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Climate-smart Approaches to Agriculture:
     lessons from recent experience




                            Wendy Mann
 Second FAO Knowledge Event on Climate-smart Approaches to Agriculture
                    Doha, Qatar, 1 December 2012
Background


Funder: European Community

Duration: 1 January 2012 - 31 December 2014.

Partner countries: Malawi, Vietnam and Zambia

Type of project: country readiness to scale-up
climate-smart approaches to agriculture through
capacity strengthening



                                                  1
Climate Smart agriculture
Project building evidence-based sustainable agricultural
development strategies, policies and investment frameworks to:

   1. sustainably increase agricultural productivity and
      incomes,
   2. build resilience and the capacity of agricultural and
      food systems to adapt to climate change,
   3. seek opportunities to reduce and remove GHGs,
      compatible with achieving national food security and
      development goals.
   4. encourage holistic approaches to FS, Ag. Dev and
      CC

   Climate smart approaches to agriculture:

      mitigation and carbon markets not central focus
      no blueprint for diverse contexts and capacities

                                                                 1
Project Framework
       NEEDS                 PROJECT COMPONENTS                         OUTPUTS
  a policy environment &       RESEARCH COMPONENT
      and agricultural                                                  Evidence
                             What are the synergies and tradeoffs
 investments to improve     between food security, adaptation and         Base
                                mitigation from ag. practices?
food security and provide
 resilience under climate    What are the barriers to adoption and
                                                                        Strategic
                                risk profiles of these practices
        uncertainty
                                                                       Framework
                            What are the policy levers to facilitate
                            adoption, risk reducing tools, and what
                                         will they cost?
                                                                       Investment
                                                                        proposals

                                     POLICY SUPPORT
                                      COMPONENT                         Capacity
                                    Identifying where policy
                                                                        Building
                            alignment/coordination at the national
                                level is needed and how to do it

                                       Facilitating national
                             participation/inputs to climate and ag
                                 international policy processes

                                                                                    2
Building                                              What are relevant practices in
                                  Assessing           country that increase returns to
Blocks                          the situation         farmers, reduce vulnerability to CC
                                                      & emissions growth

Understanding                                                                               Guiding Investment
Barriers to                                               Define the baseline to
Adoption                                                  determine benefits of                        Benefits: Food
                                                             these practices                        Security, Adaptation,
      Test input,                                                                                      and Mitigation
     institutional,          Are CSA practices
   information and           being adopted?                     Identify
                                                                                            Costs
 financial constraints       If not, why not?                synergies and
                                                              tradeoffs of
                                                                relevant
                                                                practices
                                                                                                How do Benefits &
                                                                                                Costs of practices
Managing Climate           Risk profile of relevant                                                compare?
                                CSA practices
                                                          Building Coherent
Risk                                                           Policies

     Risk-reducing                                           Policy Levers for
  tools: safety nets,
                                  Risk                          Adoption
      insurance,               Management                                                           Investment
    diversification             Analysis                                                             proposals


                                                               CSA Strategy:
                            Role of information                  Technical,
                         under a changing climate            Institutional, and                     Financing
                                                            Economic Priorities
A key feature: building strong links across
       research, policy and investment for
            policymakers and farmers
•   The analytical tools used, depend on question being addressed.

•   One approach is participatory scenario building:

    •   Develop a storyline or narrative for scenarios

    •   Identify key outcomes of interest

    •   Quantify scenarios

    •   Combine narrative scenarios with policy simulations




                                                                     4
Issues addressed by countries
Malawi and Zambia:
• Conservation agriculture/agro-forestry/livestock/soil & water conserv.
• Diversification of production (dairy, legumes)
• Smallholder irrigation management (Malawi)
• Safety nets and risk management (Malawi)
• Input use efficiency
• The role of agriculture as a driver of deforestation (Zambia)

Vietnam (Northern Mountains)
• Agro-forestry systems/land management practices to address
deforestation and unsustainable maize systems in uplands (erosion, land
landslides, loss of carbon from soil) and barriers to their adoption,
• Diversification of productive activities into perennial crops (such as
coffee and tea) with potential multiple benefits.




                                                                       5
Emerging Evidence: Zambia
Practices: Conservation agriculture (CA), i.e. planting basins/zero tillage
Adoption: Preliminary econometric analysis of barriers to adoption of CA
      indicates that:
(1)   Adoption remains very low: ~5-6% (sample size 4,187) and
      ~90% of CA adopters in 2004 abandoned it in 2008
(2)   Adoption intensity is significantly higher for smallholders
(3)   Strongest determinants of adoption are:
      variable rainfall
      Access to extension information on CA
Suggestive evidence: farmers adopt CA as a variability reducing (yield
     smoothing?) practice
Further work is needed to understand better why these patterns occurred.




                                                                       6
Climate-smart Approaches to Agriculture: lessons from recent experience
Emerging Evidence: Malawi
Practices: improved maize varieties, inorganic and organic
   fertilizers, legume intercropping, and agro-forestry (e.g.
   Faidherbia albida)
Adoption: Important determinants:
    – Land tenure positively correlate with OF,LI, AF
    – Drought proneness positively correlate with AF&LI
Yields:
    – Improved seed, legume intercropping & agro-forestry
        positively correlate with productivity
    – Significant synergies among all three practices




                                                                7
Malawi: Building the evidence base on marginal
     costs of agricultural-based mitigation
                                                                        1. agronomy_dry
           150

           100                                                          2. Integrated nutrient
                                                                        management _dry
            50
                                                                        3. Tillage/residue
             0                                                          mgmt_dry
$/t CO2e




                                                                        4. Integrated nutrient
            -50
                                                                        management_moist
           -100                                                         5. Tillage/residue
                                                                        mgmt_moist
           -150
                                                                        6. agronomy_moist
           -200

           -250                                                         7. agroforestry_dry

           -300                                                         8. agroforestry_moist
                  0   500   1000          1500     2000   2500   3000

                              t CO2e abated/year                        9. water mgmt_dry


                                                                        10. water mgmt_moist




                                                                                             9
How will Capacity be strengthened?
1. Research institutions and universities; support for MSc and PhD
students

2. Local institutions: extension, land tenure, traditional systems

3. National institutions:
  planning, inter-ministerial
 Ag, Env, Fin - dialogues
 (participatory scenario
 building tool)

 4. Policy frameworks (CAADP,
 ASWAp, NCP, Action Plan on
 CC Response of Ag. and RD)

5. Ag Ministry staff attend
attend UNFCCC Talks

6. Stakeholder consultation,
interactive web-based
                                                                     10
platform
Thank you!
Thank you

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Climate-smart Approaches to Agriculture: lessons from recent experience

  • 1. Climate-smart Approaches to Agriculture: lessons from recent experience Wendy Mann Second FAO Knowledge Event on Climate-smart Approaches to Agriculture Doha, Qatar, 1 December 2012
  • 2. Background Funder: European Community Duration: 1 January 2012 - 31 December 2014. Partner countries: Malawi, Vietnam and Zambia Type of project: country readiness to scale-up climate-smart approaches to agriculture through capacity strengthening 1
  • 3. Climate Smart agriculture Project building evidence-based sustainable agricultural development strategies, policies and investment frameworks to: 1. sustainably increase agricultural productivity and incomes, 2. build resilience and the capacity of agricultural and food systems to adapt to climate change, 3. seek opportunities to reduce and remove GHGs, compatible with achieving national food security and development goals. 4. encourage holistic approaches to FS, Ag. Dev and CC Climate smart approaches to agriculture:  mitigation and carbon markets not central focus  no blueprint for diverse contexts and capacities 1
  • 4. Project Framework NEEDS PROJECT COMPONENTS OUTPUTS a policy environment & RESEARCH COMPONENT and agricultural Evidence What are the synergies and tradeoffs investments to improve between food security, adaptation and Base mitigation from ag. practices? food security and provide resilience under climate What are the barriers to adoption and Strategic risk profiles of these practices uncertainty Framework What are the policy levers to facilitate adoption, risk reducing tools, and what will they cost? Investment proposals POLICY SUPPORT COMPONENT Capacity Identifying where policy Building alignment/coordination at the national level is needed and how to do it Facilitating national participation/inputs to climate and ag international policy processes 2
  • 5. Building What are relevant practices in Assessing country that increase returns to Blocks the situation farmers, reduce vulnerability to CC & emissions growth Understanding Guiding Investment Barriers to Define the baseline to Adoption determine benefits of Benefits: Food these practices Security, Adaptation, Test input, and Mitigation institutional, Are CSA practices information and being adopted? Identify Costs financial constraints If not, why not? synergies and tradeoffs of relevant practices How do Benefits & Costs of practices Managing Climate Risk profile of relevant compare? CSA practices Building Coherent Risk Policies Risk-reducing Policy Levers for tools: safety nets, Risk Adoption insurance, Management Investment diversification Analysis proposals CSA Strategy: Role of information Technical, under a changing climate Institutional, and Financing Economic Priorities
  • 6. A key feature: building strong links across research, policy and investment for policymakers and farmers • The analytical tools used, depend on question being addressed. • One approach is participatory scenario building: • Develop a storyline or narrative for scenarios • Identify key outcomes of interest • Quantify scenarios • Combine narrative scenarios with policy simulations 4
  • 7. Issues addressed by countries Malawi and Zambia: • Conservation agriculture/agro-forestry/livestock/soil & water conserv. • Diversification of production (dairy, legumes) • Smallholder irrigation management (Malawi) • Safety nets and risk management (Malawi) • Input use efficiency • The role of agriculture as a driver of deforestation (Zambia) Vietnam (Northern Mountains) • Agro-forestry systems/land management practices to address deforestation and unsustainable maize systems in uplands (erosion, land landslides, loss of carbon from soil) and barriers to their adoption, • Diversification of productive activities into perennial crops (such as coffee and tea) with potential multiple benefits. 5
  • 8. Emerging Evidence: Zambia Practices: Conservation agriculture (CA), i.e. planting basins/zero tillage Adoption: Preliminary econometric analysis of barriers to adoption of CA indicates that: (1) Adoption remains very low: ~5-6% (sample size 4,187) and ~90% of CA adopters in 2004 abandoned it in 2008 (2) Adoption intensity is significantly higher for smallholders (3) Strongest determinants of adoption are: variable rainfall Access to extension information on CA Suggestive evidence: farmers adopt CA as a variability reducing (yield smoothing?) practice Further work is needed to understand better why these patterns occurred. 6
  • 10. Emerging Evidence: Malawi Practices: improved maize varieties, inorganic and organic fertilizers, legume intercropping, and agro-forestry (e.g. Faidherbia albida) Adoption: Important determinants: – Land tenure positively correlate with OF,LI, AF – Drought proneness positively correlate with AF&LI Yields: – Improved seed, legume intercropping & agro-forestry positively correlate with productivity – Significant synergies among all three practices 7
  • 11. Malawi: Building the evidence base on marginal costs of agricultural-based mitigation 1. agronomy_dry 150 100 2. Integrated nutrient management _dry 50 3. Tillage/residue 0 mgmt_dry $/t CO2e 4. Integrated nutrient -50 management_moist -100 5. Tillage/residue mgmt_moist -150 6. agronomy_moist -200 -250 7. agroforestry_dry -300 8. agroforestry_moist 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 t CO2e abated/year 9. water mgmt_dry 10. water mgmt_moist 9
  • 12. How will Capacity be strengthened? 1. Research institutions and universities; support for MSc and PhD students 2. Local institutions: extension, land tenure, traditional systems 3. National institutions: planning, inter-ministerial Ag, Env, Fin - dialogues (participatory scenario building tool) 4. Policy frameworks (CAADP, ASWAp, NCP, Action Plan on CC Response of Ag. and RD) 5. Ag Ministry staff attend attend UNFCCC Talks 6. Stakeholder consultation, interactive web-based 10 platform