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A Game Framework to Teach
Computer Science Concepts
De Melo, Alabarse and de Paula
A Game Framework to Teach Computer
Science Concepts
De Melo, Alabarse and de Paula
Warnings
Outlook
• Introduction
• Summary
• Case study
• Results
• Discussion
• Framework Principles
• Future work
Introduction
Research Questions
How can a teacher develop a game to improve the
learning curve of all students in a class room?
Which principles or characteristics this game can use to
improve its effectiveness?
Summary
From a real life teaching environment we were able to find
two different learning patterns.
The simple use of three principles: autonomy, non-zero
sum approach and cooperation can really improve each
student learning experience.
The framework is currently being applied and soon the
results of its effectives will be comparable.
Background
> Constructivism (Seymour Paper)
> Non-zero sum games – Game Theory (John Nash)
> Autonomy Principle (Paulo Freire)
Use Case
The real case study of two groups: Where kids were taught
using an online and interactive platform with traditional
techniques to teach computational thinking.
Concepts taught: The concepts of binary numbers, decision
making, automata, loops, conditional structures and
concurrency.
Duration: Four months of teaching.
Requirements: Basic mathematical concepts such as: notion of
degrees, basic geometric forms, and basic arithmetic
operations were used during the classes.
Teachers: One teacher and one assistant.
Group characteristics
Group A: 4 male individuals and 4 females, studying in a
non-governmental organization (NGO). Mostly students of
a public school that were less motivated to do the exercises
in general. The average age was 10 years old.
Group B: 6 male individuals and 2 females - 11 years old
average, all of them students of a private school, they were
more motivated to do the exercises. Also, Group B was
more familiar with technology and has more experience
using a computer.
Methodologies
• Teaching with games
• Teaching with demonstrations
• Teaching with online platforms
• Traditional teaching
Tools for teaching
• Off-lines
• Circles of teaching
• Home lessons
• Competitions
Info of the groups
_
Case of study
• Group B: Private School teaching
• Group A: Non-governamental organization
Platform to teach
• Code.org
Results
The kids were able to learn in different patterns.
Interpretation of the results:
Patterns of learning
• Cooperative learning
• Competitive learning
Threats to the validity
• The two groups are not comparable
• This is not a social experiment
• Statistical correlation is not applicable but association is
possible
Discussion on the use case
• The motivation behind the teacher
• The play of intrinsic motivation of the students
• The best Game Design
Conclusion of the use case
• Context of a tech world
• Code.org is an interesting platform for teaching
• Valid approach for teaching kids
Framework
• The framework consists of the composition of games
using the principles above combined with game design
principles.
• The aim of the framework is to help the teacher develop a
game, which the main goal to make the learner, with
certain limitations, become self-sufficient problems-solver
Framework Principles
• Non-zero sum thinking
• Cooperative learning
• Autonomy
Application
• Develop the game
• Find patterns
• Apply the game
• Diagnose each student
• Feedback and improvement
Framework Discussion
• Direct engagement of the teach as mediator
• The method used to teach can interfere directly on the
performance of the student
• The framework can be applied – with some restrictions –
on traditional methods of learning, e.g. blackboard and
tests.
Conclusion
• Real study
• Real limitation of methodology that may lead to withdraws
• Framework developed to solve this issue
• Requires validation
Future Work
• Develop a series of games with the framework
• Study the efficiency of the framework in a controlled
environment
• Study the limitations of each principle
References
• T. Academy. Turtle logo. https://turtleacademy.com/learn.php. [Online;
accessed 05-December-2015]
• P. Blikstein. Seymour papert's legacy: Thinking about learning, and learning
about thinking
• C. Sagan. Demon haunted world. Headline Book. Publishing, London, UK,
1997.
• J. Piaget. Construction of reality in the child. Routledge & Kegan Paul,
London, UK, 1957.
• S. Pass. Parallel paths to constructivism: Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.
Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, 2005.
• R. Lawrence. Teaching data structures using competitive games. IEEE
Transactions on Education, 47(4):459{466, 2004.
Contact
• Francisco de Melo Jr
isnaldo-francisco.de-melo-jr@polymtl.ca
• Gabriel Alabarse
gabriel_alabarse@mail.com
• Rafael Alencar de Paula
rafael.alencar-de-paula@polymtl.ca
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Comparative Framework for Education

  • 1. A Game Framework to Teach Computer Science Concepts De Melo, Alabarse and de Paula
  • 2. A Game Framework to Teach Computer Science Concepts De Melo, Alabarse and de Paula
  • 4. Outlook • Introduction • Summary • Case study • Results • Discussion • Framework Principles • Future work
  • 5. Introduction Research Questions How can a teacher develop a game to improve the learning curve of all students in a class room? Which principles or characteristics this game can use to improve its effectiveness?
  • 6. Summary From a real life teaching environment we were able to find two different learning patterns. The simple use of three principles: autonomy, non-zero sum approach and cooperation can really improve each student learning experience. The framework is currently being applied and soon the results of its effectives will be comparable.
  • 7. Background > Constructivism (Seymour Paper) > Non-zero sum games – Game Theory (John Nash) > Autonomy Principle (Paulo Freire)
  • 8. Use Case The real case study of two groups: Where kids were taught using an online and interactive platform with traditional techniques to teach computational thinking. Concepts taught: The concepts of binary numbers, decision making, automata, loops, conditional structures and concurrency. Duration: Four months of teaching. Requirements: Basic mathematical concepts such as: notion of degrees, basic geometric forms, and basic arithmetic operations were used during the classes. Teachers: One teacher and one assistant.
  • 9. Group characteristics Group A: 4 male individuals and 4 females, studying in a non-governmental organization (NGO). Mostly students of a public school that were less motivated to do the exercises in general. The average age was 10 years old. Group B: 6 male individuals and 2 females - 11 years old average, all of them students of a private school, they were more motivated to do the exercises. Also, Group B was more familiar with technology and has more experience using a computer.
  • 10. Methodologies • Teaching with games • Teaching with demonstrations • Teaching with online platforms • Traditional teaching
  • 11. Tools for teaching • Off-lines • Circles of teaching • Home lessons • Competitions
  • 12. Info of the groups _
  • 13. Case of study • Group B: Private School teaching • Group A: Non-governamental organization
  • 15. Results The kids were able to learn in different patterns.
  • 16. Interpretation of the results: Patterns of learning • Cooperative learning • Competitive learning
  • 17. Threats to the validity • The two groups are not comparable • This is not a social experiment • Statistical correlation is not applicable but association is possible
  • 18. Discussion on the use case • The motivation behind the teacher • The play of intrinsic motivation of the students • The best Game Design
  • 19. Conclusion of the use case • Context of a tech world • Code.org is an interesting platform for teaching • Valid approach for teaching kids
  • 20. Framework • The framework consists of the composition of games using the principles above combined with game design principles. • The aim of the framework is to help the teacher develop a game, which the main goal to make the learner, with certain limitations, become self-sufficient problems-solver
  • 21. Framework Principles • Non-zero sum thinking • Cooperative learning • Autonomy
  • 22. Application • Develop the game • Find patterns • Apply the game • Diagnose each student • Feedback and improvement
  • 23. Framework Discussion • Direct engagement of the teach as mediator • The method used to teach can interfere directly on the performance of the student • The framework can be applied – with some restrictions – on traditional methods of learning, e.g. blackboard and tests.
  • 24. Conclusion • Real study • Real limitation of methodology that may lead to withdraws • Framework developed to solve this issue • Requires validation
  • 25. Future Work • Develop a series of games with the framework • Study the efficiency of the framework in a controlled environment • Study the limitations of each principle
  • 26. References • T. Academy. Turtle logo. https://turtleacademy.com/learn.php. [Online; accessed 05-December-2015] • P. Blikstein. Seymour papert's legacy: Thinking about learning, and learning about thinking • C. Sagan. Demon haunted world. Headline Book. Publishing, London, UK, 1997. • J. Piaget. Construction of reality in the child. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, UK, 1957. • S. Pass. Parallel paths to constructivism: Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, 2005. • R. Lawrence. Teaching data structures using competitive games. IEEE Transactions on Education, 47(4):459{466, 2004.
  • 27. Contact • Francisco de Melo Jr isnaldo-francisco.de-melo-jr@polymtl.ca • Gabriel Alabarse gabriel_alabarse@mail.com • Rafael Alencar de Paula rafael.alencar-de-paula@polymtl.ca