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                                                        CONTENTS1

                                                                                                                      Page

                    Clean Air Act ...............................................................................       1
                        Title I—Air Pollution Prevention and Control ..................                                 7
                             Part A—Air Quality and Emission Limitations .........                                      7
                             [Part B—Ozone Protection—Repealed]
                             Part C—Prevention of Significant Deterioration of
                               Air Quality .................................................................          138
                             Part D—Plan Requirements for Nonattainment
                               Areas ..........................................................................       156
                        Title II—Emission Standards for Moving Sources ............                                   219
                             Part A—Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Stand-
                               ards .............................................................................     220
                             Part B—Aircraft Emission Standards .........................                             280
                             Part C—Clean Fuel Vehicles .......................................                       281
                        Title III—General ................................................................            300
                        Title IV—Noise Pollution ....................................................                 330
                        Title IV—Acid Deposition Control ......................................                       331
                        Title V—Permits ..................................................................            383
                        Title VI—Stratospheric Ozone Protection ..........................                            397
                    Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 (Public Law 95–95) .........                                     425
                    Selected Provisions of the Energy Security Act (Public Law
                      96–294) .....................................................................................   435
                    Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101–549) .....                                       441
                    Section 348 of the National Highway System Designation
                      Act of 1995 (Public Law 104–59) ............................................                    461




                       1 The companion volume to this publication (volume 2) contains the Solid Waste Disposal

                    Act, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act, the Pollution Preven-
                    tion Act of 1990, the Toxic Substances Control Act, section 1018 of the Residential Lead-
                    Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992, certain provisions of law related to asbestos,
                    the Noise Control Act of 1972, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act
                    Amendments of 1996, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability
                    Act of 1980 (Superfund), and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
                    (SARA).




                                                                       1
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                                  THE CLEAN AIR ACT
                    [As Amended Through P.L. 108–201, February 24, 2004]




                    1
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                                      TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR THE CLEAN AIR ACT 1

                                   TITLE I—AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL

                                         PART A—AIR QUALITY AND EMISSION LIMITATIONS
                    Sec.   101.   Findings and purposes.
                    Sec.   102.   Cooperative activities and uniform laws.
                    Sec.   103.   Research, investigation, training, and other activities.
                    Sec.   104.   Research relating to fuels and vehicles.
                    Sec.   105.   Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs.
                    Sec.   106.   Interstate air quality agencies or commissions.
                    Sec.   107.   Air quality control regions.
                    Sec.   108.   Air quality criteria and control techniques.
                    Sec.   109.   National ambient air quality standards.
                    Sec.   110.   Implementation plans.
                    Sec.   111.   Standards of performance for new stationary sources.
                    Sec.   112.   Hazardous air pollutants.
                    Sec.   113.   Federal Enforcement.
                    Sec.   114.   Inspections, monitoring, and entry.
                    Sec.   115.   International air pollution.
                    Sec.   116.   Retention of state authority.
                    Sec.   117.   President’s air quality advisory board and advisory committees.
                    Sec.   118.   Control of pollution from federal facilities.
                    Sec.   119.   Primary nonferrous smelter orders.
                    Sec.   120.   Noncompliance penalty.
                    Sec.   121.   Consultation.
                    Sec.   122.   Listing of certain unregulated pollutants.
                    Sec.   123.   Stack heights.
                    Sec.   124.   Assurance of adequacy of state plans.
                    Sec.   125.   Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment.
                    Sec.   126.   Interstate pollution abatement.
                    Sec.   127.   Public notification.
                    Sec.   128.   State boards.
                    Sec.   129.   Solid waste combustion.
                    Sec.   130.   Emission factors.
                    Sec.   131.   Land use authority.

                                                    PART B—OZONE PROTECTION
                    [Secs. 150 through 159 Repealed]

                            PART C—PREVENTION         OF   SIGNIFICANT DETERIORATION       OF   AIR QUALITY

                                                               SUBPART 1
                    Sec.   160.   Purposes.
                    Sec.   161.   Plan requirements.
                    Sec.   162.   Initial classifications.
                    Sec.   163.   Increments and ceilings.
                    Sec.   164.   Area redesignation.
                    Sec.   165.   Preconstruction requirements.
                    Sec.   166.   Other pollutants.
                    Sec.   167.   Enforcement.
                    Sec.   168.   Period before plan approval.
                    Sec.   169.   Definitions.


                      1 This table of contents is not part of the Clean Air Act but is included herein for the conven-
                    ience of the users of this publication.
                            3
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                                                        CLEAN AIR ACT                                 4

                                                           SUBPART 2
                    Sec. 169A. Visibility protection for Federal class I areas.
                    Sec. 169B. Visibility.
                                    PART D—PLAN REQUIREMENTS     FOR   NONATTAINMENT AREAS
                                         SUBPART   1—NONATTAINMENT     AREAS IN GENERAL
                    Sec.   171. Definitions.
                    Sec.   172. Nonattainment plan provisions in general.
                    Sec.   173. Permit requirements.
                    Sec.   174. Planning procedures.
                    Sec.   175. Environmental Protection Agency grants.
                    Sec.   175A. Maintenance plans.
                    Sec.   176. Limitation on certain Federal assistance.
                    Sec.   176A. Interstate transport commissions.
                    Sec.   177. New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas.
                    Sec.   178. Guidance documents.
                    Sec.   179. Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain.
                    Sec.   179B. International border areas.
                            SUBPART 2—ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS FOR OZONE NONATTAINMENT AREAS
                    Sec.   181.
                             Classifications and attainment dates.
                    Sec.   182.
                             Plan submissions and requirements.
                    Sec.   183.
                             Federal ozone measures.
                    Sec.   184.
                             Control of interstate ozone air pollution.
                    Sec.   185.
                             Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for fail-
                                ure to attain.
                    Sec. 185A. Transitional areas.
                    Sec. 185B. NOx and VOC study.
                     SUBPART 3—ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS FOR CARBON         MONOXIDE NONATTAINMENT AREAS
                    Sec. 186. Classifications and attainment dates.
                    Sec. 187. Plan submissions and requirements.
                       SUBPART 4—ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS FOR PARTICULATE MATTER NONATTAINMENT
                                                       AREAS
                    Sec. 188. Classifications and attainment dates.
                    Sec. 189. Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions.
                    Sec. 190. Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance.
                      SUBPART 5—ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS FOR AREAS DESIGNATED NONATTAINMENT FOR
                                      SULFUR OXIDES, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, OR LEAD
                    Sec. 191. Plan submission deadlines.
                    Sec. 192. Attainment dates.
                                                 SUBPART 6—SAVINGS PROVISIONS
                    Sec. 193. General savings clause.
                              TITLE II—EMISSION STANDARDS FOR MOVING SOURCES
                    Sec. 201. Short title.
                                     PART A—MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION AND FUEL STANDARDS
                    Sec.   202.   Establishment of standards.
                    Sec.   203.   Prohibited acts.
                    Sec.   204.   Injunction proceedings.
                    Sec.   205.   Civil penalties.
                    Sec.   206.   Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certifi-
                                    cation.
                    Sec. 207.     Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use.
                    Sec. 208.     Information collection.
                    Sec. 209.     State standards.
                    Sec. 210.     State grants.
                    Sec. 211.     Regulation of fuels.
                    [Sec. 212.    Repealed]
                    Sec. 213.     Fuel economy improvement from new motor vehicles.
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                    5                                         CLEAN AIR ACT

                    Sec.   214.    Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles.
                    Sec.   215.    High altitude performance adjustments.
                    Sec.   216.    Definitions for part A.
                    Sec.   217.    Motor vehicle compliance program fees.
                    Sec.   218.    Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline.
                    Sec.   219.    Urban bus standards.
                                               PART B—AIRCRAFT EMISSION STANDARDS
                    Sec.   231.    Establishment of standards.
                    Sec.   232.    Enforcement of standards.
                    Sec.   233.    State standards and controls.
                    Sec.   234.    Definitions.
                                                    PART C—CLEAN FUEL VEHICLES
                    Sec.   241.    Definitions.
                    Sec.   242.    Requirements applicable to clean fuel vehicles.
                    Sec.   243.    Standards for light-duty clean fuel vehicles.
                    Sec.   244.    Administration and enforcement as per California standards.
                    Sec.   245.    Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (gvwr above 8,500 up to
                                     26,000 lbs).
                    Sec.   246.    Centrally fueled fleets.
                    Sec.   247.    Vehicle conversions.
                    Sec.   248.    Federal agency fleets.
                    Sec.   249.    California pilot test program.
                    Sec.   250.    General provisions.
                                                    TITLE III—GENERAL
                    Sec.   301.Administration.
                    Sec.   302.Definitions.
                    Sec.   303.Emergency powers.
                    Sec.   304.Citizen suits.
                    Sec.   305.Representation in litigation.
                    Sec.   306.Federal procurement.
                    Sec.   307.General provisions relating to administrative proceedings and judicial re-
                                 view.
                    Sec. 308. Mandatory licensing.
                    Sec. 309. Policy review.
                    Sec. 310. Other authority not affected.
                    Sec. 311. Records and audit.
                    Sec. 312. Economic impact analyses.
                    [Sec. 313. Repealed]
                    Sec. 314. Labor standards.
                    Sec. 315. Separability.
                    Sec. 316. Sewage treatment grants.
                    Sec. 317. Short title.
                    Sec. 317.1 Economic impact assessment.
                    [Sec. 318. Repealed]
                    Sec. 319. Air quality monitoring.
                    Sec. 320. Standardized air quality modeling.
                    Sec. 321. Employment effects.
                    Sec. 322. Employee protection.
                    Sec. 323. Cost of emission control for certain vapor recovery to be borne by owner
                                 of retail outlet.
                    Sec. 324. Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products.
                    Sec. 325. Exemptions for certain territories.
                    Sec. 326. Construction of certain clauses.
                    Sec. 327. Authorization of appropriations.
                    Sec. 328. Air pollution from outer continental shelf activities.
                        1 There   are two sections numbered 317. This section should be numbered 318.




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                                                          CLEAN AIR ACT                                         6

                                                 TITLE IV—NOISE POLLUTION
                                            TITLE IV—ACID DEPOSITION CONTROL 1
                    Sec.   401.   Findings and purpose.
                    Sec.   402.   Definitions.
                    Sec.   403.   Sulfur dioxide allowance program for existing and new units.
                    Sec.   404.   Phase I sulfur dioxide requirements.
                    Sec.   405.   Phase II sulfur dioxide requirements.
                    Sec.   406.   Allowances for States with emissions rates at or below 0.80 lbs/mmBtu.
                    Sec.   407.   Nitrogen oxides emission reduction program.
                    Sec.   408.   Permits and compliance plans.
                    Sec.   409.   Repowered sources.
                    Sec.   410.   Election for additional sources.
                    Sec.   411.   Excess emissions penalty.
                    Sec.   412.   Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements.
                    Sec.   413.   General compliance with other provisions.
                    Sec.   414.   Enforcement.
                    Sec.   415.   Clean coal technology regulatory incentives.
                    Sec.   416.   Contingency guarantee; auctions, reserve.
                                                       TITLE V—PERMITS
                    Sec.   501.   Definitions.
                    Sec.   502.   Permit programs.
                    Sec.   503.   Permit applications.
                    Sec.   504.   Permit requirements and conditions.
                    Sec.   505.   Notification to Administrator and contiguous States.
                    Sec.   506.   Other authorities.
                    Sec.   507.   Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance
                                    assistance program.
                                       TITLE VI—STRATOSPHERIC OZONE PROTECTION
                    Sec.   601.   Definitions.
                    Sec.   602.   Listing of class I and class II substances.
                    Sec.   603.   Monitoring and reporting requirements.
                    Sec.   604.   Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances.
                    Sec.   605.   Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances.
                    Sec.   606.   Accelerated schedule.
                    Sec.   607.   Exchange authority.
                    Sec.   608.   National recycling and emission reduction program.
                    Sec.   609.   Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners.
                    Sec.   610.   Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons.
                    Sec.   611.   Labeling.
                    Sec.   612.   Safe alternatives policy.
                    Sec.   613.   Federal procurement.
                    Sec.   614.   Relationship to other laws.
                    Sec.   615.   Authority of Administrator.
                    Sec.   616.   Transfers among Parties to Montreal Protocol.
                    Sec.   617.   International cooperation.
                    Sec.   618.   Miscellaneous provisions.

                      1 Title IV, relating to acid deposition control, was added by section 401 of Public Law 101–
                    549 (104 Stat. 2584) without repealing the existing title IV, relating to noise pollution.




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                                                 THE CLEAN AIR ACT 1
                        TITLE I—AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL
                                PART A—AIR QUALITY              AND   EMISSION LIMITATIONS
                                                  FINDINGS AND PURPOSES

                         SEC. 101. (a) The Congress finds—
                              (1) that the predominant part of the Nation’s population is
                         located in its rapidly expanding metropolitan and other urban
                         areas, which generally cross the boundary lines of local juris-
                         dictions and often extend into two or more States;
                              (2) that the growth in the amount and complexity of air
                         pollution brought about by urbanization, industrial develop-
                         ment, and the increasing use of motor vehicles, has resulted in
                         mounting dangers to the public health and welfare, including
                         injury to agricultural crops and livestock, damage to and the
                         deterioration of property, and hazards to air and ground trans-
                         portation;
                              (3) that air pollution prevention (that is, the reduction or
                         elimination, through any measures, of the amount of pollutants
                         produced or created at the source) and air pollution control at
                         its source is the primary responsibility of States and local gov-
                         ernments; and
                              (4) that Federal financial assistance and leadership is es-
                         sential for the development of cooperative Federal, State, re-
                         gional, and local programs to prevent and control air pollution.
                         (b) The purposes of this title are—
                              (1) to protect and enhance the quality of the Nation’s air
                         resources so as to promote the public health and welfare and
                         the productive capacity of its population;
                              (2) to initiate and accelerate a national research and devel-
                         opment program to achieve the prevention and control of air
                         pollution;
                              (3) to provide technical and financial assistance to State
                         and local governments in connection with the development and
                         execution of their air pollution prevention and control pro-
                         grams; and
                              (4) to encourage and assist the development and operation
                         of regional air pollution prevention and control programs.
                         (c) POLLUTION PREVENTION.—A primary goal of this Act is to
                    encourage or otherwise promote reasonable Federal, State, and
                    local governmental actions, consistent with the provisions of this
                    Act, for pollution prevention.
                    [42 U.S.C. 7401]

                      1 The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401–7626) consists of Public Law 159 (July 14, 1955; 69 Stat.
                    322) and the amendments made by subsequent enactments.
                           7
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                    Sec. 102                    CLEAN AIR ACT                            8

                                  COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES AND UNIFORM LAWS

                         SEC. 102. (a) The Administrator shall encourage cooperative
                    activities by the States and local governments for the prevention
                    and control of air pollution; encourage the enactment of improved
                    and, so far as practicable in the light of varying conditions and
                    needs, uniform State and local laws relating to the prevention and
                    control of air pollution; and encourage the making of agreements
                    and compacts between States for the prevention and control of air
                    pollution.
                         (b) The Administrator shall cooperate with and encourage coop-
                    erative activities by all Federal departments and agencies having
                    functions relating to the prevention and control of air pollution, so
                    as to assure the utilization in the Federal air pollution control pro-
                    gram of all appropriate and available facilities and resources with-
                    in the Federal Government.
                         (c) The consent of the Congress is hereby given to two or more
                    States to negotiate and enter into agreements or compacts, not in
                    conflict with any law or treaty of the United States, for (1) coopera-
                    tive effort and mutual assistance for the prevention and control of
                    air pollution and the enforcement of their respective laws relating
                    thereto, and (2) the establishment of such agencies, joint or other-
                    wise, as they may deem desirable for making effective such agree-
                    ments or compacts. No such agreement or compact shall be binding
                    or obligatory upon any State a party thereto unless and until it has
                    been approved by Congress. It is the intent of Congress that no
                    agreement or compact entered into between States after the date
                    of enactment of the Air Quality Act of 1967, which relates to the
                    control and abatement of air pollution in an air quality control re-
                    gion, shall provide for participation by a State which is not in-
                    cluded (in whole or in part) in such air quality control region.
                    [42 U.S.C. 7402]

                         RESEARCH, INVESTIGATION, TRAINING, AND OTHER ACTIVITIES

                         SEC. 103. (a) The Administrator shall establish a national re-
                    search and development program for the prevention and control of
                    air pollution and as part of such program shall—
                              (1) conduct, and promote the coordination and acceleration
                         of, research, investigations, experiments, demonstrations, sur-
                         veys, and studies relating to the causes, effects (including
                         health and welfare effects), extent, prevention, and control of
                         air pollution;
                              (2) encourage, cooperate with, and render technical serv-
                         ices and provide financial assistance to air pollution control
                         agencies and other appropriate public or private agencies, in-
                         stitutions, and organizations, and individuals in the conduct of
                         such activities;
                              (3) conduct investigations and research and make surveys
                         concerning any specific problem of air pollution in cooperation
                         with any air pollution control agency with a view to recom-
                         mending a solution of such problem, if he is requested to do so
                         by such agency or if, in his judgment, such problem may affect
                         any community or communities in a State other than that in
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                    9                                    CLEAN AIR ACT                                 Sec. 103

                         which the source of the matter causing or contributing to the
                         pollution is located;
                              (4) establish technical advisory committees composed of
                         recognized experts in various aspects of air pollution to assist
                         in the examination and evaluation of research progress and
                         proposals and to avoid duplication of research; and
                              (5) conduct and promote coordination and acceleration of
                         training for individuals relating to the causes, effects, extent,
                         prevention, and control of air pollution.
                         (b) In carrying out the provisions of the preceding subsection
                    the Administrator is authorized to—
                              (1) collect and make available, through publications and
                         other appropriate means, the results of and other information,
                         including appropriate recommendations by him in connection
                         therewith, pertaining to such research and other activities;
                              (2) cooperate with other Federal departments and agen-
                         cies, with air pollution control agencies, with other public and
                         private agencies, institutions, and organizations, and with any
                         industries involved, in the preparation and conduct of such re-
                         search and other activities;
                              (3) make grants to air pollution control agencies, to other
                         public or nonprofit private agencies, institutions, and organiza-
                         tions, and to individuals, for purposes stated in subsection
                         (a)(1) of this section;
                              (4) contract with public or private agencies, institutions,
                         and organizations, and with individuals, without regard to sec-
                         tions 3648 and 3709 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 529; 41
                         U.S.C. 5);
                              (5) establish and maintain research fellowships, in the En-
                         vironmental Protection Agency and at public or nonprofit pri-
                         vate educational institutions or research organizations;
                              (6) collect and disseminate, in cooperation with other Fed-
                         eral departments and agencies, and with other public or pri-
                         vate agencies, institutions, and organizations having related
                         responsibilities, basic data on chemical, physical, and biological
                         effects of varying air quality and other information pertaining
                         to air pollution and the prevention and control thereof;
                              (7) develop effective and practical processes, methods, and
                         prototype devices for the prevention or control of air pollution;
                         and
                              (8) 1 construct facilities, provide equipment, and employ
                         staff as necessary to carry out this Act.
                    In carrying out the provisions of subsection (a), the Administrator
                    shall provide training for, and make training grants to, personnel
                    of air pollution control agencies and other persons with suitable
                    qualifications and make grants to such agencies, to other public or
                    nonprofit private agencies, institutions, and organizations for the
                    purposes stated in subsection (a)(5). Reasonable fees may be
                    charged for such training provided to persons other than personnel
                    of air pollution control agencies but such training shall be provided
                    to such personnel of air pollution control agencies without charge.
                      1 Section 901(a)(2)(C) of Public Law 101–549 (104 Stat. 2700) added a new paragraph (8) at
                    the end of section 103(b). Paragraph (8) probably was intended to have been added after para-
                    graph (7), as it is shown here.
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                    Sec. 103                    CLEAN AIR ACT                           10

                        (c) AIR POLLUTANT MONITORING, ANALYSIS, MODELING, AND IN-
                    VENTORY    RESEARCH.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Adminis-
                    trator shall conduct a program of research, testing, and develop-
                    ment of methods for sampling, measurement, monitoring, analysis,
                    and modeling of air pollutants. Such program shall include the fol-
                    lowing elements:
                             (1) Consideration of individual, as well as complex mix-
                        tures of, air pollutants and their chemical transformations in
                        the atmosphere.
                             (2) Establishment of a national network to monitor, collect,
                        and compile data with quantification of certainty in the status
                        and trends of air emissions, deposition, air quality, surface
                        water quality, forest condition, and visibility impairment, and
                        to ensure the comparability of air quality data collected in dif-
                        ferent States and obtained from different nations.
                             (3) Development of improved methods and technologies for
                        sampling, measurement, monitoring, analysis, and modeling to
                        increase understanding of the sources of ozone percursors,
                        ozone formation, ozone transport, regional influences on urban
                        ozone, regional ozone trends, and interactions of ozone with
                        other pollutants. Emphasis shall be placed on those techniques
                        which—
                                  (A) improve the ability to inventory emissions of vola-
                             tile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides that contribute
                             to urban air pollution, including anthropogenic and nat-
                             ural sources;
                                  (B) improve the understanding of the mechanism
                             through which anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic
                             compounds react to form ozone and other oxidants; and
                                  (C) improve the ability to identify and evaluate region-
                             specific prevention and control options for ozone pollution.
                             (4) Submission of periodic reports to the Congress, not less
                        than once every 5 years, which evaluate and assess the effec-
                        tiveness of air pollution control regulations and programs
                        using monitoring and modeling data obtained pursuant to this
                        subsection.
                        (d) ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH.—(1) The Ad-
                    ministrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and
                    Human Services, shall conduct a research program on the short-
                    term and long-term effects of air pollutants, including wood smoke,
                    on human health. In conducting such research program the
                    Administrator—
                             (A) shall conduct studies, including epidemiological, clin-
                        ical, and laboratory and field studies, as necessary to identify
                        and evaluate exposure to and effects of air pollutants on
                        human health;
                             (B) may utilize, on a reimbursable basis, the facilities of
                        existing Federal scientific laboratories and research centers;
                        and
                             (C) shall consult with other Federal agencies to ensure
                        that similar research being conducted in other agencies is co-
                        ordinated to avoid duplication.
                        (2) In conducting the research program under this subsection,
                    the Administrator shall develop methods and techniques necessary
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                    11                          CLEAN AIR ACT                      Sec. 103

                    to identify and assess the risks to human health from both routine
                    and accidental exposures to individual air pollutants and combina-
                    tions thereof. Such research program shall include the following
                    elements:
                              (A) The creation of an Interagency Task Force to coordi-
                         nate such program. The Task Force shall include representa-
                         tives of the National Institute for Environmental Health
                         Sciences, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Agency for
                         Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the National Toxi-
                         cology Program, the National Institute of Standards and Tech-
                         nology, the National Science Foundation, the Surgeon General,
                         and the Department of Energy. This Interagency Task Force
                         shall be chaired by a representative of the Environmental Pro-
                         tection Agency and shall convene its first meeting within 60
                         days after the date of enactment of this subparagraph.
                              (B) An evaluation, within 12 months after the date of en-
                         actment of this paragraph, of each of the hazardous air pollut-
                         ants listed under section 112(b) of this Act, to decide, on the
                         basis of available information, their relative priority for prepa-
                         ration of environmental health assessments pursuant to sub-
                         paragraph (C). The evaluation shall be based on reasonably an-
                         ticipated toxicity to humans and exposure factors such as fre-
                         quency of occurrence as an air pollutant and volume of emis-
                         sions in populated areas. Such evaluation shall be reviewed by
                         the Interagency Task Force established pursuant to subpara-
                         graph (A).
                              (C) Preparation of environmental health assessments for
                         each of the hazardous air pollutants referred to in subpara-
                         graph (B), beginning 6 months after the first meeting of the
                         Interagency Task Force and to be completed within 96 months
                         thereafter. No fewer than 24 assessments shall be completed
                         and published annually. The assessments shall be prepared in
                         accordance with guidelines developed by the Administrator in
                         consultation with the Interagency Task Force and the Science
                         Advisory Board of the Environmental Protection Agency. Each
                         such assessment shall include—
                                   (i) an examination, summary, and evaluation of avail-
                              able toxicological and epidemiological information for the
                              pollutant to ascertain the levels of human exposure which
                              pose a significant threat to human health and the associ-
                              ated acute, subacute, and chronic adverse health effects;
                                   (ii) a determination of gaps in available information
                              related to human health effects and exposure levels; and
                                   (iii) where appropriate, an identification of additional
                              activities, including toxicological and inhalation testing,
                              needed to identify the types or levels of exposure which
                              may present significant risk of adverse health effects in
                              humans.
                         (e) ECOSYSTEM RESEARCH.—In carrying out subsection (a), the
                    Administrator, in cooperation, where appropriate, with the Under
                    Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, the Director of
                    the Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Secretary of Agriculture,
                    shall conduct a research program to improve understanding of the
                    short-term and long-term causes, effects, and trends of ecosystems
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                    Sec. 103                     CLEAN AIR ACT                            12

                    damage from air pollutants on ecosystems. Such program shall in-
                    clude the following elements:
                              (1) Identification of regionally representative and critical
                         ecosystems for research.
                              (2) Evaluation of risks to ecosystems exposed to air pollut-
                         ants, including characterization of the causes and effects of
                         chronic and episodic exposures to air pollutants and determina-
                         tion of the reversibility of those effects.
                              (3) Development of improved atmospheric dispersion mod-
                         els and monitoring systems and networks for evaluating and
                         quantifying exposure to and effects of multiple environmental
                         stresses associated with air pollution.
                              (4) Evaluation of the effects of air pollution on water qual-
                         ity, including assessments of the short-term and long-term eco-
                         logical effects of acid deposition and other atmospherically de-
                         rived pollutants on surface water (including wetlands and estu-
                         aries) and groundwater.
                              (5) Evaluation of the effects of air pollution on forests, ma-
                         terials, crops, biological diversity, soils, and other terrestrial
                         and aquatic systems exposed to air pollutants.
                              (6) Estimation of the associated economic costs of ecologi-
                         cal damage which have occurred as a result of exposure to air
                         pollutants.
                    Consistent with the purpose of this program, the Administrator
                    may use the estuarine research reserves established pursuant to
                    section 315 of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C.
                    1461) to carry out this research.
                         (f) LIQUEFIED GASEOUS FUELS SPILL TEST FACILITY.—(1) The
                    Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy and
                    the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and
                    Technology, shall oversee an experimental and analytical research
                    effort, with the experimental research to be carried out at the Liq-
                    uefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility. In consultation with the
                    Secretary of Energy, the Administrator shall develop a list of
                    chemicals and a schedule for field testing at the Facility. Analysis
                    of a minimum of 10 chemicals per year shall be carried out, with
                    the selection of a minimum of 2 chemicals for field testing each
                    year. Highest priority shall be given to those chemicals that would
                    present the greatest potential risk to human health as a result of
                    an accidental release—
                              (A) from a fixed site; or
                              (B) related to the transport of such chemicals.
                         (2) The purpose of such research shall be to—
                              (A) develop improved predictive models for atmospheric
                         dispersion which at a minimum—
                                   (i) describe dense gas releases in complex terrain in-
                              cluding man-made structures or obstacles with variable
                              winds;
                                   (ii) improve understanding of the effects of turbulence
                              on dispersion patterns; and
                                   (iii) consider realistic behavior of aerosols by including
                              physicochemical reactions with water vapor, ground depo-
                              sition, and removal by water spray;
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                    13                          CLEAN AIR ACT                     Sec. 103

                              (B) evaluate existing and future atmospheric dispersion
                         models by—
                                   (i) the development of a rigorous, standardized meth-
                              odology for dense gas models; and
                                   (ii) the application of such methodology to current
                              dense gas dispersion models using data generated from
                              field experiments; and
                              (C) evaluate the effectiveness of hazard mitigation and
                         emergency response technology for fixed site and transpor-
                         tation related accidental releases of toxic chemicals.
                    Models pertaining to accidental release shall be evaluated and im-
                    proved periodically for their utility in planning and implementing
                    evacuation procedures and other mitigative strategies designed to
                    minimize human exposure to hazardous air pollutants released ac-
                    cidentally.
                         (3) The Secretary of Energy shall make available to interested
                    persons (including other Federal agencies and businesses) the use
                    of the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility to conduct re-
                    search and other activities in connection with the activities de-
                    scribed in this subsection.
                         (g) POLLUTION PREVENTION AND EMISSIONS CONTROL.—In car-
                    rying out subsection (a), the Administrator shall conduct a basic
                    engineering research and technology program to develop, evaluate,
                    and demonstrate nonregulatory strategies and technologies for air
                    pollution prevention. Such strategies and technologies shall be de-
                    veloped with priority on those pollutants which pose a significant
                    risk to human health and the environment, and with opportunities
                    for participation by industry, public interest groups, scientists, and
                    other interested persons in the development of such strategies and
                    technologies. Such program shall include the following elements:
                              (1) Improvements in nonregulatory strategies and tech-
                         nologies for preventing or reducing multiple air pollutants, in-
                         cluding sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, heavy metals, PM–10
                         (particulate matter), carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide,
                         from stationary sources, including fossil fuel power plants.
                         Such strategies and technologies shall include improvements in
                         the relative cost effectiveness and long-range implications of
                         various air pollutant reduction and nonregulatory control strat-
                         egies such as energy conservation, including end-use efficiency,
                         and fuel-switching to cleaner fuels. Such strategies and tech-
                         nologies shall be considered for existing and new facilities.
                              (2) Improvements in nonregulatory strategies and tech-
                         nologies for reducing air emissions from area sources.
                              (3) Improvements in nonregulatory strategies and tech-
                         nologies for preventing, detecting, and correcting accidental re-
                         leases of hazardous air pollutants.
                              (4) Improvements in nonregulatory strategies and tech-
                         nologies that dispose of tires in ways that avoid adverse air
                         quality impacts.
                    Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the im-
                    position on any person of air pollution control requirements. The
                    Administrator shall consult with other appropriate Federal agen-
                    cies to ensure coordination and to avoid duplication of activities au-
                    thorized under this subsection.
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                    Sec. 103                     CLEAN AIR ACT                           14

                          (h) NIEHS STUDIES.—(1) The Director of the National Institute
                    of Environmental Health Sciences may conduct a program of basic
                    research to identify, characterize, and quantify risks to human
                    health from air pollutants. Such research shall be conducted pri-
                    marily through a combination of university and medical school-
                    based grants, as well as through intramural studies and contracts.
                          (2) The Director of the National Institute of Environmental
                    Health Sciences shall conduct a program for the education and
                    training of physicians in environmental health.
                          (3) The Director shall assure that such programs shall not con-
                    flict with research undertaken by the Administrator.
                          (4) There are authorized to be appropriated to the National In-
                    stitute of Environmental Health Sciences such sums as may be nec-
                    essary to carry out the purposes of this subsection.
                          (i) COORDINATION OF RESEARCH.—The Administrator shall de-
                    velop and implement a plan for identifying areas in which activities
                    authorized under this section can be carried out in conjunction
                    with other Federal ecological and air pollution research efforts. The
                    plan, which shall be submitted to Congress within 6 months after
                    the date of enactment of this subsection, shall include—
                               (1) an assessment of ambient monitoring stations and net-
                          works to determine cost effective ways to expand monitoring
                          capabilities in both urban and rural environments;
                               (2) a consideration of the extent of the feasibility and sci-
                          entific value of conducting the research program under sub-
                          section (e) to include consideration of the effects of atmospheric
                          processes and air pollution effects; and
                               (3) a methodology for evaluating and ranking pollution
                          prevention technologies, such as those developed under sub-
                          section (g), in terms of their ability to reduce cost effectively
                          the emissions of air pollutants and other airborne chemicals of
                          concern.
                    Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this sub-
                    section, and every 4 years thereafter, the Administrator shall re-
                    port to Congress on the progress made in implementing the plan
                    developed under this subsection, and shall include in such report
                    any revisions of the plan.
                          (j) CONTINUATION OF THE NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION AS-
                    SESSMENT PROGRAM.—
                               (1) The acid precipitation research program set forth in the
                          Acid Precipitation Act of 1980 shall be continued with modi-
                          fications pursuant to this subsection.
                               (2) The Acid Precipitation Task Force shall consist of the
                          Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the
                          Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of the Interior, the Sec-
                          retary of Agriculture, the Administrator of the National Oce-
                          anic and Atmospheric Administration, the Administrator of the
                          National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and such ad-
                          ditional members as the President may select. The President
                          shall appoint a chairman for the Task Force from among its
                          members within 30 days after the date of enactment of this
                          subsection.
                               (3) The responsibilities of the Task Force shall include the
                          following:
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                    15                                        CLEAN AIR ACT          Sec. 103

                                   (A) Review of the status of research activities con-
                              ducted to date under the comprehensive research plan de-
                              veloped pursuant to the Acid Precipitation Act of 1980,
                              and development of a revised plan that identifies signifi-
                              cant research gaps and establishes a coordinated program
                              to address current and future research priorities. A draft
                              of the revised plan shall be submitted by the Task Force
                              to Congress within 6 months after the date of enactment
                              of this subsection. The plan shall be available for public
                              comment during the 60 day period after its submission,
                              and a final plan shall be submitted by the President to the
                              Congress within 45 days after the close of the comment pe-
                              riod.
                                   (B) Coordination with participating Federal agencies,
                              augmenting the agencies’ research and monitoring efforts
                              and sponsoring additional research in the scientific com-
                              munity as necessary to ensure the availability and quality
                              of data and methodologies needed to evaluate the status
                              and effectiveness of the acid deposition control program.
                              Such research and monitoring efforts shall include, but not
                              be limited to—
                                        (i) continuous monitoring of emissions of precur-
                                   sors of acid deposition;
                                        (ii) maintenance, upgrading, and application of
                                   models, such as the Regional Acid Deposition Model,
                                   that describe the interactions of emissions with the at-
                                   mosphere, and models that describe the response of
                                   ecosystems to acid deposition; and
                                        (iii) analysis of the costs, benefits, and effective-
                                   ness of the acid deposition control program.
                                   (C) Publication and maintenance of a National Acid
                              Lakes Registry that tracks the condition and change over
                              time of a statistically representative sample of lakes in re-
                              gions that are known to be sensitive to surface water acidi-
                              fication.
                                   (D) Submission every two years of a unified budget
                              recommendation to the President for activities of the Fed-
                              eral Government in connection with the research program
                              described in this subsection.
                                   (E) Beginning in 1992 and biennially thereafter, sub-
                              mission of a report to Congress describing the results of its
                              investigations and analyses. The reporting of technical in-
                              formation about acid deposition shall be provided in a for-
                              mat that facilitates communication with policymakers and
                              the public. The report shall include—
                                        (i) actual and projected emissions and acid deposi-
                                   tion trends;
                                        (ii) average ambient concentrations of acid deposi-
                                   tion percursors 1 and their transformation products;
                                        (iii) the status of ecosystems (including forests and
                                   surface waters), materials, and visibility affected by
                                   acid deposition;
                     1 Probably   should be ‘‘precursors’’.
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                    Sec. 104                     CLEAN AIR ACT                            16

                                        (iv) the causes and effects of such deposition, in-
                                  cluding changes in surface water quality and forest
                                  and soil conditions;
                                        (v) the occurrence and effects of episodic acidifica-
                                  tion, particularly with respect to high elevation water-
                                  sheds; and
                                        (vi) the confidence level associated with each con-
                                  clusion to aid policymakers in use of the information.
                                  (F) Beginning in 1996, and every 4 years thereafter,
                             the report under subparagraph (E) shall include—
                                        (i) the reduction in deposition rates that must be
                                  achieved in order to prevent adverse ecological effects;
                                  and
                                        (ii) the costs and benefits of the acid deposition
                                  control program created by title IV of this Act.
                         (k) AIR POLLUTION CONFERENCES.—If, in the judgment of the
                    Administrator, an air pollution problem of substantial significance
                    may result from discharge or discharges into the atmosphere, the
                    Administrator may call a conference concerning this potential air
                    pollution problem to be held in or near one or more of the places
                    where such discharge or discharges are occurring or will occur. All
                    interested persons shall be given an opportunity to be heard at
                    such conference, either orally or in writing, and shall be permitted
                    to appear in person or by representative in accordance with proce-
                    dures prescribed by the Administrator. If the Administrator finds,
                    on the basis of the evidence presented at such conference, that the
                    discharge or discharges if permitted to take place or continue are
                    likely to cause or contribute to air pollution subject to abatement
                    under part A of title I, the Administrator shall send such findings,
                    together with recommendations concerning the measures which the
                    Administrator finds reasonable and suitable to prevent such pollu-
                    tion, to the person or persons whose actions will result in the dis-
                    charge or discharges involved; to air pollution agencies of the State
                    or States and of the municipality or municipalities where such dis-
                    charge or discharges will originate; and to the interstate air pollu-
                    tion control agency, if any, in the jurisdictional area of which any
                    such municipality is located. Such findings and recommendations
                    shall be advisory only, but shall be admitted together with the
                    record of the conference, as part of the proceedings under sub-
                    sections (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of section 108.
                    [42 U.S.C. 7403]

                                  RESEARCH RELATING TO FUELS AND VEHICLES

                         SEC. 104. (a) The Administrator shall give special emphasis to
                    research and development into new and improved methods, having
                    industrywide application, for the prevention and control of air pol-
                    lution resulting from the combustion of fuels. In furtherance of
                    such research and development he shall—
                             (1) conduct and accelerate research programs directed to-
                         ward development of improved, cost-effective techniques for—
                                  (A) control of combustion byproducts of fuels,
                                  (B) removal of potential air pollutants from fuels prior
                             to combustion,
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                    17                           CLEAN AIR ACT                       Sec. 104

                                  (C) control of emissions from the evaporation of fuels,
                                  (D) improving the efficiency of fuels combustion so as
                             to decrease atmospheric emissions, and
                                  (E) producing synthetic or new fuels which, when
                             used, result in decreased atmospheric emissions.
                             (2) provide for Federal grants to public or nonprofit agen-
                        cies, institutions, and organizations and to individuals, and
                        contracts with public or private agencies, institutions or per-
                        sons, for payment of (A) part of the cost of acquiring, con-
                        structing, or otherwise securing for research and development
                        purposes, new or improved devices or methods having indus-
                        trywide application of preventing or controlling discharges into
                        the air of various types of pollutants; (B) part of the cost of
                        programs to develop low emission alternatives to the present
                        internal combustion engine; (C) the cost to purchase vehicles
                        and vehicle engines, or portions thereof, for research, develop-
                        ment, and testing purposes; and (D) carrying out the other pro-
                        visions of this section, without regard to sections 3648 and
                        3709 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 529; 41 U.S.C. 5): Pro-
                        vided, That research or demonstration contracts awarded pur-
                        suant to this subsection or demonstration contracts awarded
                        pursuant to this subsection (including contracts for construc-
                        tion) may be made in accordance with, and subject to the limi-
                        tations provided with respect to research contracts of the mili-
                        tary departments in, section 2353 of title 10, United States
                        Code, except that the determination, approval, and certification
                        required thereby shall be made by the Administrator: Provided
                        further, That no grant may be made under this paragraph in
                        excess of $1,500,000;
                             (3) determine, by laboratory and pilot plant testing, the re-
                        sults of air pollution research and studies in order to develop
                        new or improved processes and plant designs to the point
                        where they can be demonstrated on a large and practical scale;
                             (4) construct, operate, and maintain, or assist in meeting
                        the cost of the construction, operation, and maintenance of new
                        or improved demonstration plants or processes which have
                        promise of accomplishing the purposes of this Act;
                             (5) study new or improved methods for the recovery and
                        marketing of commercially valuable byproducts resulting from
                        the removal of pollutants.
                        (b) In carrying out the provisions of this section, the Adminis-
                    trator may—
                             (1) conduct and accelerate research and development of
                        cost-effective instrumentation techniques to facilitate deter-
                        mination of quantity and quality of air pollutant emissions, in-
                        cluding, but not limited to, automotive emissions;
                             (2) utilize, on a reimbursable basis, the facilities of existing
                        Federal scientific laboratories;
                             (3) establish and operate necessary facilities and test sites
                        at which to carry on the research, testing, development, and
                        programing necessary to effectuate the purposes of this section;
                             (4) acquire secret processes, technical data, inventions,
                        patent applications, patents, licenses, and an interest in lands,
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                    Sec. 105                     CLEAN AIR ACT                           18

                         plants, and facilities, and other property or rights by purchase,
                         license, lease, or donation; and
                              (5) cause on-site inspections to be made of promising do-
                         mestic and foreign projects, and cooperate and participate in
                         their development in instances in which the purposes of the
                         Act will be served thereby.
                         (c) CLEAN ALTERNATIVE FUELS.—The Administrator shall con-
                    duct a research program to identify, characterize, and predict air
                    emissions related to the production, distribution, storage, and use
                    of clean alternative fuels to determine the risks and benefits to
                    human health and the environment relative to those from using
                    conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. The Administrator shall con-
                    sult with other Federal agencies to ensure coordination and to
                    avoid duplication of activities authorized under this subsection.
                    [42 U.S.C. 7404]

                      GRANTS FOR SUPPORT OF AIR POLLUTION PLANNING AND CONTROL
                                              PROGRAMS

                         SEC. 105. (a)(1)(A) The Administrator may make grants to air
                    pollution control agencies, within the meaning of paragraph (1), (2),
                    (3), (4), or (5) of section 302, in an amount up to three-fifths of the
                    cost of implementing programs for the prevention and control of air
                    pollution or implementation of national primary and secondary am-
                    bient air quality standards. For the purpose of this section, ‘‘imple-
                    menting’’ means any activity related to the planning, developing,
                    establishing, carrying-out, improving, or maintaining of such pro-
                    grams.
                         (B) Subject to subsections (b) and (c) of this section, an air pol-
                    lution control agency which receives a grant under subparagraph
                    (A) and which contributes less than the required two-fifths min-
                    imum shall have 3 years following the date of the enactment of the
                    Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 in which to contribute such
                    amount. If such an agency fails to meet and maintain this required
                    level, the Administrator shall reduce the amount of the Federal
                    contribution accordingly.
                         (C) With respect to any air quality control region or portion
                    thereof for which there is an applicable implementation plan under
                    section 110, grants under subparagraph (A) may be made only to
                    air pollution control agencies which have substantial responsibil-
                    ities for carrying out such applicable implementation plan.
                         (2) Before approving any grant under this subsection to any air
                    pollution control agency within the meaning of sections 302(b)(2)
                    and 302(b)(4) the Administrator shall receive assurances that such
                    agency provides for adequate representation of appropriate State,
                    interstate, local, and (when appropriate) international, interests in
                    the air quality control region.
                         (3) Before approving any planning grant under this subsection
                    to any air pollution control agency within the meaning of sections
                    302(b)(2) and 302(b)(4), the Administrator shall receive assurances
                    that such agency has the capability of developing a comprehensive
                    air quality plan for the air quality control region, which plan shall
                    include (when appropriate) a recommended system of alerts to
                    avert and reduce the risk of situations in which there may be im-
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                    19                                       CLEAN AIR ACT         Sec. 105

                    minent and serious danger to the public health or welfare from air
                    pollutants and the various aspects relevant to the establishment of
                    air quality standards for such air quality control region, including
                    the concentration of industries, other commercial establishments,
                    population and naturally occurring factors which shall affect such
                    standards.
                         (b)(1) From the sums available for the purposes of subsection
                    (a) of this section for any fiscal year, the Administrator shall from
                    time to time make grants to air pollution control agencies upon
                    such terms and conditions as the Administrator may find necessary
                    to carry out the purpose of this section. In establishing regulations
                    for the granting of such funds the Administrator shall, so far as
                    practicable, give due consideration to (A) the population, (B) the ex-
                    tent of the actual or potential air pollution problem, and (C) the fi-
                    nancial need of the respective agencies.
                         (2) Not more than 10 per centum of the total of funds appro-
                    priated or allocated for the purposes of subsection (a) of this section
                    shall be granted for air pollution control programs in any one
                    State. In the case of a grant for a program in an area crossing
                    State boundaries, the Administrator shall determine the portion of
                    such grant that is chargeable to the percentage limitation under
                    this subsection for each State into which such area extends. Sub-
                    ject to the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, no State
                    shall have made available to it for application less than one-half
                    of 1 per centum of the annual appropriation for grants under this
                    section for grants to agencies within such State.
                         (c) MAINTENANCE OF EFFORT.—(1) No agency shall receive any
                    grant under this section during any fiscal year when its expendi-
                    tures of non-Federal funds for recurrent expenditures for air pollu-
                    tion control programs will be less than its expenditures were for
                    such programs during the preceding fiscal year. In order for the
                    Administrator to award grants under this section in a timely man-
                    ner each fiscal year, the Administrator shall compare an agency’s
                    prospective expenditure level to that of its second preceding fiscal
                    year. The Administrator shall revise the current regulations which
                    define applicable nonrecurrent and recurrent expenditures, and in
                    so doing, give due consideration to exempting an agency from the
                    limitations of this paragraph and subsection (a) due to periodic in-
                    creases experienced by that agency from time to time in its annual
                    expenditures for purposes acceptable to the Administrator for that
                    fiscal year.
                         (2) The Administrator may still award a grant to an agency not
                    meeting the requirements of paragraph (l) 1 of this subsection if the
                    Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, de-
                    termines that a reduction in expenditures is attributable to a non-
                    selective reduction in the expenditures in the programs of all Exec-
                    utive branch agencies of the applicable unit of Government. No
                    agency shall receive any grant under this section with respect to
                    the maintenance of a program for the prevention and control of air
                    pollution unless the Administrator is satisfied that such a grant
                    will be so used to supplement and, to the extent practicable, in-
                    crease the level of State, local, or other non-Federal funds. No
                     1 Probably   should be paragraph (1).
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                    Sec. 106                                CLEAN AIR ACT                                           20

                    grants shall be made under this section until the Administrator
                    has consulted with the appropriate official as designated by the
                    Governor or Governors of the State or States affected.
                         (d) The Administrator, with the concurrence of any recipient of
                    a grant under this section may reduce the payments to such recipi-
                    ent by the amount of the pay, allowances, traveling expenses, and
                    any other costs in connection with the detail of any officer or em-
                    ployee to the recipient under section 301 of the Act, when such de-
                    tail is for the convenience of, and at the request of, such recipient
                    and for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Act. The
                    amount by which such payments have been reduced shall be avail-
                    able for payment of such costs by the Administrator, but shall, for
                    the purpose of determining the amount of any grant to a recipient
                    under subsection (a) of this section, be deemed to have been paid
                    to such agency.
                         (e) No application by a State for a grant under this section may
                    be disapproved by the Administrator without prior notice and op-
                    portunity for a public hearing in the affected State, and no commit-
                    ment or obligation of any funds under any such grant may be re-
                    voked or reduced without prior notice and opportunity for a public
                    hearing in the affected State (or in one of the affected States if
                    more than one State is affected).
                    [42 U.S.C. 7405]

                               INTERSTATE AIR QUALITY AGENCIES OR COMMISSIONS

                         SEC. 106. For the purpose of developing implementation plans
                    for any interstate air quality control region designated pursuant to
                    section 107 or of implementing section 176A (relating to control of
                    interstate air pollution) or section 184 (relating to control of inter-
                    state ozone pollution), the Administrator is authorized to pay, for
                    two years, up to 100 per centum of the air quality planning pro-
                    gram costs of any commission established under section 176A (re-
                    lating to control of interstate air pollution) or section 184 (relating
                    to control of interstate ozone pollution) or any agency designated
                    by the Governors of the affected States, which agency shall be ca-
                    pable of recommending to the Governors plans for implementation
                    of national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards
                    and shall include representation from the States and appropriate
                    political subdivisions within the air quality control region. After the
                    initial two-year period the Administrator is authorized to make
                    grants to such agency or such commission in an amount up to
                    three-fifths of the air quality implementation program costs of 1
                    such agency or commission.
                    [42 U.S.C. 7406]

                                               AIR QUALITY CONTROL REGIONS

                         SEC. 107. (a) Each State shall have the primary responsibility
                    for assuring air quality within the entire geographic area com-
                    prising such State by submitting an implementation plan for such
                      1 Section 102(f)(2) of Public Law 101–549 inserted ‘‘any commission established under section
                    176A (relating to control of interstate air pollution) or section 184 (relating to control of ozone
                    pollution)’’ after ‘‘program costs of’’ in section 106. The amendment was probably intended to
                    insert this language only in the first place these words appear.
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                    21                          CLEAN AIR ACT                      Sec. 107

                    State which will specify the manner in which national primary and
                    secondary ambient air quality standards will be achieved and
                    maintained within each air quality control region in such State.
                         (b) For purposes of developing and carrying out implementa-
                    tion plans under section 110—
                              (1) an air quality control region designated under this sec-
                         tion before the date of enactment of the Clean Air Amend-
                         ments of 1970, or a region designated after such date under
                         subsection (c), shall be an air quality control region; and
                              (2) the portion of such State which is not part of any such
                         designated region shall be an air quality control region, but
                         such portion may be subdivided by the State into two or more
                         air quality control regions with the approval of the Adminis-
                         trator.
                         (c) The Administrator shall, within 90 days after the date of
                    enactment of the Clean Air Amendments of 1970, after consultation
                    with appropriate State and local authorities, designate as an air
                    quality control region any interstate area or major intrastate area
                    which he deems necessary or appropriate for the attainment and
                    maintenance of ambient air quality standards. The Administrator
                    shall immediately notify the Governors of the affected States of any
                    designation made under this subsection.
                         (d) DESIGNATIONS.—
                              (1) DESIGNATIONS GENERALLY.—
                                   (A) SUBMISSION BY GOVERNORS OF INITIAL DESIGNA-
                            TIONS FOLLOWING PROMULGATION OF NEW OR                REVISED
                            STANDARDS.—By such date as the Administrator         may rea-
                            sonably require, but not later than 1 year after promulga-
                            tion of a new or revised national ambient air quality
                            standard for any pollutant under section 109, the Governor
                            of each State shall (and at any other time the Governor of
                            a State deems appropriate the Governor may) submit to
                            the Administrator a list of all areas (or portions thereof)
                            in the State, designating as—
                                      (i) nonattainment, any area that does not meet (or
                                 that contributes to ambient air quality in a nearby
                                 area that does not meet) the national primary or sec-
                                 ondary ambient air quality standard for the pollutant,
                                      (ii) attainment, any area (other than an area iden-
                                 tified in clause (i)) that meets the national primary or
                                 secondary ambient air quality standard for the pollut-
                                 ant, or
                                      (iii) unclassifiable, any area that cannot be classi-
                                 fied on the basis of available information as meeting
                                 or not meeting the national primary or secondary am-
                                 bient air quality standard for the pollutant.
                            The Administrator may not require the Governor to sub-
                            mit the required list sooner than 120 days after promul-
                            gating a new or revised national ambient air quality
                            standard.
                                 (B) PROMULGATION BY EPA OF DESIGNATIONS.—(i) Upon
                            promulgation or revision of a national ambient air quality
                            standard, the Administrator shall promulgate the designa-
                            tions of all areas (or portions thereof) submitted under
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                    Sec. 107                      CLEAN AIR ACT                           22

                               subparagraph (A) as expeditiously as practicable, but in no
                               case later than 2 years from the date of promulgation of
                               the new or revised national ambient air quality standard.
                               Such period may be extended for up to one year in the
                               event the Administrator has insufficient information to
                               promulgate the designations.
                                    (ii) In making the promulgations required under
                               clause (i), the Administrator may make such modifications
                               as the Administrator deems necessary to the designations
                               of the areas (or portions thereof) submitted under subpara-
                               graph (A) (including to the boundaries of such areas or
                               portions thereof). Whenever the Administrator intends to
                               make a modification, the Administrator shall notify the
                               State and provide such State with an opportunity to dem-
                               onstrate why any proposed modification is inappropriate.
                               The Administrator shall give such notification no later
                               than 120 days before the date the Administrator promul-
                               gates the designation, including any modification thereto.
                               If the Governor fails to submit the list in whole or in part,
                               as required under subparagraph (A), the Administrator
                               shall promulgate the designation that the Administrator
                               deems appropriate for any area (or portion thereof) not
                               designated by the State.
                                    (iii) If the Governor of any State, on the Governor’s
                               own motion, under subparagraph (A), submits a list of
                               areas (or portions thereof) in the State designated as non-
                               attainment, attainment, or unclassifiable, the Adminis-
                               trator shall act on such designations in accordance with
                               the procedures under paragraph (3) (relating to redesigna-
                               tion).
                                    (iv) A designation for an area (or portion thereof)
                               made pursuant to this subsection shall remain in effect
                               until the area (or portion thereof) is redesignated pursuant
                               to paragraph (3) or (4).
                                    (C) DESIGNATIONS BY OPERATION OF LAW.—(i) Any area
                               designated with respect to any air pollutant under the pro-
                               visions of paragraph (1) (A), (B), or (C) of this subsection
                               (as in effect immediately before the date of the enactment
                               of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990) is designated,
                               by operation of law, as a nonattainment area for such pol-
                               lutant within the meaning of subparagraph (A)(i).
                                    (ii) Any area designated with respect to any air pollut-
                               ant under the provisions of paragraph (1)(E) (as in effect
                               immediately before the date of the enactment of the Clean
                               Air Act Amendments of 1990) is designated by operation of
                               law, as an attainment area for such pollutant within the
                               meaning of subparagraph (A)(ii).
                                    (iii) Any area designated with respect to any air pol-
                               lutant under the provisions of paragraph (1)(D) (as in ef-
                               fect immediately before the date of the enactment of the
                               Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990) is designated, by oper-
                               ation of law, as an unclassifiable area for such pollutant
                               within the meaning of subparagraph (A)(iii).
February 24, 2004
Q:COMPENVIR1CLEANAIR.001


                    23                           CLEAN AIR ACT                      Sec. 107

                              (2) PUBLICATION OF DESIGNATIONS AND REDESIGNATIONS.—
                         (A) The Administrator shall publish a notice in the Federal
                         Register promulgating any designation under paragraph (1) or
                         (5), or announcing any designation under paragraph (4), or pro-
                         mulgating any redesignation under paragraph (3).
                              (B) Promulgation or announcement of a designation under
                         paragraph (1), (4) or (5) shall not be subject to the provisions
                         of sections 553 through 557 of title 5 of the United States Code
                         (relating to notice and comment), except nothing herein shall
                         be construed as precluding such public notice and comment
                         whenever possible.
                              (3) REDESIGNATION.—(A) Subject to the requirements of
                         subparagraph (E), and on the basis of air quality data, plan-
                         ning and control considerations, or any other air quality-re-
                         lated considerations the Administrator deems appropriate, the
                         Administrator may at any time notify the Governor of any
                         State that available information indicates that the designation
                         of any area or portion of an area within the State or interstate
                         area should be revised. In issuing such notification, which shall
                         be public, to the Governor, the Administrator shall provide
                         such information as the Administrator may have available ex-
                         plaining the basis for the notice.
                              (B) No later than 120 days after receiving a notification
                         under subparagraph (A), the Governor shall submit to the Ad-
                         ministrator such redesignation, if any, of the appropriate area
                         (or areas) or portion thereof within the State or interstate area,
                         as the Governor considers appropriate.
                              (C) No later than 120 days after the date described in sub-
                         paragraph (B) (or paragraph (1)(B)(iii)), the Administrator
                         shall promulgate the redesignation, if any, of the area or por-
                         tion thereof, submitted by the Governor in accordance with
                         subparagraph (B), making such modifications as the Adminis-
                         trator may deem necessary, in the same manner and under the
                         same procedure as is applicable under clause (ii) of paragraph
                         (1)(B), except that the phrase ‘‘60 days’’ shall be substituted for
                         the phrase ‘‘120 days’’ in that clause. If the Governor does not
                         submit, in accordance with subparagraph (B), a redesignation
                         for an area (or portion thereof) identified by the Administrator
                         under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall promulgate
                         such redesignation, if any, that the Administrator deems ap-
                         propriate.
                              (D) The Governor of any State may, on the Governor’s own
                         motion, submit to the Administrator a revised designation of
                         any area or portion thereof within the State. Within 18 months
                         of receipt of a complete State redesignation submittal, the Ad-
                         ministrator shall approve or deny such redesignation. The sub-
                         mission of a redesignation by a Governor shall not affect the
                         effectiveness or enforceability of the applicable implementation
                         plan for the State.
                              (E) The Administrator may not promulgate a redesignation
                         of a nonattainment area (or portion thereof) to attainment
                         unless—
                                   (i) the Administrator determines that the area has at-
                              tained the national ambient air quality standard;
February 24, 2004
Q:COMPENVIR1CLEANAIR.001


                    Sec. 107                   CLEAN AIR ACT                           24

                                 (ii) the Administrator has fully approved the applica-
                            ble implementation plan for the area under section 110(k);
                                 (iii) the Administrator determines that the improve-
                            ment in air quality is due to permanent and enforceable
                            reductions in emissions resulting from implementation of
                            the applicable implementation plan and applicable Federal
                            air pollutant control regulations and other permanent and
                            enforceable reductions;
                                 (iv) the Administrator has fully approved a mainte-
                            nance plan for the area as meeting the requirements of
                            section 175A; and
                                 (v) the State containing such area has met all require-
                            ments applicable to the area under section 110 and part D.
                            (F) The Administrator shall not promulgate any redesigna-
                        tion of any area (or portion thereof) from nonattainment to
                        unclassifiable.
                            (4) NONATTAINMENT DESIGNATIONS FOR OZONE, CARBON
                        MONOXIDE AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM–10).—
                                 (A) OZONE AND CARBON MONOXIDE.—(i) Within 120
                            days after the date of the enactment of the Clean Air Act
                            Amendments of 1990, each Governor of each State shall
                            submit to the Administrator a list that designates, affirms
                            or reaffirms the designation of, or redesignates (as the case
                            may be), all areas (or portions thereof) of the Governor’s
                            State as attainment, nonattainment, or unclassifiable with
                            respect to the national ambient air quality standards for
                            ozone and carbon monoxide.
                                 (ii) No later than 120 days after the date the Governor
                            is required to submit the list of areas (or portions thereof)
                            required under clause (i) of this subparagraph, the Admin-
                            istrator shall promulgate such designations, making such
                            modifications as the Administrator may deem necessary,
                            in the same manner, and under the same procedure, as is
                            applicable under clause (ii) of paragraph (1)(B), except that
                            the phrase ‘‘60 days’’ shall be substituted for the phrase
                            ‘‘120 days’’ in that clause. If the Governor does not submit,
                            in accordance with clause (i) of this subparagraph, a des-
                            ignation for an area (or portion thereof), the Administrator
                            shall promulgate the designation that the Administrator
                            deems appropriate.
                                 (iii) No nonattainment area may be redesignated as an
                            attainment area under this subparagraph.
                                 (iv) Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(C)(ii) of this sub-
                            section, if an ozone or carbon monoxide nonattainment
                            area located within a metropolitan statistical area or con-
                            solidated metropolitan statistical area (as established by
                            the Bureau of the Census) is classified under part D of this
                            title as a Serious, Severe, or Extreme Area, the boundaries
                            of such area are hereby revised (on the date 45 days after
                            such classification) by operation of law to include the en-
                            tire metropolitan statistical area or consolidated metropoli-
                            tan statistical area, as the case may be, unless within such
                            45-day period the Governor (in consultation with State and
                            local air pollution control agencies) notifies the Adminis-
February 24, 2004
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