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STEROIDS
By
N. Santhosh Kumar
Asst. Professor
Department Of Biochemistry
SIMS & RH
Tumkur
• Organic compound that composed of 17C atoms bonded together in the form of
four fused rings:
- Cyclohexane rings / phenanthrene (designated as rings A, B and C)
- Cyclopentane ring (the D ring).
• Steroid contains one or more OH groups-Sterol
• Sterols are structural lipids present in membranes of most eukaryotic cells
It produced by the liver & we consume it from meat and dairy products
Structure of Cholesterol
CHOLESTEROL
•It is insoluble in water & soluble in organic solvent such as chloroform, benzene,
ether.
•General formula-C27H46O.
•It containing a cyclopentanoperhydro phenanthrene.
•It has one OH group at C3 & a double bond b/w C5 & C6.
•An eight carbon aliphatic side chain is attached to C17.
•Methyl side chains at position C10 & C13.
•It is amphipathic in nature,
- Polar head the OH gp at C3
- non polar steroid nucleus & hydrocarbon side chain at C17
•It is major component of cell membranes & lipoprotein.
•It is found as associated with FA to form cholesterylesters.
Cholesterol Esters
• Excess cholesterol is stored as
cholesterol esters in cytosolic lipid
droplets
In total cholesterol :
• About 30% free form (un esterified)
70% - cholesteryl esters form
FATE
OF
CHOLESTEROL
Synthesis of Bile
Salts
Major component of
lipoproteins
Synthesis of
Steroid hormones
(Progesterone, Gluco &
Mineralocorticoids
Androgens & Estrogen)
Structural material
in biological
membranes
Decrease membrane
fluidity
Required for
synthesis of Vit- D
Bile acids & Bile salts
• Synthesized in the liver from cholesterol.
• Stored & concentrated in the gallbladder.
Bile acids:
Primary Bile Acids - Glyco & Tauro cholic acid
Glyco & Tauro chenodeoxycholic acid
Secondary Bile Acids- Deoxycholic Acid
Lithocholic acid
Bile salts: Na+ & K + glycocholic acid
Na + & K + Tauro chenodeoxy cholic acid
Functions
• They facilitate the digestion of dietary TG by acting as
emulsifying agents that render fats accessible to pancreatic lipases.
• Discharged into gut and aides in absorption of intra luminal lipids,
cholesterol, & fat soluble vitamins.
• Bile acids & phospholipids solubilize cholesterol in the bile, -
preventing the precipitation of cholesterol in the gallbladder.
Clinical significance of Cholesterol
Normal values – 150 – 200 mg/dl
Increased levels - Myocardial infarction
Diabetes mellitus
Obstructive jaundice
Hypothyroidism & Nephrotic syndrome
Decreased levels – Liver necrosis
Hyperthyroidism
Outer layer (tunica adventitia)
- Protects the artery
Muscular layer (tunica media)
– Helps the pulse circulate blood
Smooth layer (tunica intima)
– Helps blood flow
ATHEROSCLEROSIS
Deposition of lipids in the inner
arterial wall.
Formation of plaque
Endothelial damage
Narrowing of the arterial lumen
Thickening or hardening of arteries
due to the accumulation of lipids &
cholesterol in the inner arterial wall.
Causes
Environmental factors - obesity and dietary choices.
Genetic factors – additive effects of multiple genes
single gene defect (case of familial hypercholesterolemia).
secondary causes :
High consumption alcohol & smoking
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus,
Nephrotic syndrome
Obstructive jaundice
Hypothyroidism
Cushing’s syndrome,
• It can control by
- Consumption of PUFA
- Dietary fiber
- Avoiding high carbohydrate diet
- Taking statin drugs (lavastatin, simvastatin & atorvastatin)
FATTY LIVER
Fat (Triglycerides or other lipids) is deposited in the liver, it leads to
fatty liver
SERUM LIPID PROFILE
OPTIMAL FASTING LEVELS: (after 12hr of fasting only)
• Triglycerides 100-150 mg/dl
• Total cholesterol 150- 200 mg/dl
• LDL cholesterol 60- 140 mg/dl
• HDL cholesterol 30- 60 mg/dl
• VLDL < 35mg/dl
• Special investigation – Plasma Troponin-I,
Myoglobin
Homocysteine
Lipoprotein(a)
Reduce cholesterol naturally
Obstacles can’t stop You
Problems can’t stop You
Most of all
Other people can’t stop You
The only one who stops you
is
Your self
Thank Q
The End

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Cl-05 : Steorids

  • 1. STEROIDS By N. Santhosh Kumar Asst. Professor Department Of Biochemistry SIMS & RH Tumkur
  • 2. • Organic compound that composed of 17C atoms bonded together in the form of four fused rings: - Cyclohexane rings / phenanthrene (designated as rings A, B and C) - Cyclopentane ring (the D ring). • Steroid contains one or more OH groups-Sterol • Sterols are structural lipids present in membranes of most eukaryotic cells
  • 3.
  • 4. It produced by the liver & we consume it from meat and dairy products
  • 6. CHOLESTEROL •It is insoluble in water & soluble in organic solvent such as chloroform, benzene, ether. •General formula-C27H46O. •It containing a cyclopentanoperhydro phenanthrene. •It has one OH group at C3 & a double bond b/w C5 & C6. •An eight carbon aliphatic side chain is attached to C17.
  • 7. •Methyl side chains at position C10 & C13. •It is amphipathic in nature, - Polar head the OH gp at C3 - non polar steroid nucleus & hydrocarbon side chain at C17 •It is major component of cell membranes & lipoprotein. •It is found as associated with FA to form cholesterylesters.
  • 8. Cholesterol Esters • Excess cholesterol is stored as cholesterol esters in cytosolic lipid droplets In total cholesterol : • About 30% free form (un esterified) 70% - cholesteryl esters form
  • 9. FATE OF CHOLESTEROL Synthesis of Bile Salts Major component of lipoproteins Synthesis of Steroid hormones (Progesterone, Gluco & Mineralocorticoids Androgens & Estrogen) Structural material in biological membranes Decrease membrane fluidity Required for synthesis of Vit- D
  • 10. Bile acids & Bile salts • Synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. • Stored & concentrated in the gallbladder. Bile acids: Primary Bile Acids - Glyco & Tauro cholic acid Glyco & Tauro chenodeoxycholic acid Secondary Bile Acids- Deoxycholic Acid Lithocholic acid Bile salts: Na+ & K + glycocholic acid Na + & K + Tauro chenodeoxy cholic acid
  • 11. Functions • They facilitate the digestion of dietary TG by acting as emulsifying agents that render fats accessible to pancreatic lipases. • Discharged into gut and aides in absorption of intra luminal lipids, cholesterol, & fat soluble vitamins. • Bile acids & phospholipids solubilize cholesterol in the bile, - preventing the precipitation of cholesterol in the gallbladder.
  • 12. Clinical significance of Cholesterol Normal values – 150 – 200 mg/dl Increased levels - Myocardial infarction Diabetes mellitus Obstructive jaundice Hypothyroidism & Nephrotic syndrome Decreased levels – Liver necrosis Hyperthyroidism
  • 13. Outer layer (tunica adventitia) - Protects the artery Muscular layer (tunica media) – Helps the pulse circulate blood Smooth layer (tunica intima) – Helps blood flow ATHEROSCLEROSIS
  • 14. Deposition of lipids in the inner arterial wall. Formation of plaque Endothelial damage Narrowing of the arterial lumen Thickening or hardening of arteries due to the accumulation of lipids & cholesterol in the inner arterial wall.
  • 15. Causes Environmental factors - obesity and dietary choices. Genetic factors – additive effects of multiple genes single gene defect (case of familial hypercholesterolemia). secondary causes : High consumption alcohol & smoking Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, Nephrotic syndrome Obstructive jaundice Hypothyroidism Cushing’s syndrome,
  • 16. • It can control by - Consumption of PUFA - Dietary fiber - Avoiding high carbohydrate diet - Taking statin drugs (lavastatin, simvastatin & atorvastatin)
  • 17. FATTY LIVER Fat (Triglycerides or other lipids) is deposited in the liver, it leads to fatty liver
  • 18.
  • 19. SERUM LIPID PROFILE OPTIMAL FASTING LEVELS: (after 12hr of fasting only) • Triglycerides 100-150 mg/dl • Total cholesterol 150- 200 mg/dl • LDL cholesterol 60- 140 mg/dl • HDL cholesterol 30- 60 mg/dl • VLDL < 35mg/dl • Special investigation – Plasma Troponin-I, Myoglobin Homocysteine Lipoprotein(a)
  • 21. Obstacles can’t stop You Problems can’t stop You Most of all Other people can’t stop You The only one who stops you is Your self Thank Q The End