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-Presented by
NAVEEN GOKUL R (BDS I year-2018)
PRIYADHARSHINI DENTAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL
THIRUVALLUR, TAMIL NADU
1
SKIN :
Skin is the largest organ in the body and like other organs, it changes with time.
The ageing process include elastosis, leathery aspect or roughness, pigmentation,
and the appearance of fine lines.
The changes due to natural ageing process (known as intrinsic ageing), skin is
subject to deterioration caused by dermatological disorders or environmental conditions
(wind, air conditioning, heating).
 It is accelerated by exposure to the sun (photo-ageing) or other lifestyle issues
(extrinsic ageing: smoking, alcohol, stress, lack of sleep)
Structure of healthy skin : Collagen fibres, elastin and fibroblasts are also represented
2
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
Reduction in the collagen density due to different types of ageing
1 2 3
1
2
3
Young skin
Skin after intrinsic ageing
Intrinsic and Photo Ageing
Graphical
degradation of
Collagen
3
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
FIBROBLAST : MAJOR CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix
and collagen , produces the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and
plays a critical role in wound healing.
Fibroblasts make collagen fibres, glycosaminoglycans, reticular and elastic
fibres.
Major Function -
Maintenance of structural integrity of connective tissues in the body.
Fibroblast in fluorescent Vit C derieved fibroblast
4
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
COLLAGEN – “THE TRIPLE HELIX”:
Collagen is the main structural protein of the different connective tissues present in
animals.
It is mostly found in fibrous tissues, such as tendons and ligaments, and is also
abundant in the cornea, cartilage, bones, blood vessels, the gut, and intervertebral discs.
Collagen is the major insoluble fibrous protein found in the extracellular matrix of
the skin, together with elastin and hyaluronic acid.
The collagen family consists of 28 different proteins which accounts for 25% - 35% of
the total protein mass.
SEM of Collagen X ray diffraction of collagen5
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
SITE OF PRODUCTION : FIBROBLASTS in human dermis.
Both the quality and quantity of collagen decrease in ageing skin, often due to the
effect of external factors such as exposure to the sun, especially UVA radiation.
The result of this cross-linking is that the skin loses its elasticity
STRUCTURE OF COLLAGEN :
•Based on their structure and three-dimensional organization, the collagen family of
proteins can be grouped into:
(i) fibril-forming collagens,
(ii)fibril-associated collagens (FACIT),
(iii)network-forming collagens,
(iv)anchoring fibrils,
(v)trans-membrane collagens (MACIT),
(vi)basement membrane collagens.
Structure of
Type II Collagen
6
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
Type Location
Type I Dermis, tendon, ligaments and bone
Type II Cartilage, Vitreous body, Nucleus pulpous
Type III Skin, Vessel wall, Reticular fibres of most tissues
(lungs, liver, spleen,..)
Type IV Forms the Basal Lamina, the epithelium secreted
layer of the membranes
Type V Lung, cornea, hair, fetal membranes and bones
Types of Collagens :
Generally collagen fibrils are made of different collagen types:
-collagen I and III in the skin;
-collagen II and IV in cartilage.
7
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
Components of Collagen :
•Collagen is a protein made up of amino acids like :- Glycine, Proline, Alanine,
Arginine which are in turn built with Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen.
• It also contains Hydoxyproline in the intermediate.
•Collagen synthesis varies at the different stages of life
8
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
Factors influencing Collagen synthesis :
(i) Specific stimulation of collagen synthesis by ascorbic acid
(ii)Specific inhibition of collagen synthesis by glucosteroids
(iii)Control of collagen synthesis by amino terminal extension peptides
(iv)Regulation of collagen synthesis by viral transformation
(v)Nutritional metabolism
(vi)Genetic reasons.
Damage of Collagen – SKIN AGEING :
AUTOIMMUNE
DISEASES
STRESS AND
NUTRITIONAL
IMPAIRMENT
AGEING
(INTRINSIC &
EXTRINSIC)
IMPAIRED
COLLAGEN QUALITY
AFFECTING
OVERALL SKIN
FUNCTIONS
SKIN AGEING
9
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
Cycle of
Collagen
and Skin
ageing
The relative proportion of the collagen changes in skin with age.
Young skin is made by 80% type I collagen and about 15% collagen type III.
With age, the ability to replenish collagen , naturally decreases by 1.5% per year.
10
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
HYDROLYSED COLLAGEN :
Hydrolysed collagen consists of small peptides with low mole. weight (0.3 – 8 kDa),
produced from native collagen which is found in bones, skin and connective tissue.
The Collagen molecules are denatured and partially hydrolysed to form gelatin.
 Due to the low molecular weight, there are several advantages of using hydrolysed
collagen with respect to native collagen:
-hydrolysed collagen is highly digestible;
-hydrolysed collagen is easily absorbed and distributed in the human body.
IS COLLAGEN SAFE?
Collagen and gelatin have long been used as a food source and/or supplement.
The collagen peptides have been shown to have an impact on weight loss and to be
effective at maintaining weight, with no adverse effects.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified gelatin, from which
collagen peptides are prepared, as a safe substance.
In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed it.
11
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
Various components of Hydrolysed Collagen
12
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
SIDE EFFECTS :
Rarely minor side effects, such as nausea, flatulence or dyspepsia, may
occur in some people by ingesting collagen peptides.
In conclusion, the safety of collagen peptide and gelatin is verified.
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION :
The hydrolysed collagen must cross the intestinal barrier and reach the blood
stream.
When administered orally, hydrolyzed collagen reaches the small intestine
where it is absorbed into the blood stream.
Such nutrients may have specific properties, which attract water molecules
thus improving hydration in the skin, scavenge free radicals or reduce
inflammation.
13
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
ROLE OF VITAMINS IN ANTI AGEING OF SKIN:
Vitamins such as Vitamin E and Vitamin C form part of the skin’s natural
defense against reactive oxygen species.
 Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid )is also an essential co-factor in the
biosynthesis of collagen, an important process in the prevention of skin
ageing.
ROLE OF COLLAGEN IN RESTORATION OF SKIN AND
ANTI WRINKLE AGENT:
Consumption of hydrolyzed collagen has also been shown to have beneficial
effects in the skin.
Pro-Hyp increases significantly fibroblasts growth.
The evidence supporting the efficacy of hydrolysed collagen in treating the
many sequelae of skin ageing (wrinkles, skin thickening etc.) has led to the
development of a number of functional foods (food containing additives which
provide extra nutritional value) also known as nutraceuticals which contain
hydrolysed collagen.
14
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS
15
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
BOTTOMLINE:
The decline in the production and quality of collagen with age is thought
to be a key factor in the appearance of wrinkles and reduced elasticity.
It means any product that aims to counteract the ageing process would
need to replenish collagen levels within the dermis.
Combination of hydrolyzed collagen and hyaluronic acid, together with
other ingredients significantly reduce the depth of wrinkles, nutritional
supplements that have an effect on the dermis will most likely reduce the
deeper wrinkles to a greater extent when compared with products that
act on the surface of the skin.
Various studies are ongoing to prove the clinical efficacy and safety of
these promising new products.
16
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
17
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
18
REFERENCES :
1. An Overview of the Beneficial Effects of Hydrolysed
Collagen as a Nutraceutical on Skin Properties: Scientific
Background and Clinical Studies :
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276696375_An_O
verview_of_the_Beneficial_Effects_of_Hydrolysed_Collagen
_as_a_Nutraceutical_on_Skin_Properties_Scientific_Backgr
ound_and_Clinical_Studies
2. Effects of a nutritional supplement containing collagen
peptides on skin elasticity, hydration and wrinkles :
https://www.jmnn.org/article.asp?issn=2278-
1870;year=2015;volume=4;issue=1;spage=47;epage=53;aulast=
Borumand
3. Effects of hydrolyzed collagen supplementation on skin
aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis :
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ijd.15518
4. Skin collagen through the lifestages: importance for skin
health and beauty : https://parjournal.net/article/view/3863
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
19
REFERENCES :
5. Oral Collagen Supplementation: A Systematic Review of
Dermatological Applications :
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30681787/
6. A Collagen Supplement Improves Skin Hydration, Elasticity,
Roughness, and Density: Results of a Randomized, Placebo-
Controlled, Blind Study :
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835901/
7. Is Drinking Collagen the Key to Making Your Skin Forever
Young? : https://www.healthline.com/health/beauty-skin-
care/drinking-collagen
8. Collagen: ‘Fountain of Youth’ or Edible Hoax? :
https://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-
treatments/news/20191212/collagen-supplements-what-the-
research-shows
9. Collagen – WIKIPEDIA :
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collagen
NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
THANK YOU
20

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Collagen : Foundation of youth or edible hoax - DR Naveen (BDS)

  • 1. -Presented by NAVEEN GOKUL R (BDS I year-2018) PRIYADHARSHINI DENTAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL THIRUVALLUR, TAMIL NADU 1
  • 2. SKIN : Skin is the largest organ in the body and like other organs, it changes with time. The ageing process include elastosis, leathery aspect or roughness, pigmentation, and the appearance of fine lines. The changes due to natural ageing process (known as intrinsic ageing), skin is subject to deterioration caused by dermatological disorders or environmental conditions (wind, air conditioning, heating).  It is accelerated by exposure to the sun (photo-ageing) or other lifestyle issues (extrinsic ageing: smoking, alcohol, stress, lack of sleep) Structure of healthy skin : Collagen fibres, elastin and fibroblasts are also represented 2 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 3. Reduction in the collagen density due to different types of ageing 1 2 3 1 2 3 Young skin Skin after intrinsic ageing Intrinsic and Photo Ageing Graphical degradation of Collagen 3 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 4. FIBROBLAST : MAJOR CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen , produces the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing. Fibroblasts make collagen fibres, glycosaminoglycans, reticular and elastic fibres. Major Function - Maintenance of structural integrity of connective tissues in the body. Fibroblast in fluorescent Vit C derieved fibroblast 4 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 5. COLLAGEN – “THE TRIPLE HELIX”: Collagen is the main structural protein of the different connective tissues present in animals. It is mostly found in fibrous tissues, such as tendons and ligaments, and is also abundant in the cornea, cartilage, bones, blood vessels, the gut, and intervertebral discs. Collagen is the major insoluble fibrous protein found in the extracellular matrix of the skin, together with elastin and hyaluronic acid. The collagen family consists of 28 different proteins which accounts for 25% - 35% of the total protein mass. SEM of Collagen X ray diffraction of collagen5 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 6. SITE OF PRODUCTION : FIBROBLASTS in human dermis. Both the quality and quantity of collagen decrease in ageing skin, often due to the effect of external factors such as exposure to the sun, especially UVA radiation. The result of this cross-linking is that the skin loses its elasticity STRUCTURE OF COLLAGEN : •Based on their structure and three-dimensional organization, the collagen family of proteins can be grouped into: (i) fibril-forming collagens, (ii)fibril-associated collagens (FACIT), (iii)network-forming collagens, (iv)anchoring fibrils, (v)trans-membrane collagens (MACIT), (vi)basement membrane collagens. Structure of Type II Collagen 6 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 7. Type Location Type I Dermis, tendon, ligaments and bone Type II Cartilage, Vitreous body, Nucleus pulpous Type III Skin, Vessel wall, Reticular fibres of most tissues (lungs, liver, spleen,..) Type IV Forms the Basal Lamina, the epithelium secreted layer of the membranes Type V Lung, cornea, hair, fetal membranes and bones Types of Collagens : Generally collagen fibrils are made of different collagen types: -collagen I and III in the skin; -collagen II and IV in cartilage. 7 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 8. Components of Collagen : •Collagen is a protein made up of amino acids like :- Glycine, Proline, Alanine, Arginine which are in turn built with Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen. • It also contains Hydoxyproline in the intermediate. •Collagen synthesis varies at the different stages of life 8 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 9. Factors influencing Collagen synthesis : (i) Specific stimulation of collagen synthesis by ascorbic acid (ii)Specific inhibition of collagen synthesis by glucosteroids (iii)Control of collagen synthesis by amino terminal extension peptides (iv)Regulation of collagen synthesis by viral transformation (v)Nutritional metabolism (vi)Genetic reasons. Damage of Collagen – SKIN AGEING : AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES STRESS AND NUTRITIONAL IMPAIRMENT AGEING (INTRINSIC & EXTRINSIC) IMPAIRED COLLAGEN QUALITY AFFECTING OVERALL SKIN FUNCTIONS SKIN AGEING 9 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 10. Cycle of Collagen and Skin ageing The relative proportion of the collagen changes in skin with age. Young skin is made by 80% type I collagen and about 15% collagen type III. With age, the ability to replenish collagen , naturally decreases by 1.5% per year. 10 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 11. HYDROLYSED COLLAGEN : Hydrolysed collagen consists of small peptides with low mole. weight (0.3 – 8 kDa), produced from native collagen which is found in bones, skin and connective tissue. The Collagen molecules are denatured and partially hydrolysed to form gelatin.  Due to the low molecular weight, there are several advantages of using hydrolysed collagen with respect to native collagen: -hydrolysed collagen is highly digestible; -hydrolysed collagen is easily absorbed and distributed in the human body. IS COLLAGEN SAFE? Collagen and gelatin have long been used as a food source and/or supplement. The collagen peptides have been shown to have an impact on weight loss and to be effective at maintaining weight, with no adverse effects. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified gelatin, from which collagen peptides are prepared, as a safe substance. In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed it. 11 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 12. Various components of Hydrolysed Collagen 12 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 13. SIDE EFFECTS : Rarely minor side effects, such as nausea, flatulence or dyspepsia, may occur in some people by ingesting collagen peptides. In conclusion, the safety of collagen peptide and gelatin is verified. DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION : The hydrolysed collagen must cross the intestinal barrier and reach the blood stream. When administered orally, hydrolyzed collagen reaches the small intestine where it is absorbed into the blood stream. Such nutrients may have specific properties, which attract water molecules thus improving hydration in the skin, scavenge free radicals or reduce inflammation. 13 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 14. ROLE OF VITAMINS IN ANTI AGEING OF SKIN: Vitamins such as Vitamin E and Vitamin C form part of the skin’s natural defense against reactive oxygen species.  Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid )is also an essential co-factor in the biosynthesis of collagen, an important process in the prevention of skin ageing. ROLE OF COLLAGEN IN RESTORATION OF SKIN AND ANTI WRINKLE AGENT: Consumption of hydrolyzed collagen has also been shown to have beneficial effects in the skin. Pro-Hyp increases significantly fibroblasts growth. The evidence supporting the efficacy of hydrolysed collagen in treating the many sequelae of skin ageing (wrinkles, skin thickening etc.) has led to the development of a number of functional foods (food containing additives which provide extra nutritional value) also known as nutraceuticals which contain hydrolysed collagen. 14 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 15. THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS 15 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 16. BOTTOMLINE: The decline in the production and quality of collagen with age is thought to be a key factor in the appearance of wrinkles and reduced elasticity. It means any product that aims to counteract the ageing process would need to replenish collagen levels within the dermis. Combination of hydrolyzed collagen and hyaluronic acid, together with other ingredients significantly reduce the depth of wrinkles, nutritional supplements that have an effect on the dermis will most likely reduce the deeper wrinkles to a greater extent when compared with products that act on the surface of the skin. Various studies are ongoing to prove the clinical efficacy and safety of these promising new products. 16 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 17. 17 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 18. 18 REFERENCES : 1. An Overview of the Beneficial Effects of Hydrolysed Collagen as a Nutraceutical on Skin Properties: Scientific Background and Clinical Studies : https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276696375_An_O verview_of_the_Beneficial_Effects_of_Hydrolysed_Collagen _as_a_Nutraceutical_on_Skin_Properties_Scientific_Backgr ound_and_Clinical_Studies 2. Effects of a nutritional supplement containing collagen peptides on skin elasticity, hydration and wrinkles : https://www.jmnn.org/article.asp?issn=2278- 1870;year=2015;volume=4;issue=1;spage=47;epage=53;aulast= Borumand 3. Effects of hydrolyzed collagen supplementation on skin aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ijd.15518 4. Skin collagen through the lifestages: importance for skin health and beauty : https://parjournal.net/article/view/3863 NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH
  • 19. 19 REFERENCES : 5. Oral Collagen Supplementation: A Systematic Review of Dermatological Applications : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30681787/ 6. A Collagen Supplement Improves Skin Hydration, Elasticity, Roughness, and Density: Results of a Randomized, Placebo- Controlled, Blind Study : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835901/ 7. Is Drinking Collagen the Key to Making Your Skin Forever Young? : https://www.healthline.com/health/beauty-skin- care/drinking-collagen 8. Collagen: ‘Fountain of Youth’ or Edible Hoax? : https://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and- treatments/news/20191212/collagen-supplements-what-the- research-shows 9. Collagen – WIKIPEDIA : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collagen NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS I PDCH