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Chemistry Project
A PROJECT REPORT ON
“STUDY OF COMMON FOOD ADULTERANTS IN FATS, OIL, BUTTER, GHEE, TURMERIC POWDER, CHILLI
POWDER AND PEPPER.”
DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL
ROORKEE
SESSION 2023-24
Submitted By: Pranav Anil
Class- XII – B (Science)
Roll No.-
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
PGT(CHEMISTRY)
Certificate
This is to certify that the project “STUDY OF COMMON FOOD
ADULTERANTS IN FATS, OIL, BUTTER, GHEE, TURMERIC POWDER,
CHILLI POWDER AND PEPPER.” prepared by Pranav Anil, studying in
CLASS 12B of DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL, ROORKEE is in the partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the chemistry practical examination of
SSCE 2024.
This is also certified that the project report submitted by Pranav Anil is an
authentic record of the experimental work completed successfully in the
laboratory, under my supervision.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Ankit Garg, our
esteemed subject teacher, for his invaluable guidance and
unwavering support throughout the completion of this project. His
expertise, encouragement, and constructive feedback have
played a pivotal role in shaping the content and quality of our
work.
I extend my heartfelt thanks to Ms. Priya Kaushik, our respected
Principal, for providing us with the conducive learning
environment and resources that enabled us to undertake and
accomplish this project.
I am also thankful to my peers who collaborated on this project,
contributing their unique insights and efforts.
- PRANAV ANIL
Introduction
In the past few decades, adulteration of
food has become one of the serious
problems. Consumption of adulterated food
causes serious diseases like cancer,
diarrhea, asthma, ulcers etc. Majority of
adulterants used by the shopkeepers are
cheap substitutes easily available. For
example, adulterants in fats, oils and butter
are paraffin wax, castor oil and
hydrocarbons. Red chilli powder is mixed
with brick powder and pepper is mixed with
dried papaya seeds. These adulterants can
be easily identified by simple chemical tests.
OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT
The aim of this project is to study
some of the common food
adulterants present in different
food- stuffs.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
01
03
02
04
STATEMENT OF
OBJECTS AND
REASONS
IMPACT OF
ADULTERANTS
EXPERIMENT-1 EXPERIMENT-2
05 06
EXPERIMENT-3 OBSERVATIONS
STATEMENT
OF OBJECTS
AND
REASONs:
01
Laws existed in a number of States in India for the prevention of adulteration of
food- stuffs, but they lacked uniformity having been passed at different times
without mutual consultation between States. The need for Central legislation for
the whole country in this matter has been felt since 1937 when a committee
appointed by the Central Advisory Board of Health recommended this step.
‘Adulteration of food-stuffs and other goods’ is now included in the Concurrent
List (III) in the Constitution of India. It has, therefore, become possible for the
Central Government to enact all India legislation on this subject. The Bill replaces
all local food adulteration laws where they exist and also applies to those States
where there are no local laws on the subject. Among others, it provides for -
i. A Central Food Laboratory to which food
samples can be referred to for final opinion in
disputed cases (clause 4),
ii. A Central Committee for Food Standards
consisting of representatives of Central and
State Governments to advise on matters arising
from the administration of the Act (clause 3).
The vesting in the Central Government of the rule-
making power regarding standards of quality for
the articles of food and certain other matters
(clause 22).
ACT 37 OF 1954: The Prevention of Food Adulteration Bill
was passed by both the house of Parliament and
received the assent of the President on 29th September,
1954. It came into force on 1st June, 1955 as THE
PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION ACT, 1954 (37 of
1954).
LIST OF ADAPTATION ORDER AND AMENDING ACTs:
1. The Adaptation of Laws (No.3) Order, 1956.
2. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act,
1964 (49 of 1964).
3. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act,
1971 (41 of 1971).
4. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act,
1976 (34 of 1976).
5. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act,
1986 (70 of 1986).
OTHER ACTS AND AMENDMENTS:
GOVERNMENT MEASURES:
To check the suppliers of food from doing so, the
government has passed a stringent act which is known
as preservation of food Adulteration Act. They have
been implemented with the objective of providing
safety to human beings in the supply of food. It covers
safety from risks involved due to contamination of
poisonous elements. The specification laid down of
various foods under the provisions of PFA Act covers
minimum basic characteristics Of the Products Below
which it is deemed to be adulterated and also covers
the maximum limit of contaminant not considered
being safe for human beings beyond a certain level.
By taking a few precautions, we can escape from consuming
adulterated products.
1. Take only packed items of well-known companies.
2. Buy items from reliable retail shops and recognized outlets.
3. Check the ISI mark or Agmark.
4. Buy products of only air tight popular brands.
5. Avoid craze for artificially coloured sweets and buy only
from reputed shops.
6. Do not buy sweets or snacks kept in open.
7. Avoid buying things from street side vendors.
PRECAUTIONS
IMPACT OF
ADULTERANTS
02
Every day we hear and watch live on television sets how the food
items are being adulterated and this spurious, unhygienic and
harmful food is entering our houses. We have seen how milk and
milk products are being made from urea, soap and other harmful
chemicals. We all know that vegetables are being given injections
to make them grow faster and overnight. The other day we saw
how steroids were being injected to chickens to make them into a
hen in a very short span of time. We have also come across
evidence as to how the fruits are being ripened with the use of
harmful chemicals. Adulteration of food causes several health
problems in humans. Some of the health hazards include stomach
ache, body ache, anemia, paralysis, and increase in the incidence
of tumors, pathological lesions in vital organs, abnormalities of
skin and eyes. Hence food adulteration should be given great
importance due to its effect in the health significance of the public.
The people are suffering from heart disease, kidney failure, skin
diseases, asthma and other chronic diseases. The people are
hapless victims of this adulteration industry running in full swing
and unchecked.
IMPACTS ON HEALTH AND ORGANS OF
DIFFERENT ADULTERANTS
Experiment - 1
04
(To detect the presence of adulterants
in fat, oil and butter.)
Experiment - 1
AIM: To detect the presence of
adulterants in fat, oil and butter.
REQUIREMENTS:
• Test-tube
• conc. HCI
• furfural
• acetic anhydride
• conc. H₂SO₄
• acetic acid
• conc. HNO3.
Common adulterants present in ghee and oil are paraffin wax, hydrocarbons, dyes
and argemone il. These are detected as follows:
(i) Adulteration of vegetable ghee(vanaspati) in desi ghee [Baudouin test]
Take small amount of desi ghee in a test-tube and add to it 1 ml of HCl and 2-3
drops of 2% alcoholic solution of furfural. Shake the contents vigorously.
Appearance of red colour in the acid layer shows that vegetable ghee has been
mixed as an adulterant to desi ghee.
(ii) Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee
Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride. Droplets of oil
floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride indicates the presence of wax
or hydrocarbon.
(iii) Adulteration of dyes in fats
Heat 1 ml of fat with a mixture of 1 ml of conc. sulphuric acid and 4 ml of acetic
acid. Appearance of pink or red colour indicates presence of dye in fat.
(iv) Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils
to small amount of oil in a test-tube, add few drops of conc. HNO3 and shake.
Appearance of red colour in the acid layer indicates presence of argemone oil.
Procedure:
Experiment - 2
04
(To detect the presence of
adulterants in sugar.)
Experiment - 2
AIM: To detect the presence
of adulterants in sugar.
REQUIREMENTS:
• Test-tubes
• conc. H₂SO₄
• alcoholic solution of
a-naphthol
• dilute HCl.
Procedure:
Sugar is usually contaminated with washing soda and other
insoluble substances which are detected as follows:
(i) Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugar
Take small amount of sugar in a test-tube and shake it with little
water. Pure sugar dissolves in water but insoluble impurities do not
dissolve.
ii) Adulteration of chalk powder, washing soda in sugar
To small amount of sugar in a test-tube, add few drops of dil. HCl.
Brisk effervescence of CO2 shows the presence of chalk powder or
washing soda in the given sample of sugar.
Experiment - 3
05
(To detect the presence of adulterants in
samples of chilli powder, turmeric powder
and pepper.)
Experiment - 3
AIM: To detect the presence
of adulterants in samples of
chilli powder, turmeric
powder and pepper.
REQUIREMENTS:
• Test-tubes
• conc. HCl
• dil. HNO3
• KI solution.
Procedure:
Common adulterants present in chilli powder, turmeric powder and pepper
are red coloured lead salts, yellow lead salts and dried papaya seeds
respectively. They are detected as follows:
(i) Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder:
To a sample of chilli powder add dil. HNO3. Filter the solution
and add 2 drops of potassium iodide solution to the filtrate.
Yellow ppt. indicates the presence of lead salts in chilli
powder.
(ii) Adulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric powder:
To a sample of turmeric powder add conc. HCl. Appearance of
magenta colour shows the presence of yellow oxides of lead in
turmeric powder.
(iii) Adulteration of brick powder in red chilli powder:
Add small amount of given red chilli powder in beaker
containing water. Brick powder settles at the bottom while pure
chilli powder floats over water.
(iv) Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in pepper:
Add small amount of sample of pepper to a beaker containing
water and stir with a glass rod. Dried papaya seeds being lighter
float over water while pure pepper settles at the bottom
OBERVATIONS
06
Experime
nt No.
Experiment Procedure Observation
1. Baudouin test Mix desi ghee in a test-tube
and add 1 ml of HCl and 2-3
drops of 2% alcoholic solution
of furfural.
Appearance of red
colour implying the
adulteration of
vegetable ghee
2. Adulteration of
paraffin wax
and hydrocarbo
n in vegetable
ghee
Heat small amount of
vegetable ghee with acetic
anhydride. Droplets of oil
floating on the surface of
unused acetic anhydride
indicate the presence of wax
or hydrocarbon.
Appearance of oil
floating on the
surface.
3. Adulteration of
dyes in fat
Heat 1mL of fat with a
mixture of 1mL of conc.
H2SO4 and 4mL of acetic
acid.
Appearance of pink
colour.
4 Adulteration of
argemone oil in
edible oils
To small amount of oil in a
test tube, add few drops of
conc. HNO3 & shake.
No red colour Observed.
5 Adulteration of
various insoluble
substances in sugar
Take small amount of sugar
in a test tube and shake it
with little water.
Pure sugar dissolves
inwater butinsoluble
impurities do not
dissolve.
6 Adulteration of red
lead salts in
chilli powder
To a sample of chilli powder,
add dil. HNO3. Filter the
solution and add 2 drops of
KI solution to the filtrate.
No yellow ppt.
7 Adulteration of
brick powder in
chilli powder
Add small amount of given
red chilli powder in a beaker
containing water.
Brick powder settles at
the bottom while pure
chilli powder floats over
water.
8 Adulteration of
dried papaya seeds
in Pepper
Add small amount of sample
of pepper to beaker
containing water and stir
with a glass rod.
Dried papaya seeds
being lighter float over
water while pure pepper
settles
Conclusions
"Ensuring the selection of safe and unadulterated food is crucial
for daily well-being, as it prevents potential health hazards.
Visual inspection alone may not guarantee the absence of toxic
contaminants at the parts per million level. However, a careful
examination of food before purchase, looking for signs of
insects, visible fungus, foreign matter, etc., is a prudent step.
Additionally, the information provided on the label of packaged
food is vital for understanding ingredients, nutritional value,
freshness, and the recommended period for consumption.
Consumers are advised to exercise caution and avoid
purchasing food from unhygienic sources or establishments
with poor sanitation practices, as such food may lead to various
illnesses. It is advisable to steer clear of cut fruits being sold
under unhygienic conditions. Opting for certified food from
reputable shops is always a safer choice.
In conclusion, adopting these practices empowers consumers
to make informed choices, safeguarding their health and well-
Help from Internet, following links have
been majorly used for the completion of this
project:
● https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ADULTERANTS
● https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
● https://www.medindia.net
Bibliography
CREDITS: This presentation template was created by Slidesgo, and includes icons by
Flaticon, and infographics & images by Freepik
Thank
You!
Please keep this slide for attribution
Chemistry Investigatory Project
By Pranav Anil | Class XII-B |
Roll No. - 25628063
Submitted to

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CLASS12_ADULTERATION_CHEMISTRYPROJECT.pptx

  • 1. Chemistry Project A PROJECT REPORT ON “STUDY OF COMMON FOOD ADULTERANTS IN FATS, OIL, BUTTER, GHEE, TURMERIC POWDER, CHILLI POWDER AND PEPPER.” DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL ROORKEE SESSION 2023-24 Submitted By: Pranav Anil Class- XII – B (Science) Roll No.- UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF PGT(CHEMISTRY)
  • 2. Certificate This is to certify that the project “STUDY OF COMMON FOOD ADULTERANTS IN FATS, OIL, BUTTER, GHEE, TURMERIC POWDER, CHILLI POWDER AND PEPPER.” prepared by Pranav Anil, studying in CLASS 12B of DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL, ROORKEE is in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the chemistry practical examination of SSCE 2024. This is also certified that the project report submitted by Pranav Anil is an authentic record of the experimental work completed successfully in the laboratory, under my supervision.
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Ankit Garg, our esteemed subject teacher, for his invaluable guidance and unwavering support throughout the completion of this project. His expertise, encouragement, and constructive feedback have played a pivotal role in shaping the content and quality of our work. I extend my heartfelt thanks to Ms. Priya Kaushik, our respected Principal, for providing us with the conducive learning environment and resources that enabled us to undertake and accomplish this project. I am also thankful to my peers who collaborated on this project, contributing their unique insights and efforts. - PRANAV ANIL
  • 4. Introduction In the past few decades, adulteration of food has become one of the serious problems. Consumption of adulterated food causes serious diseases like cancer, diarrhea, asthma, ulcers etc. Majority of adulterants used by the shopkeepers are cheap substitutes easily available. For example, adulterants in fats, oils and butter are paraffin wax, castor oil and hydrocarbons. Red chilli powder is mixed with brick powder and pepper is mixed with dried papaya seeds. These adulterants can be easily identified by simple chemical tests.
  • 5. OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT The aim of this project is to study some of the common food adulterants present in different food- stuffs.
  • 6. TABLE OF CONTENTS 01 03 02 04 STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS IMPACT OF ADULTERANTS EXPERIMENT-1 EXPERIMENT-2 05 06 EXPERIMENT-3 OBSERVATIONS
  • 8. Laws existed in a number of States in India for the prevention of adulteration of food- stuffs, but they lacked uniformity having been passed at different times without mutual consultation between States. The need for Central legislation for the whole country in this matter has been felt since 1937 when a committee appointed by the Central Advisory Board of Health recommended this step. ‘Adulteration of food-stuffs and other goods’ is now included in the Concurrent List (III) in the Constitution of India. It has, therefore, become possible for the Central Government to enact all India legislation on this subject. The Bill replaces all local food adulteration laws where they exist and also applies to those States where there are no local laws on the subject. Among others, it provides for - i. A Central Food Laboratory to which food samples can be referred to for final opinion in disputed cases (clause 4), ii. A Central Committee for Food Standards consisting of representatives of Central and State Governments to advise on matters arising from the administration of the Act (clause 3). The vesting in the Central Government of the rule- making power regarding standards of quality for the articles of food and certain other matters (clause 22).
  • 9. ACT 37 OF 1954: The Prevention of Food Adulteration Bill was passed by both the house of Parliament and received the assent of the President on 29th September, 1954. It came into force on 1st June, 1955 as THE PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION ACT, 1954 (37 of 1954). LIST OF ADAPTATION ORDER AND AMENDING ACTs: 1. The Adaptation of Laws (No.3) Order, 1956. 2. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act, 1964 (49 of 1964). 3. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act, 1971 (41 of 1971). 4. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act, 1976 (34 of 1976). 5. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act, 1986 (70 of 1986). OTHER ACTS AND AMENDMENTS:
  • 10. GOVERNMENT MEASURES: To check the suppliers of food from doing so, the government has passed a stringent act which is known as preservation of food Adulteration Act. They have been implemented with the objective of providing safety to human beings in the supply of food. It covers safety from risks involved due to contamination of poisonous elements. The specification laid down of various foods under the provisions of PFA Act covers minimum basic characteristics Of the Products Below which it is deemed to be adulterated and also covers the maximum limit of contaminant not considered being safe for human beings beyond a certain level.
  • 11. By taking a few precautions, we can escape from consuming adulterated products. 1. Take only packed items of well-known companies. 2. Buy items from reliable retail shops and recognized outlets. 3. Check the ISI mark or Agmark. 4. Buy products of only air tight popular brands. 5. Avoid craze for artificially coloured sweets and buy only from reputed shops. 6. Do not buy sweets or snacks kept in open. 7. Avoid buying things from street side vendors. PRECAUTIONS
  • 13. Every day we hear and watch live on television sets how the food items are being adulterated and this spurious, unhygienic and harmful food is entering our houses. We have seen how milk and milk products are being made from urea, soap and other harmful chemicals. We all know that vegetables are being given injections to make them grow faster and overnight. The other day we saw how steroids were being injected to chickens to make them into a hen in a very short span of time. We have also come across evidence as to how the fruits are being ripened with the use of harmful chemicals. Adulteration of food causes several health problems in humans. Some of the health hazards include stomach ache, body ache, anemia, paralysis, and increase in the incidence of tumors, pathological lesions in vital organs, abnormalities of skin and eyes. Hence food adulteration should be given great importance due to its effect in the health significance of the public. The people are suffering from heart disease, kidney failure, skin diseases, asthma and other chronic diseases. The people are hapless victims of this adulteration industry running in full swing and unchecked.
  • 14. IMPACTS ON HEALTH AND ORGANS OF DIFFERENT ADULTERANTS
  • 15. Experiment - 1 04 (To detect the presence of adulterants in fat, oil and butter.)
  • 16. Experiment - 1 AIM: To detect the presence of adulterants in fat, oil and butter. REQUIREMENTS: • Test-tube • conc. HCI • furfural • acetic anhydride • conc. H₂SO₄ • acetic acid • conc. HNO3.
  • 17. Common adulterants present in ghee and oil are paraffin wax, hydrocarbons, dyes and argemone il. These are detected as follows: (i) Adulteration of vegetable ghee(vanaspati) in desi ghee [Baudouin test] Take small amount of desi ghee in a test-tube and add to it 1 ml of HCl and 2-3 drops of 2% alcoholic solution of furfural. Shake the contents vigorously. Appearance of red colour in the acid layer shows that vegetable ghee has been mixed as an adulterant to desi ghee. (ii) Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride. Droplets of oil floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride indicates the presence of wax or hydrocarbon. (iii) Adulteration of dyes in fats Heat 1 ml of fat with a mixture of 1 ml of conc. sulphuric acid and 4 ml of acetic acid. Appearance of pink or red colour indicates presence of dye in fat. (iv) Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils to small amount of oil in a test-tube, add few drops of conc. HNO3 and shake. Appearance of red colour in the acid layer indicates presence of argemone oil. Procedure:
  • 18. Experiment - 2 04 (To detect the presence of adulterants in sugar.)
  • 19. Experiment - 2 AIM: To detect the presence of adulterants in sugar. REQUIREMENTS: • Test-tubes • conc. H₂SO₄ • alcoholic solution of a-naphthol • dilute HCl.
  • 20. Procedure: Sugar is usually contaminated with washing soda and other insoluble substances which are detected as follows: (i) Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugar Take small amount of sugar in a test-tube and shake it with little water. Pure sugar dissolves in water but insoluble impurities do not dissolve. ii) Adulteration of chalk powder, washing soda in sugar To small amount of sugar in a test-tube, add few drops of dil. HCl. Brisk effervescence of CO2 shows the presence of chalk powder or washing soda in the given sample of sugar.
  • 21. Experiment - 3 05 (To detect the presence of adulterants in samples of chilli powder, turmeric powder and pepper.)
  • 22. Experiment - 3 AIM: To detect the presence of adulterants in samples of chilli powder, turmeric powder and pepper. REQUIREMENTS: • Test-tubes • conc. HCl • dil. HNO3 • KI solution.
  • 23. Procedure: Common adulterants present in chilli powder, turmeric powder and pepper are red coloured lead salts, yellow lead salts and dried papaya seeds respectively. They are detected as follows: (i) Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder: To a sample of chilli powder add dil. HNO3. Filter the solution and add 2 drops of potassium iodide solution to the filtrate. Yellow ppt. indicates the presence of lead salts in chilli powder. (ii) Adulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric powder: To a sample of turmeric powder add conc. HCl. Appearance of magenta colour shows the presence of yellow oxides of lead in turmeric powder. (iii) Adulteration of brick powder in red chilli powder: Add small amount of given red chilli powder in beaker containing water. Brick powder settles at the bottom while pure chilli powder floats over water. (iv) Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in pepper: Add small amount of sample of pepper to a beaker containing water and stir with a glass rod. Dried papaya seeds being lighter float over water while pure pepper settles at the bottom
  • 24. OBERVATIONS 06 Experime nt No. Experiment Procedure Observation 1. Baudouin test Mix desi ghee in a test-tube and add 1 ml of HCl and 2-3 drops of 2% alcoholic solution of furfural. Appearance of red colour implying the adulteration of vegetable ghee 2. Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbo n in vegetable ghee Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride. Droplets of oil floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride indicate the presence of wax or hydrocarbon. Appearance of oil floating on the surface. 3. Adulteration of dyes in fat Heat 1mL of fat with a mixture of 1mL of conc. H2SO4 and 4mL of acetic acid. Appearance of pink colour.
  • 25. 4 Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils To small amount of oil in a test tube, add few drops of conc. HNO3 & shake. No red colour Observed. 5 Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugar Take small amount of sugar in a test tube and shake it with little water. Pure sugar dissolves inwater butinsoluble impurities do not dissolve. 6 Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder To a sample of chilli powder, add dil. HNO3. Filter the solution and add 2 drops of KI solution to the filtrate. No yellow ppt. 7 Adulteration of brick powder in chilli powder Add small amount of given red chilli powder in a beaker containing water. Brick powder settles at the bottom while pure chilli powder floats over water. 8 Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in Pepper Add small amount of sample of pepper to beaker containing water and stir with a glass rod. Dried papaya seeds being lighter float over water while pure pepper settles
  • 26. Conclusions "Ensuring the selection of safe and unadulterated food is crucial for daily well-being, as it prevents potential health hazards. Visual inspection alone may not guarantee the absence of toxic contaminants at the parts per million level. However, a careful examination of food before purchase, looking for signs of insects, visible fungus, foreign matter, etc., is a prudent step. Additionally, the information provided on the label of packaged food is vital for understanding ingredients, nutritional value, freshness, and the recommended period for consumption. Consumers are advised to exercise caution and avoid purchasing food from unhygienic sources or establishments with poor sanitation practices, as such food may lead to various illnesses. It is advisable to steer clear of cut fruits being sold under unhygienic conditions. Opting for certified food from reputable shops is always a safer choice. In conclusion, adopting these practices empowers consumers to make informed choices, safeguarding their health and well-
  • 27. Help from Internet, following links have been majorly used for the completion of this project: ● https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ADULTERANTS ● https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ● https://www.medindia.net Bibliography
  • 28. CREDITS: This presentation template was created by Slidesgo, and includes icons by Flaticon, and infographics & images by Freepik Thank You! Please keep this slide for attribution Chemistry Investigatory Project By Pranav Anil | Class XII-B | Roll No. - 25628063 Submitted to