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COMMAS RULE !!
RULE 11F:  Items in a Series Use a comma with 3 or more items (series) joined with “and” or “or”. (IS) The adults talked ,   laughed ,   took photographs ,   and shared memories.
EXCEPTION!  NO Comma if… Do NOT use a comma if you have a compound subject, verb or any other compound part. He went to tennis practice and finished his homework before 9 PM.
RULE  11F:  Adjectives in a Series Use a comma with two or more adjectives that are together  without any conjunction  and only  if they can be reversed  or  “and” put between them.   (IS) The gray ,   darkening sky caused me to hurry home. If one of the words modifies another,  do not separate them with a comma. Example: I study in our small  dining room . Dining room  is considered as one part of speech.
RULE  11G Compound Sentence Use a comma before FANBOYS ( For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So)  when they join independent clauses. (CS) Hector pressed the button ,   and the engine started up.
RULE 11H Nonessential Elements Use a comma/commas to set off non-essential dependent clauses or nonessential participial phrases. (NEC) Griffins ,   which are mythological beasts ,  are seen on many coat of arms.
RULE 11H Essential Elements Use NO commas if the clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence. All of the students  who will run in the cross country meet  should meet in the lobby. A clause or phrase that tells  which one  is essential. Without the clause, the meaning changes.
RULE 11i Introductory Words Use a comma after an introductory word. (Intro W) Ah ,  nothing tastes as good as cold lemonade on a hot day!
RULE 11i Introductory Phrases Use a comma after an introductory …   -  participial phrase. (Intro P)   - infinitive phrase used as an adverb    - multiple prepositional phrases   - long prepositional phrase (4+ words)
11I:  Introductory Phrases Participial Phrase : Switching on a flashlight ,  the ranger led  the way down the path.  Adverb Infinitive Phrase : To get to the park , turn left at the next corner. Multiple Prepositional Phrases : By the end of the train ride ,   the children were  exhausted.  Long Prepositional Phrase : Inside the green gate ,  she built a shed.
RULE 11i:  Introductory Adverb Clause Use a comma with an introductory adverb clause. (DC,IC) When you see smoke ,   you know there is a fire.
NO Comma? Do NOT use a comma before a regular order adverb clause. (ROAC) I will call my best friend about my homework  after I finish eating dinner . (ROAC)
RULE 11J:  Interrupters Use commas to set off nonessential  appositives  and nonessential  appositive phrases . (APP) Their new parrot , Mina,  is very gentle. He recited the second stanza of “Childhood” by the poet  Margaret Walker .
RULE 11J:  Interrupters Use a comma for direct address (DA) Mr. Young ,   would you please explain the definition again?
RULE 11J:  Interrupters Use a comma to set off parenthetical expressions. (Inter W/P) My essay,  according to my English teacher , is the best in the class. Nevertheless , you must do all of your homework.
RULE 11K:  Conventional Situations Use commas with dates and addresses. (CONV) On December 5 ,  1984 ,  their address became 25 Peralta Road ,  Oakland ,   CA 94611. Please send this letter to Ms. Marybeth Correio ,  1255 S.E. 56 th  Street ,  Belleview ,   Wa. 98006.

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Comma Rules because Commas Rule!

  • 2. RULE 11F: Items in a Series Use a comma with 3 or more items (series) joined with “and” or “or”. (IS) The adults talked , laughed , took photographs , and shared memories.
  • 3. EXCEPTION! NO Comma if… Do NOT use a comma if you have a compound subject, verb or any other compound part. He went to tennis practice and finished his homework before 9 PM.
  • 4. RULE 11F: Adjectives in a Series Use a comma with two or more adjectives that are together without any conjunction and only if they can be reversed or “and” put between them. (IS) The gray , darkening sky caused me to hurry home. If one of the words modifies another, do not separate them with a comma. Example: I study in our small dining room . Dining room is considered as one part of speech.
  • 5. RULE 11G Compound Sentence Use a comma before FANBOYS ( For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So) when they join independent clauses. (CS) Hector pressed the button , and the engine started up.
  • 6. RULE 11H Nonessential Elements Use a comma/commas to set off non-essential dependent clauses or nonessential participial phrases. (NEC) Griffins , which are mythological beasts , are seen on many coat of arms.
  • 7. RULE 11H Essential Elements Use NO commas if the clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence. All of the students who will run in the cross country meet should meet in the lobby. A clause or phrase that tells which one is essential. Without the clause, the meaning changes.
  • 8. RULE 11i Introductory Words Use a comma after an introductory word. (Intro W) Ah , nothing tastes as good as cold lemonade on a hot day!
  • 9. RULE 11i Introductory Phrases Use a comma after an introductory … - participial phrase. (Intro P) - infinitive phrase used as an adverb - multiple prepositional phrases - long prepositional phrase (4+ words)
  • 10. 11I: Introductory Phrases Participial Phrase : Switching on a flashlight , the ranger led the way down the path. Adverb Infinitive Phrase : To get to the park , turn left at the next corner. Multiple Prepositional Phrases : By the end of the train ride , the children were exhausted. Long Prepositional Phrase : Inside the green gate , she built a shed.
  • 11. RULE 11i: Introductory Adverb Clause Use a comma with an introductory adverb clause. (DC,IC) When you see smoke , you know there is a fire.
  • 12. NO Comma? Do NOT use a comma before a regular order adverb clause. (ROAC) I will call my best friend about my homework after I finish eating dinner . (ROAC)
  • 13. RULE 11J: Interrupters Use commas to set off nonessential appositives and nonessential appositive phrases . (APP) Their new parrot , Mina, is very gentle. He recited the second stanza of “Childhood” by the poet Margaret Walker .
  • 14. RULE 11J: Interrupters Use a comma for direct address (DA) Mr. Young , would you please explain the definition again?
  • 15. RULE 11J: Interrupters Use a comma to set off parenthetical expressions. (Inter W/P) My essay, according to my English teacher , is the best in the class. Nevertheless , you must do all of your homework.
  • 16. RULE 11K: Conventional Situations Use commas with dates and addresses. (CONV) On December 5 , 1984 , their address became 25 Peralta Road , Oakland , CA 94611. Please send this letter to Ms. Marybeth Correio , 1255 S.E. 56 th Street , Belleview , Wa. 98006.