolution, uncover its driving
forces and basic factors and understand the changes and their impact on the future.
It is undeniable that the consumer behavior of Millennials and Generation Z has changed due to
Covid 19. While Millennials were not inclined towards online shopping in the pre-Covid era, due
to Covid and the challenges it presented, this generation had to rely on e-commerce. Moreover,
Gen Z, a generation that spends most of its time on social media cut down its social media
consumption due to Covid 19 and its related stress.
Covid 19 provided the much-needed push for Millennials to switch towards and rely on e-
commerce. Although they turned towards this option as a last resort and hoped for the situation
and their behavior to go back to normal, what individuals and corporations need to understand is
that this is the new normal and our changed behavior is here to stay?
In the post-Covid era, it is not easy to woo millennial customers with blingy marketing techniques
as they are continuously asking themselves the question of a certain product is a necessity.
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Therefore, marketers need to build the perception of their product on a strong foundation to
motivate them to make a certain purchase.
In the post-pandemic world, both millennials and generation Z consumer behavior has changed
and only those companies which can identify the changes and utilize this research to their
advantage will be able to succeed.
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Comparison of consumer behavior of millennials and generation z in pre and post covid era final report hashir ahmed (1)

  • 1. TOPIC: “Comparison of Consumer Behavior of Millennials and Generation Z in Pre and Post Covid Era”
  • 2. 1 | P a g e Table of Contents Introduction........................................................................................................2 Literature review.................................................................................................2 Conceptualizing Consumer behavior.................................................................3 Comparison of behavior in millennials and generation Z ...................................4 Comparison of consumer behavior of Millennials and Generation Z in pre and post-Covid era .................................................................................................5 Factors affecting consumer behavior for comparison of Millennials and Generation Z....................................................................................................7 Perception.....................................................................................................7 Motivation....................................................................................................7 Expectation...................................................................................................8 Psychological and cognition ..........................................................................8 Impact of Covid-19 on consumer buying behavior.............................................9 Theoretical framework...................................................................................10 Theory of Planned Behavior ........................................................................10 Psychoanalytic Theory................................................................................10 Visual perception theory..............................................................................11 Methodology ....................................................................................................11 Data Analysis ...................................................................................................13 Discussion........................................................................................................15 Conclusion .......................................................................................................16 References........................................................................................................18
  • 3. 2 | P a g e Introduction Covid 19 has impacted the world that we live in a variety of ways. From an individual’s daily routine to their outlook on life, the pandemic has evolved us in every aspect. In this transformation, the consumer behavior of individuals has also evolved and the techniques that used to work for marketers in the past have become obsolete now. Therefore, for marketers to succeed and brands to be profitable, it is crucial to understand the evolved consumer behavior of individuals and groups. Although it is undeniable that we have evolved, the pandemic has influenced different generations and cultural groups in unique ways, and it is important to understand how different groups and their consumer behavior have advanced. The objective of this report is to compare the consumer behavior of Millennials and Generation Z in the pre and post-Covid era. As consumer behavior is an important part of marketing and therefore is important to understand its evolution concerning time, this research caters to understand the impact of the life-altering era that the consumers are now going through. Consumers are clustered by marketers concerning their age groups or which generation (Baby Boomers, Millennials, Gen Z) they belong in as people belonging to the same group share similar consumer behavior. This research focuses on two such groups that are millennials and generation Z. Moreover, it aims to understand the key factors that stimulate the differing consumer behavior amongst both the groups and how their behavior has evolved in the pre and post-Covid era. Literature review Consumer behavior incorporates all behaviors and actions that a certain consumer may display when seeking, purchasing, utilizing, post-purchase evaluating, and disposing of a specific product or service which they consider would satisfy their specific needs. This behavior is influenced via a variety of factors such as personal, social, and decision-making and marketers should deeply scrutinize consumer behavior when articulating their marketing strategy. A marketer needs to comprehend what propels the customer to buy a particular product and pinpoint the cues which prompt the consumer buying behavior process. Once the marketer has acquired this understanding and has identified the consumer needs, they can successfully drive a marketing strategy that directs the consumers towards your product in addition to creating new
  • 4. 3 | P a g e needs and wants in the minds of the consumer. Thus, consumer behavior plays a critical role in any company’s strategy for marketing. Consumer behavior is one of the most critical aspects that have been researched by numerous authors. The subject is left unclear still and many extractions can be done such as comparison can be done between the behavior of Millennials and generation Z. For Generation Z, as the global connectivity has increased, the generational shifts have an important part to play than the other socio-economic influence (Lissitsa & Kol, 2019). Once examining the changes in behavior, the various instrument is important for predicting information for generation Z and Millennials. Thus, both generations have their set of own values and systems and each generational shift analyzes shopping behavior on their terms and multiple factors affect their decision-making dynamics (Bray, 2008). Conceptualizing Consumer behavior Values are constant constructs and tough to review, particularly behavior between millennials and generation Z have different values regarding analyzing different aspects. The constant question arises on whether or not they are "real", that is, whether or not they will truly be shown to possess a motivating influence on an individual’s behavior. Generally, once intercultural researchers search around for the same relationship between consumer behavior and the mixture of information on varied aspects of cultural values, they see values as different from one generation to another that may outline and predict behavior (de Mooij, 2017). While individuals might not simply deal with ambiguities, they are not comfortable just accept new trends, products, or any other stimuli. On the opposite hand, such changes in consumer behavior from people who like security. Behaviors are associated expressions of values. If behaviors or pictures do not adapt to the values of a culture, it is troublesome to clarify the message. Conceptualizing consumer behavior from a cultural perspective, the national culture and social mindsets affect consumer behavior and the difference can be seen in different cultures. The consumer behavior of an Asian consumer varies from the behavior of a consumer in the West. The motivation factor of someone belonging to Asian culture varies from that of an individual belonging to the West and their respective needs should be met accordingly. Although similarities are there at the physical level amongst the consumer of Asia and the West, in Asia, everyone faces stronger pressure corresponding to group norms as compared to western civilizations.
  • 5. 4 | P a g e In the Western world, the concept of individualism prevails where the conception of self and temperament are considered temporary entities with a particular set of attributes, qualities, and completely different characteristics. The withdrawal of those actions causes behavior differently. People's participation and action ought to be systematically represented in each situation that changes with the case or situation (De Mooij & Hofstede, 2011). In collective cultures, people's ideal characteristics vary from character to character, and behavior is driven through different factors. Consumer behavior can be conceptualized as a study that deals to predict individual behavior and how several stimuli are affecting attitudes that cause behavior. Comparison of behavior in millennials and generation Z The changes in consumption expenditure can best be understood by taking a generation approach. Consumer motivation and purchase relations mostly lie beneath the surface of age, a deeper understanding can be gained by understanding the buying behavior of different generations. The baby boomer group, which is aging now has been the driver for the economy through its purchasing power. Although it is still a dominant market segment, there is another even larger segment that spends a considerable amount of consumer goods. This group is called Generation Y or Millennials which has become a major force in the marketplace. (Ordun, 2015) For Gen Z, brand loyalty and trend are very distant attributes however quality and service are closely grouped. They are positively influenced by availability, quality, price, service, and variety and are unlikely to be influenced by brand name, trend, and advertisement. Millennials, on the other hand, prefer brand name as well along with all the factors that millennials are influenced by. However, the degree of influence quality, price, service, and variety have on both groups differs majorly. Moreover, Gen Z is more influenced by recommendations and less influenced by brand name as compared to Millennials. It is undeniable that perception and motivation vastly differ amongst both groups (Ordun, 2015). Globally, Generation Z already makes up 2 hundredths of the UK population. McKinsey collects the market research through a survey, analyzing the behavior of this new generation and the factors that influence their consumption patterns. Generation Z makes up a significant population in each state and the role that generation Z play regarding purchases is an important concern for the organizations (Koksal, 2019).
  • 6. 5 | P a g e A major chunk of existing works considers millennials and Gen Z as a homogenous marketing sector. Although both cohorts favor online shopping, their decision-making styles with regards to e-shopping vary significantly from each other as they both exhibit different consumer behavior. Moreover, Generation Z is more enthusiastic about online shopping in comparison to that Millennials. (Packiaraj, Pramod, & Bibhas, 2021) Millennials are more likely to indulge in impulse buying however, gen Z is not strongly driven by impulse buying. Gen Z does not look for immediate satisfaction in online purchases as the Millennial generation does. Therefore, Gen Z is driven by their need for cognition when shopping online. While Millennials compare on more websites, spend longer periods on a website, visit more pages on that site, considering prices, size, and other attributes, Gen Z can navigate and identify their best option faster, visiting fewer pages. (Lauring & Steenburg, 2019) By analyzing consumer behavior of Generation Z and millennials, corporations establish and choose a target market and develop effective selling methods. Moreover, several alternative factors are analyzed for consumer behavior like internal or psychological factors, social factors, cultural factors, economic factors, and other factors (Koksal, 2019). However, the changes in the perception of both the generation have caused organization hurdles to predict human behavior. Comparison of consumer behavior of Millennials and Generation Z in pre and post-Covid era Both the generation have a significant difference in their behavior as the perception, motivation, expectation, and psychological differences that are changed dramatically that affect the purchase development of both the generation. At the start of 2020, there was a world crisis in the shape of the COVID-19 epidemic (Banerjee, 2020). As a result, consumers' everyday behavior has changed in drastic ways. In the times of Covid-19, generation Z's buying behavior has changed as they want to make an ease for themselves. However, Millennials are less ready to accept and take decisions based on their benefits. Such as not only shopping behavior, but also decisions that are taken for their personal life is also more based on their economic benefits (Su et al. 2017). They are less willing to accept any facts and details. Such behavior influences Generation Z’s view of consumption and behavior such as relationship with the brands. They are more focused on sustainable actions that are done by the corporate sector
  • 7. 6 | P a g e as compared to the Millennials and other generations. Generational Z focuses on the given value in the times of Covid-19 and how the world is putting out efforts to decrease the negative causes and consequences (Bona et al. 2020). As compared to the previous generation, they are more influenced by the actions that affect their own lives. Barriers such as Covid, whether or not dramatically, economically or otherwise, dramatically and for good amendment user behavior, produce distinctive individual challenges and opportunities for brands. For example, recent history offers several samples of this trend and teaches the world; however, good advertisers will move forward by leaning towards digital channels and targeting millennials customers (Chaturvedi, Kulshreshtha, & Tripathi, 2020). The intentions of both Millennials and Generation Z can be found in the post-covid-19 situation that all the consumer shopping and purchasing transferred to the digital platform, where generation Z has found minimal difficulty as compared to Millennials (Thangavel, Pathak, & Chandra, 2021). Gen Z faced an overload of information on social media which resulted in hiking fatigue and fear of COVID-19 hence declining the usage of social media amongst this generation. It impacted their consumer behavior as their buying behavior is impacted by social media marketing. (Liu, Liu, Yoganathan, & Osburg, 2021) The Millennials, on the other hand, turned towards hoarding and over-stocking as a means to tackle Covid 19 and its challenges. They prioritized essential food supplies and wanted them to be readily available. Online purchasing of foods also encountered a boost that has never been witnessed before. Necessity items became a priority during the Covid era. (Zwanka & Buff, 2021) However, the current literature does not vastly capture the consumer behavior of Millennials and Generation Z but majorly explores the changes in buying behavior of consumers as a single unit. There is much to explore about the unique changes in perceptions and expectations of these two groups concerning Covid 19.
  • 8. 7 | P a g e Factors affecting consumer behavior for comparison of Millennials and Generation Z There is a list of factors that are impacting consumer behavior of both Generation Z and Millennials. Perception Perception is a psychological variable that plays a critical role in every individual’s purchase decision process that is known to impact consumer behavior. However, its degree of influence varies amongst both the groups i.e., Millennials and Generation Z and therefore, this research considers perception as a factor and will work towards identifying its degree of influence on consumer behavior. Both the generations that are millennials end Generation Z have different perceptions in every situation which influences their consumer behavior differently. This different perception of both generations can be considered as a factor when comparing the consumer behavior of these generations. Throughout the years, the perception has changed that changes consumer behavior of both Generation Z and Millennials. Additionally, to the fundamental 5 (touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing) senses of direction, the sense of balance, the path selection, each sense provides a continuous supply of knowledge to the brain (Su et al. 2017). The data that enters the brain offers an entire analysis of the globe around you that is different for both the generation. The perception that is made for Generation Z are done based on the stimuli experience that made thoughts and sense (Septiari & Kusuma, 2016). As for the Millennials, the perception is made through analyzing past trends. Making a clear picture and map for themselves are similar steps for both generations; however, the perception-building process is different that adds value to their behavior. Motivation A goal is often outlined as a drive or needs that a person seeks satisfaction. Once an individual achieves satisfaction through the acquisition of one thing, it becomes an obtaining goal. Need that leads an individual to the method of shopping for something to satisfy different varieties of needs, basic needs, and secondary needs. Therefore, motivation is that the force that motivates purposeful behavior (Nurse, Onozaka, & McFadden, 2012).
  • 9. 8 | P a g e Motivation acts as propulsion that forces a person to require action to fulfill their wants. The motivation is different in both generations such as security for generation Z is more preferred and as compared to Millennials, they are not very competitive. Security becomes one of every one of the internal factors influencing customer behavior. Once the intensity is reached to the specified level for generation Z, it becomes the stimulation of the necessity for them. Motivation can come through word of mouth, personal opinions, emotional attachment, or through the influence of friends and family. This research will evaluate the aforementioned dimensions of motivation as a factor that influences consumer behavior and will work towards identifying its degree of influence on consumer behavior of Millennials and Generation Z. Expectation The third facet is the expectation, which is an emotional and psychological one. Consumers create expectations about a product or service with regards to the marketing offers and make their buying decisions based on these expectations. Shoppers are divided into various groups as they are grouped by their differing expectations. These expectations can differ concerning cultural and personal aspects. The expectations change dramatically through different age groups, and the expectations were derived by numerous variables. Especially in pre and post-Covid situations, the expectation holds vital value. Something that is seen as acceptable in one country may be thought of as extraordinarily offensive in another (Victor et al. 2018). That is why it is important to know that interaction with both generations can be different due to cultural variations. Generation Z is more expected to be active in activities than Millennials especially in the times of Covid-19, generation Z is expected to be more entrepreneurial than Millennials. Psychological and cognition the relationship between consumers' affection and brand loyalty is influenced by consumers' cognition. This relationship strengthens with increasing levels of cognition. This relationship mediates consumer satisfaction which impacts brand loyalty for older adult consumers. An individual’s mental attitude reinforces completely different underlying stimuli and behaviors. The changing mindset among different ages is to find out concerning current trends, information
  • 10. 9 | P a g e of latest developments, or some set of skills for additional improvement and development (Victor et al. 2018). During this manner, they are less involved concerning maturity level and other changes psychologically. The psychological mindset and thinking process is quite changed as Millennials are emotionally attached through face-to-face shopping experience and prefer to shop in-store rather than digitally. Generation Z however is more inclined towards buying digitally and feel satisfied via buying online (Vieira et al. 2020). The above factors and variables were taken as the main research factor that can be assessed to develop effective knowledge and information. All the factors can be compared to each other in evaluating Generation Z and Millennials. Impact of Covid-19 on consumer buying behavior At an equivalent time, each epidemic in recorded history has an instantaneous result on the first Social human reactions. They directly influence health, money security, and quality of life so on. COVID-19 has also affected consumers of different ages in various ways. The COVID-19 pandemic has been mostly decreased the density of mass socialization in cultural, social gatherings, and business events (Yang & Tan, 2019). As a result, most of the world's states have taken steps on issues like isolation. A lot of clearly enforced social isolation economic isolation between totally different states or regions, in addition to the population between totally different economic sectors. Therefore, interactions between these internments are blocked food systems that cowl each stage of food production and delivery. The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown and social distancing orders have upset the customer's propensities for purchasing just like shopping. Buyers are figuring out how to make do and learn new habits. For instance, buyers cannot go to the store, so the store comes home. While purchasers return to old habits, all things considered, they will be altered by new guidelines and systems in the manner buyers shop and purchase items and services. New propensities will likewise arise by innovation advancements, changing socioeconomics, and creative ways purchasers have figured out how to adapt to blurring the work, recreation, and education boundaries. (JagdishSheth, 2020) The impact of Covid-19 on consumer behavior can be extracted as that the buying or purchase patterns were disturbed and affected negatively. The physical shopping trend was disrupted and
  • 11. 10 | P a g e each brand moved towards digital buying (He, and Harris, 2020). Covid-19 has impacted the Generation Z differently than millennials because the purchasing behavior and other consumer knowledge is different for both the generation. Theoretical framework Following are the theories that are incorporated to understand the research subject. Theory of Planned Behavior The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was coined in 1980 as a theory that aims to reason the action to predict somebody's intent to interact in behavior at a selected time and place. The speculation aims to elucidate all the behaviors that folks have the flexibility to regulate. A key part of this model is that the intent to behave (Lortie & Castogiovanni, 2015). Active possibilities are influenced by the behavior which will cause a subjective assessment of the expected consequences of this behavior and the risks and advantages which will result (Ajzen, 2020). The theory created links between behavior and belief and how it affects the development of behavior among people. TPB has related to predicting behavior based on perception and motivation. Both the variables are the center of research. The TPB has the same that the attainment of behavior depends on each dependence (intention) and competency (overcoming behavior) through changing motivation of individuals. It distinguishes between 3 forms of beliefs - behavior, principle, and management (Conner, 2020). Motivation is the major factor or variable that affects behavior. Moreover, the theory relates with the other variable that was taken in this research which is expectations that were built through belief (Miller, 2017). Psychoanalytic Theory The Psychoanalytic theory relates the concepts to the personality and how it changes concerning the situation. Observing that the majority of patients speak freely while not psychological state, Fred developed the technique of thought of ideas. Noting that individuals generally have a problem forming temporary associations, analysts finished that some traumatic experiences are suppressed, or that they need lost consciousness (Elliott, 2015). According to Sigmund Freud, the emotional connection operates against the cognitive and unconscious level of consciousness. That is a part of the temperament related to the psychological understanding of
  • 12. 11 | P a g e each individual and how it grows to be an important one in setting up emotions related to each aspect. The psychoanalytic theory deals to develop a cognitive mind and how it works in taking any decisions. The perception variable was mainly considered by the development of this theory. The perception was studied by the author and how it changes with the external factors faced by a human. Visual perception theory For most of the twentieth century, visuals have been important. (Mafitabar, Kateb, & Hesami, 2018). The psychological feature incorporates several of the fundamental principles for making individual perception. The idea of perception isn't controlled by facts or assumptions regarding sensory theories or theoretical physiology. The perception and ideas that was the major variable of theory taken in this study are generated by the visuals that are seen in a lifetime and the change in the personality occurs due to it. Most people have changed their beliefs according to it. Studying the world entails studying our perceptions and ideas, and the world is primarily a world of perceptions, images, and ideas. Understanding these factors allows us to recognize not only the validity and reliability of sensory data but also to better understand the limits of our sensibility, which allows us to enhance it (for example, by increasing its range and sensitivity) and even to create new — artificial perceptive systems. Methodology To conduct this research a pragmatic approach has been taken. Along with a deep analysis of existing literature, a survey has also been conducted for qualitative and quantitative research. Moreover, the researchers have also relied on their background and position when reporting the findings, making assessments, and determining the angle of approach while making sure to rely on a deductive approach. Data Collection The information collected for research will follow the simultaneous blended method of secondary quantitative and qualitative data. The accompanying passages will provide details about data sources, the reason for the information, the time horizon, any connected ramifications or impediments, and the research methodology.
  • 13. 12 | P a g e ● Research Strategy The research which is done is based on the quantitative survey strategy. As it is discussed previously, consumer behavior varies to a great extent with regards to the generation an individual belongs in and it is necessary that before making strategic decisions a company should be well informed. For gathering wider knowledge, it is very important to conduct an in-depth inquiry of the research topic. ● Secondary Data Secondary data is utilized by collecting evidence from the books, internet, previous studies, journal articles, statistics, reports, etc. Enough existing research encompassing the consumer behavior of Millennials and Gen Z is incorporated. The secondary data is utilized for this study as the usage of numerous sources produces further transparent views. ● Data Sources To offer samples of numerical research, quantitative data is gathered which is then examined and presented in addition to subjective findings. Qualitative secondary data is largely gathered from Google Scholar including journal articles and books. ● Time Horizon As the structured timescale of the research is limited, the consumer behavior of the Millennials and Gen Z around the globe cannot be captured in a limited time and therefore a snapshot of customers of major countries has been considered. Analysis Method Reliable data in both quantitative and qualitative dimensions are gathered and compared with the literature review. The quantitative analysis of the data gathered has been finished utilizing key programming, i.e., SPSS is used as an instrument to draw out findings, relations amongst variables to present the conclusion from the information. To assess and investigate the variety of subjective information, thematic analysis has been conducted. This information type follows a methodical and bound-together system to ensure consistency over the extent of data. Research Quality
  • 14. 13 | P a g e In this research, the legitimacy of research may be weakened by two components i.e., researcher bias and researcher error. Although it is difficult to eliminate researcher bias, the researcher took due care and consideration while finalizing information assortment and examination to ensure the legitimacy of data is at maximum. As referenced already, an abstract methodology including outside perspectives and sentiments and individual hierarchical insights will be kept to a base to diminish the danger of predisposition within the research. Data Analysis SPSS Analysis: Different measures were tested in the surveys which include the social influence of culture, people, an environment that affects an individual’s buying behavior during COVID times. The correlation was tested between the difficulties in buying things digitally versus the people still buying online. Correlations Difficulty in Online Purchase Brand Loyalty _ Covid Difficulty in Online Purchase Pearson Correlation 1 .270 Sig. (2-tailed) .212 N 23 23 Brand Loyalty _ Covid Pearson Correlation .270 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .212 N 23 23 As seen by the Pearson correlation, the correlation is much related as it indicates that people who are not comfortable buying things online chose not to buy much during COVID times as well. Independent Sample T-test is used to test the variables against the gender group male and females.
  • 15. 14 | P a g e T-Test Group Statistics Gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Socialinfluence1_culture Male 19 4.32 .820 .188 Female 4 3.50 1.291 .645 Socialinfluence2_wordofmouth Male 19 3.58 .838 .192 Female 4 3.75 .957 .479 BrandLoyalty_covid Male 19 3.53 1.219 .280 Female 4 3.00 1.826 .913 SpendTimeinShopping Male 19 2.47 1.073 .246 Female 4 1.50 .577 .289 As shown by the mean values of Different variables across males, it can be concluded that there is not much significance in the variables across different genders. Both males and females have somewhat responded the same to testing variables in the sample. However, some difference is observed when it comes to spending time shopping. Males have responded to spend more time shopping compared to females and they have shown slightly higher loyalty towards online shopping as well compared to females. Oneway ANOVA socialinfluence3_familyfriends Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .508 2 .254 .411 .668 Within Groups 12.361 20 .618 Total 12.870 22 One way ANOVA (Age vs Social influence) indicates mean differences which is significant as the significance value is greater than 0.05. This implies that social influence of family and friends greatly differs among different age groups which indicate buying behavior of different age group. Young ones are less to be influenced by the opinions of their family and friends compare to elder ones over 30 plus.
  • 16. 15 | P a g e Discussion The consumer behavior of millennials and generation Z differs from each other to a large extent. Millennials and Generation Z are two different consumer groups who cannot be grouped as the same marketing tactics may not work on them effectively. According to the existing literature, Generation Z is highly inclined towards online shopping while Millennials prefer in-store shopping. This is the behavior that prevailed in both these consumers groups before the pandemic and as the consumer behavior is evolving due to the COVID-19 situation, and E-shopping experienced a boom, the group of individuals who were not inclined towards online shopping before the pandemic still preferred not to shop online as they prioritize the in-store shopping experience which is not available to them in an online setting. Therefore, millennials resorted to hoarding and when the lockdown was lifted, they switched back to in-store shopping. Generation Z on the other hand who was already tech-savvy trusted the e-commerce industry and relied on online shopping became more heavily dependent on E-shopping during the Covid era and this reliance will only strengthen over time. The reason for this differentiated consumer behavior of both the groups is the difference of perception that they have of online shopping. While Generation Z finds e-commerce to be reliable and trustworthy, millennials find online shopping to be difficult and hence are less inclined towards buying online. Generation Z consumer behavior is highly influenced by the quality and the service as well as the variety and the price of the product or service. They are not highly impacted by the brand name or its advertisement. Their expectations are not tied down to the brand name, but RE rather builds around the experience being offered. Moreover, they are motivated by the security being offered to them in their consumer journey which motivates them to become a loyal customer of a certain product or a brand. Millennials on the other side are motivated by the name of the brand, word of mouth, advertisements while the degree of influence that price quality and service have on Millennials is comparatively lesser than that of Generation Z. Furthermore, millennials are more likely to be easily motivated to purchase a certain product and are therefore more likely to indulge in impulse buying. Generation Z who is continuously bombarded with social media advertisements, however, is less likely to make impulse buying
  • 17. 16 | P a g e decisions. Due to the pandemic and the prevalence of stay-at-home culture, as people are spending more time with family, in the kitchen, and working from home, they are learning to appreciate little things around them. As this appreciation for little moments increases, impulse buying is more likely to decline amongst millennials. Both millennials and Generation Z are influenced by the culture that they live in. However, within the group, the degree of influence that culture has on males and females does not differ to a great extent. Although millennials are influenced by word of mouth, within the group, the influence does not vary to a notable extent among both genders. Moreover, the degree of brand loyalty amongst the males and females in the post-Covid era does not have a notable difference. Millennial’s expectations are influenced by their friends and family and word of mouth. Generations Z on the other hand is not highly influenced by other expectations and is more focused on their expectations which are driven by their personal experiences or interactions with the brand or a product. Conclusion Covid 19 has and will continue to impact individuals, groups, economies, and consumers as well as brands. The world is evolving, and it is important to understand evolution, uncover its driving forces and basic factors and understand the changes and their impact on the future. It is undeniable that the consumer behavior of Millennials and Generation Z has changed due to Covid 19. While Millennials were not inclined towards online shopping in the pre-Covid era, due to Covid and the challenges it presented, this generation had to rely on e-commerce. Moreover, Gen Z, a generation that spends most of its time on social media cut down its social media consumption due to Covid 19 and its related stress. Covid 19 provided the much-needed push for Millennials to switch towards and rely on e- commerce. Although they turned towards this option as a last resort and hoped for the situation and their behavior to go back to normal, what individuals and corporations need to understand is that this is the new normal and our changed behavior is here to stay? In the post-Covid era, it is not easy to woo millennial customers with blingy marketing techniques as they are continuously asking themselves the question of a certain product is a necessity.
  • 18. 17 | P a g e Therefore, marketers need to build the perception of their product on a strong foundation to motivate them to make a certain purchase. In the post-pandemic world, both millennials and generation Z consumer behavior has changed and only those companies which can identify the changes and utilize this research to their advantage will be able to succeed.
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