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1
Clarity
The Essence
of Lean Management
Karen Martin, President
2
CLARITY
FOCUS
DISCIPLINE
ENGAGEMENT
THE
OUTSTANDING
ORGANIZATION
OutstandingOrg.com
3
CAN I
PARK
HERE?
Ambiguity complicates,
slows, frustrates…
and is expensive
Akiyoshi Kitaoka
COHERENCE
P R E C I S I O N
ELEGANCE
CLARITY TYPES
Consistently pursues
clarity as an information
provider and recipient
CLARITY PURSUER
Type 1: Intentional deceit
Type 2: Strategic ambiguity
Type 3: Willful ignorance
CLARITY AVOIDER
Type 1: Unaware
Type 2: Aware; cannot perceive
CLARITY BLIND
9
10
11
12
14
180+
COGNITIVE
BIASES
IUMRINC TO GQNGIUSIQNS
JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS
16
FEAR
17
PURPOSE PRIORITIES PROCESS PERFORMANCE PROBLEM
SOLVING
Clarity & Lean Management
THE FIVE P’S
© 2020 TKMG, Inc.
www.clarityfirstbook.com
18
PURPOSE PRIORITIES PROCESS PERFORMANCE PROBLEM
SOLVING
THE FIVE P’S
© 2020 TKMG, Inc.
19
WHY DO YOU DO WHAT YOU DO
20
Mining for an
organization’s
purpose
21
PURPOSE PRIORITIES PROCESS PERFORMANCE PROBLEM
SOLVING
THE FIVE P’S
© 2020 TKMG, Inc.
© 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 22
23
There’s no such thing
as multitasking.*
* For cognitive tasks.
24
• A clear, focused, disciplined,
and deeply engaging
approach to
• achieve measurable
business goals that
• enable the organization
to realize its strategy and
• stay true to its purpose.
Strategy Deployment: Defined
Focus Law #1:
STOP DOING
Focus Law #2:
DO FEWER THINGS
AT ONCE
25
Completed Projects of Similar Complexity (annual)
26
24
73
Pre-Focus Post-Focus
• No additional resources
• Higher quality results
27
PURPOSE PRIORITIES PROCESS PERFORMANCE PROBLEM
SOLVING
THE FIVE P’S
© 2020 TKMG, Inc.
28
Customer
0.0 hrs.
0.5 days
1.0 hrs.
5.0 days
3.6 hrs.
0.6 days
0.0 hrs.
1.0 days
0.2 hrs.
0.5 days
16.0 hrs. 0.0 hrs.
7.0 days
8.0 hrs. 0.0 hrs.
7.0 days
0.1 hrs.
26.0 days
0.0 hrs.
0.2 days Total LT = 50.8 days
Total PT = 29.0 hrs.
Activity Ratio = 7%
SAP
Summary
Invoice
(Excel)
Obtain Order;
Enter Order in
Offline Order
Form
Sales
(Key at night)
LT = 4.5 hrs.
PT = 18 mins.
%C&A: 80%
1
Review &
Release
Credit Holds
Sales
LT = 4 hrs.
PT = 10 mins.
%C&A: 99%
3
Issue DO To
Transporter;
Create Pick
List
WH1
LT = 8 hrs.
PT = 1 mins.
%C&A: 95%
5
Pick
& Load
Order
Logistics
LT = 4 hrs.
PT = 15 mins.
%C&A: 95%
6
Collect
POD from
Customer
Transporter
LT = 2 days
7
Collect POD
From
Transporter
WH1
LT = 7 days
PT = 1 mins.
%C&A: 99%
8
Deliver
POD to
A
ccounting
Messenger
Batch = 1x/day
LT = 1 days
9
Review POD
For
A
ccuracy
A
ccounting
LT = 7 days
PT = 2 mins.
%C&A: 99%
10
Deliv er Bill;
Collect from
Customer;
Deposit
Sales
Batch = 1x
monthly
LT = 26 days
PT = 5 mins.
11
Current State VSM: VMO3 UPC
40 Orders/Day
18,000 Cases /Day
COLOR LEGEND
Logistics / W arehouse
Sales
Order Management
Production
10%
90%
Produce
Product
Plant 1
LT = 280 mins.
PT = 215 mins.
%C&A: 99%
4B
Pick
& Load
Order
WH2
LT = 40 mins.
PT = 3 mins.
%C&A: 99%
5B
40 Days Delivery to Payment Received
3.5 Days Order Receipt to Ship
MonthlySales Volume
Wk 1 = 14-23%
Wk 2 = 19-24%
Wk 3 = 23-25%
Wk 4 = 30-42%
Obtain &
Revise Sales
Forecast
Sales
LT = 0 days
PT = 270 mins.
%C&A: 99%
1B
Hold S&OP
Meeting
6-7 People
LT = 5 days
PT = 3 hrs.
%C&A: 99%
2B
Create
Production
Plan
Production
Planning
LT = 5 days
PT = 1 hrs.
%C&A: 99%
3B
Produce
Product
Plant 2
LT = 280 mins.
PT = 215 mins.
%C&A: 99%
4C
Offline
Order
Form
Enter
Payment;
Clear Billing
A
ccounting
LT = 2 hrs.
PT = 1 mins.
%C&A: 99%
12
Accounting
Delivery
Order
(DO)
Sales
Order
Form
Pick
List
Proof of
Delivery
(POD)
Transfer
Report
Prod.
Plan
Check
Stock &
Reallocate
Logistics &
Warehouse
Batch = 1x/day
LT = 4 hrs.
PT = 2 mins.
%C&A: 99%
4
Upload
PDF
Order
Mgmt
LT = 4 hrs.
PT = 1 mins.
%C&A: 95%
2
Prod.
Plan
Supplier
Receive
Material
Store
3C
Bill
collector
(Excel)
Current State Value Stream Map
Visualize an entire work system on a single sheet of paper
29
Value Stream Maps Help Visualize
Information Management Problems
Standard Work:
Work Instructions
30
31
32
PURPOSE PRIORITIES PROCESS PERFORMANCE PROBLEM
SOLVING
THE FIVE P’S
© 2020 TKMG, Inc.
33
34
LEVEL 3 SCORECARD
Saved in Lesson 4 -
Anthony’s PSD files as
V2
36
PURPOSE PRIORITIES PROCESS PERFORMANCE PROBLEM
SOLVING
THE FIVE P’S
© 2020 TKMG, Inc.
37
P D S A © 2020 Karen Martin
Clarity First, pp 168-209
www.clarityfirstbook.com
38
Problem Countermeasures / Implementation Plan
- Ÿ
32% of customers dissatisfied with office space cleanliness
- 80% of emergency service requests are to wrong contact - Standard work for restroom cleaning
- Standard work checklist for non-routine items
- Service levels vary by building - Standard process for measuring & mixing chemicals
- 10% of daily staffing available is allocated to travel/check in time - Restroom cleaning log
- Standard facility service plan (Plan A & Plan B)
Current Condition - Modify & standardize process for unplanned absences
- 31 Facility areas require custodial services - Modify starting points and schedules to reduce transportation waste
- Evaluate fleet availability to reduce waiting waste
Effect Confirmation
Target Conditions/Measurable Objectives
- 80% Daily staffing availability
- 50% Improvement - customer satisfaction with restroom cleanliness
- Defined standard work (for custodial staff and customers)
Follow Up Actions
Root Cause & Gap Analysis
- Undefined level of service (office parties, special events)
- No defined process for unplanned absences (calling in, redistribute work, etc.)
- Inconsistent availability of communication tools (vary by building)
- No defined process for requesting/responding to emergencies
- Variation in cleaning schedules versus facility operating schedules
- Unpredictable daily staffing
- Travel time + Check in Time = 16.00 hrs/day = 2 FTE
- Customer requested personalized service (newspaper delivery, parties, trash)
CUSTODIAL SERVICES
A3
Plan Do, Check, Act
- 22% of customers dissatisfied with restroom cleanliness
8%
20%
8%
14%
17%
33%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
Phone Call
to
Custodian
Phone Call
to Custodial
Supervisor
Phone Call
to Custodial
Manager
Phone Call
to Public
Works
Dispatch
(x6000)
Email Notify
Custodial
Staff On Site
Survey: When you require emergency
services, how do you request them?
32%
22%
19% 18%
6%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
Office Spaces Restrooms Common
Areas
Overall Conference
Rooms
Survey: Custodial Services - Areas of
Dissatisfaction
Travel/ Check
In Time
16.00 10%
Absent Staff
24.00 15%
Vacancies
24.00 15%
Special Events
2.00 1%
Staff Available
94.00
59%
Daily Staffing Availability
(Hours)
41% ofdaily
staffing is
unavailable for
custodial tasks
T itle # Staff H rs/ Wk H rs/ D ay
Lead Custodian 4 1
60 32
FT Custodian 8 520 64
FT Custodian (Vacant) 2 80 1
6
PT/Perm (avg 30 hrs each) 3 90 24
PT/Temp (avg 20 hrs each) 3 60 24
T o tal 20 910 160
Travel/Check In
Time 8.00 5%
Absent Staff
24.00 15%
Special Events
2.00 1%
Current State Staff
Available
94.00
50%
PI Time Savings
15.00 9%
Fill Vacancies
24.00 15%
Reduced
Travel/Check In
Time 8.00 5%
Staff Available
126.00
79%
Future State Daily Staffing Availability (Hours)
22%
10%
12%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
Dissatisfied Customers
(Current)
Target
Future State Restroom Cleanliness
Customer Satisfaction
Current Actual Result
State (+ 60 days)
Customers dissatisfied with restroom cleanliness 22% <10%
Avg minutes per restroom cleaning 35 30
Avg hours per day cleaning restrooms (184 restrooms) 107 92
Daily staffing availability 59% 80%
Daily travel/check in time (hours/day) 16 8
Travel miles per day 139 <70
Metric Projected
Remaining Actions Owner 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Explore options to improve cell phone availability Mark R.
Define process for requesting and responding to emergencies Custodial Supvs
Equip carts for recycling Mark R.
Process mapping for specialized facilities Mark R.
Standardize Cart Equipment & Supplies Custodial Supvs
Process improvement for other facility types, e.g. offices, common
areas, etc.
Mark R.
Consider alternative staffing models (floaters, modified shifts) Mark R.
Actively manage vacancies Mark R.
Implementation Schedule (Months)
269
220
91
27 19 15
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Office Space Rec
Center/Gym
Library Shops Misc. Animal
Shelter
Work Hours per Week
by Facility Type
39
Go & See
Gemba
40
Clarity and YOU
THE
CLARITY
PAUSE
42
Lean management
lights the path to
excellence.
Clarity is at the
core of it all.
karen.martin@tkmg.com
LinkedIn: karenmartinopex
Twitter: karenmartinopex
43
tkmg.com
tkmgacademy.com

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Clarity the Essence of Lean Management

  • 1. 1 Clarity The Essence of Lean Management Karen Martin, President
  • 5.
  • 7. COHERENCE P R E C I S I O N ELEGANCE
  • 8. CLARITY TYPES Consistently pursues clarity as an information provider and recipient CLARITY PURSUER Type 1: Intentional deceit Type 2: Strategic ambiguity Type 3: Willful ignorance CLARITY AVOIDER Type 1: Unaware Type 2: Aware; cannot perceive CLARITY BLIND
  • 9. 9
  • 10. 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12. 12
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  • 17. 17 PURPOSE PRIORITIES PROCESS PERFORMANCE PROBLEM SOLVING Clarity & Lean Management THE FIVE P’S © 2020 TKMG, Inc. www.clarityfirstbook.com
  • 18. 18 PURPOSE PRIORITIES PROCESS PERFORMANCE PROBLEM SOLVING THE FIVE P’S © 2020 TKMG, Inc.
  • 19. 19 WHY DO YOU DO WHAT YOU DO
  • 21. 21 PURPOSE PRIORITIES PROCESS PERFORMANCE PROBLEM SOLVING THE FIVE P’S © 2020 TKMG, Inc.
  • 22. © 2015 The Karen Martin Group, Inc. 22
  • 23. 23 There’s no such thing as multitasking.* * For cognitive tasks.
  • 24. 24 • A clear, focused, disciplined, and deeply engaging approach to • achieve measurable business goals that • enable the organization to realize its strategy and • stay true to its purpose. Strategy Deployment: Defined
  • 25. Focus Law #1: STOP DOING Focus Law #2: DO FEWER THINGS AT ONCE 25
  • 26. Completed Projects of Similar Complexity (annual) 26 24 73 Pre-Focus Post-Focus • No additional resources • Higher quality results
  • 27. 27 PURPOSE PRIORITIES PROCESS PERFORMANCE PROBLEM SOLVING THE FIVE P’S © 2020 TKMG, Inc.
  • 28. 28 Customer 0.0 hrs. 0.5 days 1.0 hrs. 5.0 days 3.6 hrs. 0.6 days 0.0 hrs. 1.0 days 0.2 hrs. 0.5 days 16.0 hrs. 0.0 hrs. 7.0 days 8.0 hrs. 0.0 hrs. 7.0 days 0.1 hrs. 26.0 days 0.0 hrs. 0.2 days Total LT = 50.8 days Total PT = 29.0 hrs. Activity Ratio = 7% SAP Summary Invoice (Excel) Obtain Order; Enter Order in Offline Order Form Sales (Key at night) LT = 4.5 hrs. PT = 18 mins. %C&A: 80% 1 Review & Release Credit Holds Sales LT = 4 hrs. PT = 10 mins. %C&A: 99% 3 Issue DO To Transporter; Create Pick List WH1 LT = 8 hrs. PT = 1 mins. %C&A: 95% 5 Pick & Load Order Logistics LT = 4 hrs. PT = 15 mins. %C&A: 95% 6 Collect POD from Customer Transporter LT = 2 days 7 Collect POD From Transporter WH1 LT = 7 days PT = 1 mins. %C&A: 99% 8 Deliver POD to A ccounting Messenger Batch = 1x/day LT = 1 days 9 Review POD For A ccuracy A ccounting LT = 7 days PT = 2 mins. %C&A: 99% 10 Deliv er Bill; Collect from Customer; Deposit Sales Batch = 1x monthly LT = 26 days PT = 5 mins. 11 Current State VSM: VMO3 UPC 40 Orders/Day 18,000 Cases /Day COLOR LEGEND Logistics / W arehouse Sales Order Management Production 10% 90% Produce Product Plant 1 LT = 280 mins. PT = 215 mins. %C&A: 99% 4B Pick & Load Order WH2 LT = 40 mins. PT = 3 mins. %C&A: 99% 5B 40 Days Delivery to Payment Received 3.5 Days Order Receipt to Ship MonthlySales Volume Wk 1 = 14-23% Wk 2 = 19-24% Wk 3 = 23-25% Wk 4 = 30-42% Obtain & Revise Sales Forecast Sales LT = 0 days PT = 270 mins. %C&A: 99% 1B Hold S&OP Meeting 6-7 People LT = 5 days PT = 3 hrs. %C&A: 99% 2B Create Production Plan Production Planning LT = 5 days PT = 1 hrs. %C&A: 99% 3B Produce Product Plant 2 LT = 280 mins. PT = 215 mins. %C&A: 99% 4C Offline Order Form Enter Payment; Clear Billing A ccounting LT = 2 hrs. PT = 1 mins. %C&A: 99% 12 Accounting Delivery Order (DO) Sales Order Form Pick List Proof of Delivery (POD) Transfer Report Prod. Plan Check Stock & Reallocate Logistics & Warehouse Batch = 1x/day LT = 4 hrs. PT = 2 mins. %C&A: 99% 4 Upload PDF Order Mgmt LT = 4 hrs. PT = 1 mins. %C&A: 95% 2 Prod. Plan Supplier Receive Material Store 3C Bill collector (Excel) Current State Value Stream Map Visualize an entire work system on a single sheet of paper
  • 29. 29 Value Stream Maps Help Visualize Information Management Problems
  • 31. 31
  • 32. 32 PURPOSE PRIORITIES PROCESS PERFORMANCE PROBLEM SOLVING THE FIVE P’S © 2020 TKMG, Inc.
  • 33. 33
  • 35. Saved in Lesson 4 - Anthony’s PSD files as V2
  • 36. 36 PURPOSE PRIORITIES PROCESS PERFORMANCE PROBLEM SOLVING THE FIVE P’S © 2020 TKMG, Inc.
  • 37. 37 P D S A © 2020 Karen Martin Clarity First, pp 168-209 www.clarityfirstbook.com
  • 38. 38 Problem Countermeasures / Implementation Plan - Ÿ 32% of customers dissatisfied with office space cleanliness - 80% of emergency service requests are to wrong contact - Standard work for restroom cleaning - Standard work checklist for non-routine items - Service levels vary by building - Standard process for measuring & mixing chemicals - 10% of daily staffing available is allocated to travel/check in time - Restroom cleaning log - Standard facility service plan (Plan A & Plan B) Current Condition - Modify & standardize process for unplanned absences - 31 Facility areas require custodial services - Modify starting points and schedules to reduce transportation waste - Evaluate fleet availability to reduce waiting waste Effect Confirmation Target Conditions/Measurable Objectives - 80% Daily staffing availability - 50% Improvement - customer satisfaction with restroom cleanliness - Defined standard work (for custodial staff and customers) Follow Up Actions Root Cause & Gap Analysis - Undefined level of service (office parties, special events) - No defined process for unplanned absences (calling in, redistribute work, etc.) - Inconsistent availability of communication tools (vary by building) - No defined process for requesting/responding to emergencies - Variation in cleaning schedules versus facility operating schedules - Unpredictable daily staffing - Travel time + Check in Time = 16.00 hrs/day = 2 FTE - Customer requested personalized service (newspaper delivery, parties, trash) CUSTODIAL SERVICES A3 Plan Do, Check, Act - 22% of customers dissatisfied with restroom cleanliness 8% 20% 8% 14% 17% 33% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Phone Call to Custodian Phone Call to Custodial Supervisor Phone Call to Custodial Manager Phone Call to Public Works Dispatch (x6000) Email Notify Custodial Staff On Site Survey: When you require emergency services, how do you request them? 32% 22% 19% 18% 6% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Office Spaces Restrooms Common Areas Overall Conference Rooms Survey: Custodial Services - Areas of Dissatisfaction Travel/ Check In Time 16.00 10% Absent Staff 24.00 15% Vacancies 24.00 15% Special Events 2.00 1% Staff Available 94.00 59% Daily Staffing Availability (Hours) 41% ofdaily staffing is unavailable for custodial tasks T itle # Staff H rs/ Wk H rs/ D ay Lead Custodian 4 1 60 32 FT Custodian 8 520 64 FT Custodian (Vacant) 2 80 1 6 PT/Perm (avg 30 hrs each) 3 90 24 PT/Temp (avg 20 hrs each) 3 60 24 T o tal 20 910 160 Travel/Check In Time 8.00 5% Absent Staff 24.00 15% Special Events 2.00 1% Current State Staff Available 94.00 50% PI Time Savings 15.00 9% Fill Vacancies 24.00 15% Reduced Travel/Check In Time 8.00 5% Staff Available 126.00 79% Future State Daily Staffing Availability (Hours) 22% 10% 12% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Dissatisfied Customers (Current) Target Future State Restroom Cleanliness Customer Satisfaction Current Actual Result State (+ 60 days) Customers dissatisfied with restroom cleanliness 22% <10% Avg minutes per restroom cleaning 35 30 Avg hours per day cleaning restrooms (184 restrooms) 107 92 Daily staffing availability 59% 80% Daily travel/check in time (hours/day) 16 8 Travel miles per day 139 <70 Metric Projected Remaining Actions Owner 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Explore options to improve cell phone availability Mark R. Define process for requesting and responding to emergencies Custodial Supvs Equip carts for recycling Mark R. Process mapping for specialized facilities Mark R. Standardize Cart Equipment & Supplies Custodial Supvs Process improvement for other facility types, e.g. offices, common areas, etc. Mark R. Consider alternative staffing models (floaters, modified shifts) Mark R. Actively manage vacancies Mark R. Implementation Schedule (Months) 269 220 91 27 19 15 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Office Space Rec Center/Gym Library Shops Misc. Animal Shelter Work Hours per Week by Facility Type
  • 42. 42 Lean management lights the path to excellence. Clarity is at the core of it all.

Editor's Notes

  1. So why clarity? What led be to study it and decide it’s time to make clarity a topic for leaders and organizations to focus on. First, Lean management is all about creating clarity. If you drill Lean management practices—principles, practices, and tools--down to a single common component, it’s clarity that’s at the core of it all.
  2. Those were all large-scale gaffes. What about your organization? Where is clarity lacking? What does it cost you in lost productivity, errors, expense overruns, frustration… lurks… insidious disease? When you begin to shine a flashlight on the topic in your corners, you begin to see a lot of cobwebs. Lest you think this only happens in big companies or overseas…. How many of you are familiar with Baeder-Meinhoff phenomenon? (show of hands) – pronounced Badder-Mainfoff. It’s also known as a frequency or recency illusion; one of the myriad cognitive biases we have. Once you focus on something you see it everywhere because your brain is excited about something new and paying more attention. Silver Audis are everywhere!   Well, once you decide to write a book on clarity you see the lack of it everywhere. Now that you’ve been to this keynote, you’re going to experience this as well. An exec at one of our clients pulled me aside last week and said, “Curse you, Karen Martin! I can’t stop thinking about clarity! It’s a huge problem.” Yes, it is. Back to Baeder-Meinhoff - In Feb 2016, I moved to Santa Monica. You know how you’re typically a little bit “off” when you move into a new neighborhood? You’re still trying to find your way and learn where everything is? I finally got settled and went to the closest grocery store – a WholeFoods – for the first time. There was only one space around the store and this is what greeted me (slide 4).   If you look around you, lack of clarity is everywhere.
  3. Self-inflicted or natural/normal? Why do we ask people to be comfortable with ambiguity? Do we have to accept this “as is”? I argue no.
  4. The third thing is noise…Akiyoshi Kitaoka, PhD, University of Kyoto - For more optical illusions: www.bitly.com/AKillusions
  5. To connect the dots, you have to see the dots. You have to get rid of the noise to see the dots. Lean principles, practices, and tools help you remove the noise. But you have to utilize them. ALL of them.
  6. Coherence, precision, elegance
  7. This is true at an individual level and organization level as well. We morph between types but you’ll have a primary point of where you operate from in each circumstance. Can be pursuer at work and avoider at home; can be pursuer with staff and avoider with higher ups; can be an avoider around budget and pursuer about operational improvement.
  8. Why don’t we operate with clarity all of the time? Why is clarity difficult so achieve?
  9. We were born as clarity-seeking machines. What’s the number one question kids ask? Why. Number 2 – why not? But then something happens…
  10. And when kids can’t get clarity, it doesn’t feel good. As kids, they aren’t prone to hide their feelings. But as adults, we are. Why doesn’t it feel good? Because our innate curiosity is being squelched. You see, curiosity drives the need for clarity. If clarity is the engine, curiosity is the fuel. We are naturally curious. Yet parents who are on overload start discouraging questions. Why? You may have asked. Because I said so! May have been the reply. Bosses – I had one to said, “You know, you have a high need to know.” as if it was a problem. You could have a company filled with people from these environments. So what happened? What happens as children become adults?
  11. Curiosity killed the cat. Well, that doesn’t seem like a encouraging message.
  12. And then there’s Curious George. As wonderful as this best-selling series is, it doesn’t exactly celebrate curiosity. George’s curiosity always gets him in a pickle and then the Man with the Yellow Hat comes to the rescue. Still, George doesn’t decide I won’t be curious. But many people have. And it’s time to reawaken that. Because clarity is the machine and curiosity is the fuel. So what happens when our curiosity gets drummed out of us?
  13. Confirmation bias – seeking information that supports our beliefs. Automation bias – believing that automation solves everything. Dunning-Kruger effect – unskilled people overestimating their skills and experts underestimating their skills Bias that make you believe that things will remain the way they are Believing that you’re performing better than you believe Believing that you know your demand – IT tickets – 18,000 vs. 25,000
  14. Sporting goods manufacturer
  15. How many football fans do we have here? Which teams? Where are the Steeler fans?
  16. This is the standard board that will be animated throughout.
  17. The A3 report is a powerful clarification device. One of its greatest benefits is how it can mold thinking so that clarity becomes habituated into the problem solver. Because the problem solver is limited to 11x17” real estate and most problems are fairly complex, the problem solver is forced to distill and synthesize the information in a way that tells a more compelling story. Unfortunately what we see all too often are rambling reports that contain irrelevant information and don’t tell a clear story. Proper coaching helps problem solvers learn how to be more clear.