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City Profile of Madras(Chennai) 
P r i t h i v i M o h a n | 2 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 1 1 | 3 r d y e a r | B . P l a n n i n g 
Department of Planning 
Seminar - I
• The Chennai Metropolis (with a latitude 
between 12°50'49" and 13°17'24", and a 
longitude between 79°59'53"and 80°20'12") 
is located on the Coramandal coast in South 
India and the land is a flat coastal plain. 
• Madras, acquired its name from 
Madraspattinam which is a fishing village 
situated to the north of Fort St. George. 
• 400 years old city. 
• Its older name Madras was officially changed 
to Chennai in 1996. 
• 36th metropolitan city all across the world. 
• Madras was the first major British settlement 
in India, and until 1774 was the capital of the 
entire British Empire in the east. 
LOCATION 
Connectivity Map 
Spatial Growth 
Pattern Of The 
City 
2 
Elevation- 6m(20ft)
o In 1522, the Portugese built a port called Sao Tome. 
o On 22nd August 1639, a small piece of land was purchased by the British East India 
Company which is located on the Coromandel Coast. 
o The city's Corporation, founded in 1687, was the first such governing body to be set 
• The population, which was 19,000 in 1646, expanded to 40,000 in 1669. 
• Scattered settlements separated by long distances. 
• Each settlement grew around the nucleus of a temple and has its own history. 
up outside Europe. 
17th century 
o Madras soon grew into a settlement of importance but in 1774 the British shifted 
their capital to Calcutta, influenced by its proximity to the north, its commercial 
importance represented by industries such as jute and indigo, and its climate. 
o Until Independence, Madras remained the capital of the Madras Presidency, an area 
• During this time, the British found that Triplicane was a good area for 
settlement and a large number of people moved there. 
• The presence of the Nawab of Arcot increased the economic prosperity of 
the area and more and more Muslims settled in Triplicane. So from that time 
onwards, it grew in importance, second only, to George Town. 
• People started moving in different directions according to their professional 
activities (weaving, pot making, and trade) and need of space. This also leads 
to community development. 
that encompassed the whole of south India as well as parts of Maharashtra and 
Orissa 
18th century 
o Chennai has a very heterogeneous mix of architectural styles ranging from ancient 
temples to the British colonial era buildings and to the latest modern buildings. Most 
of the buildings constructed during the colonial era are of the Indo-Sarcenic style. 
HISTORY 3
19th century 
20th century 
• The city extended over an area of about 70 sq.kms. and had a population of 
5.40 lakhs in 1901 
• Central station was formed in 1872 and linked to the main line. 
• To facilitate trade the harbor was completed in 1896 just to the east of George 
Town. 
• The population of the City increased to 8.6 lakhs by 1941. 
• The city occupied an area of about 80 sq.km. 
• Radial and Ring pattern of Development as CBD as the center. 
• The city was mainly a commercial, military and administrative centre for the 
entire South India. 
• In 1950 the boundary of the City was extended to cover 129sq.kms. 
• CBD was George town and Harbor. 
Present 
• George Town and its extension southwards into Anna Salai together constitute 
the central business district of the City where most of the wholesale trade, 
specialised retail trade and banking and financial institutions were located and 
where commercial activity was intense. 
HISTORY 4
 Chennai is known as the "Detroit /.of 
India" for its automobile industry. 
 Population - 4.68 million residents (in 
2011) ., making it the sixth most populous 
city in India. 
 8.9 million, making it the fourth most 
populous metropolitan area in the 
country and 31st largest urban area in the 
world. 
 Area (CMA) = 1189 sq.km, including core 
city area 426 sq.km 
INTRODUCTION Uohkomjlk
EXISTING LANDUSE 2006 - CHENNAI CITY 
Proposed landuse 2026 - chennai 
54% 
Existing landuse 2006 - Rest of 
PROPOSED LANDUSE 2026 - REST OF CMA 
source: draft master plan – ii for Chennai metropolitan area 
Existing Landuse 2001 
NORTHERN REGION UNDEVELOPED 
REGION BECAUSE ITS FAR FROM CORE CITY 
AND MAJOR INDUSTRIES ARE LOCATED HERE 
SOUTHERN REGION DEVELOPED 
REGION BECAUSE OF GOOD 
INFRASTRUCTURE LIKE IT COMPANY, 
SCHOOLS AND COLLAGES 
1% 12% 
7% 
2% 
19% 
1% 
6% 
5% 
1% 
LANDUSE 6 
Resdential 
Commercial 
Industrial 
Institutional 
Open space 
and 
Recreation 
Agricultural 
Others 
22% 
1% 
6% 
3% 
12% 
2% 
54% 
CMA 
Resdential 
Commercial 
Industrial 
Institutional 
Agricultural 
Non urban 
Others 
Proposed Landuse 2026 
33% 
14% 
4% 
16% 
4% 
21% 
city 
Primary Residential use 
zone 
Mixed Residential use 
zone 
Commercial use zone 
Institutional use zone 
Industrial use zone 
Special and hazardous 
Industrial use zone 
29% 
12% 
3%1% 3% 7% 
11% 
2% 
32% 
Primary Residential use 
zone 
Mixed Residential use 
zone 
Commercial use zone 
Institutional use zone 
Industrial use zone 
Special and hazardous 
Industrial use zone 
Note:Others (Roads, water bodies, hills, Redhills catchments area, 
forests etc.)
density/km2 
2001 2011 
Chennai 24,963 26,553 
Tamil nadu 480 555 
India 324 382 
7 
570,851 
593,132 
DECADAL POPULATION OF 
Decadal population of CMA 
611,144 
757,051 
CHENNAI CITY 
910,464 
1,454,896 
1,776,329 
2,579,276 
3,276,622 
3,841,396 
4,343,645 
4,646,732 
1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 
287890 
304371 
DECADAL POPULATION OF 
CHENNAI – GENDER WISE 
319411 
398327 
476346 
males females 
756836 
934227 
1354325 
1694107 
1986278 
2219539 
2335844 
282961 
288761 
291733 
358724 
434118 
698060 
842102 
1224951 
1582515 
1855118 
2124106 
2310888 
1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 
The development of transport 
corridors and rail connectivity as early 
as 1900s had attracted industrial 
developments in the city resulting in 
increased growth of population 
It extends over 1189 Sq.km. and 
includes Chennai City Corporation 
area, 16 Municipalities, 20 Special 
Village Panchayats and 213 villages 
comprised in 10 Panchayats Unions. 
Area of Chennai 
metropolis 426km2 
metro 1189km2 
Source: census of India 
Source: census of India 
Source: CDP,chennai 
3505502 
4601566 
5818479 
7040582 
8696010 
1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 
Source: CDP,chennai 
DECADAL POPULATION
DECADAL GROWTH RATE OF POPULATION Decades 1951-61 and 1961-71. The reasons 
8 
Birth & Death Rates 
The registered birth rates in Chennai City in 
1971 were 38.6 and 59.80 
varied from 38.6 to 
32.1during 1971-76 and have reduced to 
45.20 
22.62 in the year 2003. Similarly the death 
rate also reduced to a considerable 27.04 
extent 
23.87 
from 13.1 in 1975 20.26 
22.09 
to 8.01 in 2003. The 17.24 
rate of 
13.07 
natural increase declined from 26.3 in 1971 
3.90 3.04 
to 14.61 in 2003. 
6.98 
1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 
for this rapid growth rate can be attributed 
to industrial development and increase in 
economic activities and employment 
opportunities in the city and its suburbs, 
attracting large migrant population. 
The negative growth during 1971-81 
is due to the annexation of surrounding 
Panchayats areas to the city. 
90.01 86.64 
85.33 
Literacy rate 
73.45 
90.18 
80.09 
Source: CDP,chennai 
Literacy rate Gender wise 
74.04 
Chennai Tamil nadu India 
Literacy rate 2001 Literacy rate 2011 
93.7 
957 
Sex Ratio 
986 
943 
989 
996 
933 
80.44 
Chennai Tamil nadu India 
sex ratio 2001 sex ratio 2011 
CMA = 76.09 (in 2001) CMA = 956 (in 2001) 
86.64 
64.91 
86.77 
73.14 
82.14 
65.46 
male female male female 
2001 2011 
Literacy rate 
Chennai Tamil nadu India 
Source:census2011.co.in 
Source: census of India 
GROWTH RATE, LITERACY RATE, SEX RATIO
9 
Trend of occupational structure Chennai city and CMA 
2001 
Chennai city CMA 
Non workers in Chennai 
city during 2001 
65.73% 69.14% 
1.55 4.01 1.34 3 1 
6.5 
1.5 2.9 
27.37 
34.21 
30 32 
24.3 26.7 
98.5 
91.1 
71.08 
61.78 
68.66 
65 
74.7 
66.8 
chennai city CMA chennai city CMA chennai city CMA chennai city CMA 
1971 1981 1991 2001 
primary secondary tertiary 
The workers in primary activity constitute 6.52 percent in CMA and 1.05 percent 
in City 1991. In 2001, it was 2.91 percent and 1.52 percent respectively in CMA 
and Chennai City indicating that the primary activities are on the decline in the 
peripheral areas due to the emergence of manufacturing and new economy 
industry. 
Occupational structure
17.49 
26.42 
Migration details 
32.84 
6.44 7.8 
1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 
total population in lakhs Total migrants 
Migrants from other urban areas 
constitute 63.4% and only 36.3% 
are from rural areas. 
38.43 
43.43 
10.08 9.18 9.37 
The population of the Chennai City in 
1981 was 32.84 lakhs which includes 
10.08 lakh migrant population and natural 
increase of 5.28 lakhs (for 1971-81) 
population; the net population excluding 
these works out to 17.48 lakhs whereas 
the 1971 population was 26.42 lakhs 
which shows that there was a net out 
migration of 8.94 lakhs (27%) resident 
population from City mostly to the rest of 
CMA (during 1971-1981). 
Source: CDP,chennai 
MIGRATION DETAILS 10
Source: draft Master Plan ii short 
PROJECTIONS 11
Road Network 
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSON TRIPS BY MODE - 2004 
The road network of Chennai is dominated 
by a radial pattern converging at George 
Town, which is the main Central Business 
District (CBD) of the CMA. The road network 
is primarily based on the four National 
Highways, leading to Calcutta (NH5), 
Bangalore (NH4), Thiruvallur (NH 205) and 
Trichy (NH 45). 
Vehicles and persons trips in CMA 
Bus train car 2W cycle walk others IPT 
The total number of motor vehicles in CMA 
has increased from 144,282 29% 
in 1984 to 
1,674,185 in 2005. 
5% 
4% 
28% 
1% 
2% 
The number of two-wheelers has grown 
13% 
enormously from 87,000 Rail Network 
18% 
in 1984 to 
1,266,114 in 2005. 
• Chennai Beach - Tambaram BG 
Goods Transport The number of goods 
line running south-west 
Source: CDP,chennai 
vehicles • Chennai in Chennai Central has increased - Thiruvallur 
from 6,671 
According B.G.to line running west in 1980 to 32629 the CTTS in 2005. (1992-and 
According 95), 
to a 
• • the Chennai per capita Central trip rate - 
is 1.30 per day 
study and by Gummidipoondi the MMDA trip rate (1985) per BG household the line main running 
items is 5.88 
of 
north 
movement per day. 
are 
• Manufactured goods (15.5%), 
• Building materials (9.9%), 
• Industrial raw materials (9.2%), 
• Perishables (9.1%) and 
• Parcels (8.5%). 
These • On 3 lines a typical together weekday account 7.45 for million 300,000 
trips 
commuter by a variety trips per of travel day. 
modes for various 
Bus purposes. 
Transport 
The bus transport is being operated by 
Metropolitan In a group of 100, Transport 38 travels Corporation by bus, 4 by 
(MTC), 
which train, and had 30 a fleet by walk, strength 14 by of cycle, 2,773 7 by buses two 
in 
2004. wheeler, They 2 by operate car and 537 5 by routes other and modes. 
carry 36 
lakhs trips/day. Source: Source: CDP,CDP,chennai 
chennai 
INFRASTRUCTURE – TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 12
C h e n n a i Me t r o p o l i t a n Wa t e r S u p p l y a n d S ew e r a g e B o a r d ( CMWS S B ) 
Chembarambakkamlake Veeranam Lake 
Chennai City Water Supply Augmentation Project-I 
Add 180 MLD water to Chennai City water 
requirement) was taken up by CMWSSB in 2004 at 
a cost of Rs.720 crores. It is to draw 190 MLD of 
raw water from Veeranam Lake 
Chennai City Water Supply Augmentation Project-II 
Estimated cost of Rs.124.00 crore. The objective of 
this project is to augment water supply to the city 
by intercepting the rainwater runoff into the sea by 
the construction / rehabilitation of check dams 
across Cooum, Adyar and Palar rivers. 
Rest of CMA 
Other Municipalities have Palar River as source, 
CMWSSB bulk supply or the ground water as 
source. Water supply in Panchayat areas is by local 
wells and public taps. 
ground water 
Reservoirs 
70% 
10% 
supply tank 
20% 
The sources of surface 
water are the reservoirs at 
• Poondi, 
• Cholavaram, 
• Porur Lake 
• Chembarambakkam 
• Veeranam Lake 
Source of 
water supply 
to Chennai city 
Consumption liters per captia per day 
260 270 
90 
Estimated of water Requirement (CMA) 
140 
population in lakhs 
2011 2016 2021 2026 
88 100 112 126 
Total requirment 
Residential use 1165 1284 1431 1606 
Other than Residential use 349 385 429 482 
Industries use 116 128 143 160 
Source: CMWSSB Note: Water Requirement in MLD 
INFRASTRUCTURE –WATER SUPPLY 13 
220 
Banglore Mumbai Delhi Chennai city Pune 
Source: CMWSSB
Collection & Transportation WASTE GENERATION 
At present the Chennai Corporation and ONYX are the two agencies are 
the responsible for entire solid waste collection and transportation. As 
per the corporation the collection efficiency is around 95% in the city 
and Door to Door collection 
Residence 
68% 
Hospitals 
Market 
4% 
Restaurants/hotels 
/schools 
11% 
Commercial 
14% 
3% 
• Around 3.400 tonnes of garbage is collected daily from 15 
zones 
• The Perungudi dump yard gets 1600 tonnes and Kodungaiyur 
gets 1800 tonnes 
• Total number of bins 6980 
• Waste separation 10% by CMC 
Future Garbage Generation Trends Source: CDP,chennai 
Areas 
future 
generation in 
2021(tonnes) 
chennai city 4332 
Municipalities 1326 
special village panchayats 277 
village panchayats 469 
total CMA 6403 
Source: CDP,chennai 
INFRASTRUCTURE – SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 14
Chennai got projects worth Rs. 4973.71 crore, with a large part of it to be spent for the urban poor. 
35 projects total, at a total cost of Rs. 3585.44 crore 
Central share 36% 
UIG funds allocation 
30.5% 
by sector 
0.2% 
24.4% 2.3% 
40.4% 
2.3% 
Water Supply 
Solid Waste 
Management 
Sewerage 
Roads/Flyover/ 
Road 
Overbridges 
Drainage/Storm 
water Drains 
Current Scenario 
•23% of all projects have overspent 
• Less than half of the projects have been 
completed. (Phase 1 ends in 2013) 
• Lack of local capacity, rising costs of 
construction material, delays on funds release, 
elections cited as reasons. 
24 projects total, at a total cost of 
Rs. 1388.27 crore 
BSUP funding by project type 
77% 
23% 
Resettlement 
colonies 
Other 
housing/infrast 
ructure 
projects 
Current Scenario 
• Most projects fall within the new Corporation 
boundaries. 
• Projects in the newly extended areas have been 
transferred to the jurisdiction of the Corporation 
• 29,864 tenements in Ezhil Nagar and 
Perumbakkam at a total cost of Rs. 1073.19 crore 
• Of which, for 19,412 tenements, provision of 
infrastructure facilities not covered by the 
JnNURM costs. 
Source: transparentchennai 
THE JnNURMIN CHENNAI 2005-2012 15
INVESTMENTS IN CMA 16
Slum Clearance Scheme 
• Tenements are allotted either on rental basis or on hire purchase basis. 
• TNSCB has constructed 69594 No. of tenements from 1970 to 2004 in Chennai. 
• In addition TNHB had constructed 10,423 slum tenements in Chennai. 
Pavement Dwellers Housing Scheme 
• It was funded by the GOI (Rs.4, 000/- per household) GTN (Rs.1000/- per household) and HUDCO loan 
(Rs.8, 000/- per household) 7787 no. of families benefited under this scheme. 
Nehru Rozgor Yojana 
• Loan assistance of Rs.4, 150/- per slum family was given for up gradation of their shelter. 
• It was implemented by TNSCB with grant assistance from GOI & GTN and loan assistance from 
HUDCO.14, 000 No. of families benefited by this scheme 
Shelter for Shelter less Scheme 
• Affordable houses for slum dwellers were constructed on serviced plots, using locally available materials 
and adopting low cost techniques. 
• It was tried a pilot project in Chennai by TNSCB with GOI grant 20%, GTN grant 15% and HUDCO loan 
component 65%. 2982 No. of families were benefited under the scheme. 
SCHEMES IMPLEMENTED BY TNSCB IN CMA 17
18 
OUTER RING ROAD 
• ORR connects NH45 at Vandalur, NH4 at Nazarathpet, NH 205 at Nemilichery, NH5 at Nallur 
and TPP road at Minjur and is of length 62.0 km. The configuration of the alignment comprises 
of dual system of both road and rail corridor in a width of 72m. 50m. wide portion of land is 
reserved for future developments. The estimated project cost is about Rs.1081.40 crores. 
• Land Acquisition has been taken up in two phases. The first phase of land Acquisition from NH 
45 to NH 205 for a length of 29.2 km. covering 29 villages has been completed and possession 
taken over by CMDA. The second phase of acquisition from NH 205 to TPP Road covering 27 
villages is under progress.
19 
CHENNAI – BANGLORE EXPRESSWAY 
• The ambitious 262-km-long Bangalore-Chennai Expressway that will run through Tamil Nadu, Andhra 
Pradesh and Karnataka will require nearly 2,300 hectares of land. 
• Sources in the NHAI said the project consultant had said the greenfield initiative would cost Rs. 7,000 
crore, excluding cost of land acquisition. Following land acquisition, which would take a year and a 
half, the project will be completed in three years. 
• The road will be access-controlled like the Chennai Bypass and have several major interchanges. “For 
every 25 km, there will be entry/exit points 
The expressway will serve 
as an alternative to the 
popular NH 7 from 
Bangalore to Krishnagiri, 
NH 46 from Krishnagiri to 
Ranipet and NH 4 from 
Ranipet to Chennai. 
Source: The Hindu,chennai;augest12,2013
20 
SATHANGADU IRON STEEL MARKET 
• Chennai is a major centre for iron Steel trade. It also serves as the feeder market for the 
entire south. 
• The growth rate of various core sectors in Chennai is quite high, but the Iron & Steel trade 
in Chennai does not seem to be located well enough to run efficiently or handle its 
growth potential. 
• Congested locations, cramped spaces, heavy-vehicle movement in narrow streets, traffic 
blockades, noise unhygienic environs - all lead to tardy and uneconomical operations. 
• Located ideally - over 203 acres near Tiruvottiyur on the periphery of the city, with ready 
access to Chennai City Port and Tiruvottiyur railhead. 
• India' most modern market of its kind, it is scientifically planned with excellent 
infrastructure, amenities and services-everything the trader seek for smooth conduct of 
business and full exploitation of growth potential
21 
CHENNAI METRO RAIL PROJECT 
• The Chennai Metro Rail is a rapid transit system under 
construction in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Phase I of the 
project, which consists of two corridors covering a length 
of 45.1 kilometers (28.0 mi), is under construction. 
• The elevated section of the project is scheduled to be 
operational by spring 2015 and the entire project is 
scheduled to be completed by the financial year 2014– 
2015. 
• About 55% of the corridors in Phase I are underground 
and the remaining corridors are elevated 
• At the time of construction, it cost nearly Rs.3,000 
million and Rs.1,000 million to build one kilometre of 
tunnel and one underground station, respectively. 
• When the Chennai Metro Rail project was initiated in 
2007, the estimated cost of the 45-km route in phase I 
was around Rs. 146 billion. 
• Phase I extension of 9 km from Washermanpet to 
Wimco Nagar at Tiruvottiyur cost Rs. 30,010 million as of 
2014, which is expected to begin by December 2014.
Chennai Monorail is a rail-based transit system for the Indian 
city of Chennai. It is proposed in the Long-term Urban 
Transportation Scheme of Second Master Plan by CMDA. The 
state government has announced plans to 
introduce monorail across City to reduce traffic congestion and 
to increase the share of public transport in the urban transport 
network. The aim is to increase the share of public transport in 
Chennai from 27% to 46% by 2026 
22 
CHENNAI MONO RAIL PROJECT 
corridor-1 (Poonamallee - Porur - 
Vadapalani/Kathipara) 
corridor-2 (Vandalur -Medavakkam 
- Velacheri - Kathipara) 
PROJECT COST 
The first Corridor – 
Vandalur to Velachery 
(23 km) — will have 14 
stations, 12 stations will 
come up along the 
Poonamallee - Vadapalani 
Corridor (18 km) and 11 
along the third corridor – 
Poonamallee to Kathipara 
junction (16 km). 
Corridor-1 - 20.68-km from 
Poonamallee to Kathipara with a 
link from Porur to Vadaplani - is 
expected to cost ₹32.35 billion
The number of vehicles plying in cities run into millions. During the peak hours, the traffic moves in snail’s 
pace. Come monsoon season, the roads are damaged and potholes created, holding the city on ransom. 
Urban Amenities 
Pollution 
Vehicle exhaust, burning of garbage, CFC exhaust mixed with heat during the day creates a toxic mix. 
Pollution has made things worse in the cities. Nausea, severe headache, bronchitis, asthma, organ failure are 
few health problem faced by urban dwellers. 
Slum and Squatter Settlements 
The migration of rural poor in search of jobs to the cities have created slums and squatter settlements where 
there is no basic facilities. These settlements have become the breeding ground for illegal activities and 
crime. 
23 
Traffic Congestion 
Cities are lacking water facility round the clock. Then there is the problem of sewage disposal. 
Open sewer system is followed in many urban fringe areas- and when rain lashes out then it is a 
huge mess. Garbage disposal is another irritant. Government is not able to supply these amenities 
due to tremendous increase in population 
Traffic congestion Lacking of garbage disposal Lacking of drainage system Lacking of water facility 
ISSUES
SWOT ANALYSIS 24 
Op p o r t u n i t i e s 
S t r e n g t h 
T h r e a t s 
We a k n e s s e s 
Vision 2026 
is to make 
Chennai a prime 
metropolis 
which will be 
more 
livable, 
economically 
vibrant and 
environmentally 
sustainable and 
with better 
assets 
for the future 
generations

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City Profile of Chennai

  • 1. City Profile of Madras(Chennai) P r i t h i v i M o h a n | 2 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 1 1 | 3 r d y e a r | B . P l a n n i n g Department of Planning Seminar - I
  • 2. • The Chennai Metropolis (with a latitude between 12°50'49" and 13°17'24", and a longitude between 79°59'53"and 80°20'12") is located on the Coramandal coast in South India and the land is a flat coastal plain. • Madras, acquired its name from Madraspattinam which is a fishing village situated to the north of Fort St. George. • 400 years old city. • Its older name Madras was officially changed to Chennai in 1996. • 36th metropolitan city all across the world. • Madras was the first major British settlement in India, and until 1774 was the capital of the entire British Empire in the east. LOCATION Connectivity Map Spatial Growth Pattern Of The City 2 Elevation- 6m(20ft)
  • 3. o In 1522, the Portugese built a port called Sao Tome. o On 22nd August 1639, a small piece of land was purchased by the British East India Company which is located on the Coromandel Coast. o The city's Corporation, founded in 1687, was the first such governing body to be set • The population, which was 19,000 in 1646, expanded to 40,000 in 1669. • Scattered settlements separated by long distances. • Each settlement grew around the nucleus of a temple and has its own history. up outside Europe. 17th century o Madras soon grew into a settlement of importance but in 1774 the British shifted their capital to Calcutta, influenced by its proximity to the north, its commercial importance represented by industries such as jute and indigo, and its climate. o Until Independence, Madras remained the capital of the Madras Presidency, an area • During this time, the British found that Triplicane was a good area for settlement and a large number of people moved there. • The presence of the Nawab of Arcot increased the economic prosperity of the area and more and more Muslims settled in Triplicane. So from that time onwards, it grew in importance, second only, to George Town. • People started moving in different directions according to their professional activities (weaving, pot making, and trade) and need of space. This also leads to community development. that encompassed the whole of south India as well as parts of Maharashtra and Orissa 18th century o Chennai has a very heterogeneous mix of architectural styles ranging from ancient temples to the British colonial era buildings and to the latest modern buildings. Most of the buildings constructed during the colonial era are of the Indo-Sarcenic style. HISTORY 3
  • 4. 19th century 20th century • The city extended over an area of about 70 sq.kms. and had a population of 5.40 lakhs in 1901 • Central station was formed in 1872 and linked to the main line. • To facilitate trade the harbor was completed in 1896 just to the east of George Town. • The population of the City increased to 8.6 lakhs by 1941. • The city occupied an area of about 80 sq.km. • Radial and Ring pattern of Development as CBD as the center. • The city was mainly a commercial, military and administrative centre for the entire South India. • In 1950 the boundary of the City was extended to cover 129sq.kms. • CBD was George town and Harbor. Present • George Town and its extension southwards into Anna Salai together constitute the central business district of the City where most of the wholesale trade, specialised retail trade and banking and financial institutions were located and where commercial activity was intense. HISTORY 4
  • 5.  Chennai is known as the "Detroit /.of India" for its automobile industry.  Population - 4.68 million residents (in 2011) ., making it the sixth most populous city in India.  8.9 million, making it the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the country and 31st largest urban area in the world.  Area (CMA) = 1189 sq.km, including core city area 426 sq.km INTRODUCTION Uohkomjlk
  • 6. EXISTING LANDUSE 2006 - CHENNAI CITY Proposed landuse 2026 - chennai 54% Existing landuse 2006 - Rest of PROPOSED LANDUSE 2026 - REST OF CMA source: draft master plan – ii for Chennai metropolitan area Existing Landuse 2001 NORTHERN REGION UNDEVELOPED REGION BECAUSE ITS FAR FROM CORE CITY AND MAJOR INDUSTRIES ARE LOCATED HERE SOUTHERN REGION DEVELOPED REGION BECAUSE OF GOOD INFRASTRUCTURE LIKE IT COMPANY, SCHOOLS AND COLLAGES 1% 12% 7% 2% 19% 1% 6% 5% 1% LANDUSE 6 Resdential Commercial Industrial Institutional Open space and Recreation Agricultural Others 22% 1% 6% 3% 12% 2% 54% CMA Resdential Commercial Industrial Institutional Agricultural Non urban Others Proposed Landuse 2026 33% 14% 4% 16% 4% 21% city Primary Residential use zone Mixed Residential use zone Commercial use zone Institutional use zone Industrial use zone Special and hazardous Industrial use zone 29% 12% 3%1% 3% 7% 11% 2% 32% Primary Residential use zone Mixed Residential use zone Commercial use zone Institutional use zone Industrial use zone Special and hazardous Industrial use zone Note:Others (Roads, water bodies, hills, Redhills catchments area, forests etc.)
  • 7. density/km2 2001 2011 Chennai 24,963 26,553 Tamil nadu 480 555 India 324 382 7 570,851 593,132 DECADAL POPULATION OF Decadal population of CMA 611,144 757,051 CHENNAI CITY 910,464 1,454,896 1,776,329 2,579,276 3,276,622 3,841,396 4,343,645 4,646,732 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 287890 304371 DECADAL POPULATION OF CHENNAI – GENDER WISE 319411 398327 476346 males females 756836 934227 1354325 1694107 1986278 2219539 2335844 282961 288761 291733 358724 434118 698060 842102 1224951 1582515 1855118 2124106 2310888 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 The development of transport corridors and rail connectivity as early as 1900s had attracted industrial developments in the city resulting in increased growth of population It extends over 1189 Sq.km. and includes Chennai City Corporation area, 16 Municipalities, 20 Special Village Panchayats and 213 villages comprised in 10 Panchayats Unions. Area of Chennai metropolis 426km2 metro 1189km2 Source: census of India Source: census of India Source: CDP,chennai 3505502 4601566 5818479 7040582 8696010 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Source: CDP,chennai DECADAL POPULATION
  • 8. DECADAL GROWTH RATE OF POPULATION Decades 1951-61 and 1961-71. The reasons 8 Birth & Death Rates The registered birth rates in Chennai City in 1971 were 38.6 and 59.80 varied from 38.6 to 32.1during 1971-76 and have reduced to 45.20 22.62 in the year 2003. Similarly the death rate also reduced to a considerable 27.04 extent 23.87 from 13.1 in 1975 20.26 22.09 to 8.01 in 2003. The 17.24 rate of 13.07 natural increase declined from 26.3 in 1971 3.90 3.04 to 14.61 in 2003. 6.98 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 for this rapid growth rate can be attributed to industrial development and increase in economic activities and employment opportunities in the city and its suburbs, attracting large migrant population. The negative growth during 1971-81 is due to the annexation of surrounding Panchayats areas to the city. 90.01 86.64 85.33 Literacy rate 73.45 90.18 80.09 Source: CDP,chennai Literacy rate Gender wise 74.04 Chennai Tamil nadu India Literacy rate 2001 Literacy rate 2011 93.7 957 Sex Ratio 986 943 989 996 933 80.44 Chennai Tamil nadu India sex ratio 2001 sex ratio 2011 CMA = 76.09 (in 2001) CMA = 956 (in 2001) 86.64 64.91 86.77 73.14 82.14 65.46 male female male female 2001 2011 Literacy rate Chennai Tamil nadu India Source:census2011.co.in Source: census of India GROWTH RATE, LITERACY RATE, SEX RATIO
  • 9. 9 Trend of occupational structure Chennai city and CMA 2001 Chennai city CMA Non workers in Chennai city during 2001 65.73% 69.14% 1.55 4.01 1.34 3 1 6.5 1.5 2.9 27.37 34.21 30 32 24.3 26.7 98.5 91.1 71.08 61.78 68.66 65 74.7 66.8 chennai city CMA chennai city CMA chennai city CMA chennai city CMA 1971 1981 1991 2001 primary secondary tertiary The workers in primary activity constitute 6.52 percent in CMA and 1.05 percent in City 1991. In 2001, it was 2.91 percent and 1.52 percent respectively in CMA and Chennai City indicating that the primary activities are on the decline in the peripheral areas due to the emergence of manufacturing and new economy industry. Occupational structure
  • 10. 17.49 26.42 Migration details 32.84 6.44 7.8 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 total population in lakhs Total migrants Migrants from other urban areas constitute 63.4% and only 36.3% are from rural areas. 38.43 43.43 10.08 9.18 9.37 The population of the Chennai City in 1981 was 32.84 lakhs which includes 10.08 lakh migrant population and natural increase of 5.28 lakhs (for 1971-81) population; the net population excluding these works out to 17.48 lakhs whereas the 1971 population was 26.42 lakhs which shows that there was a net out migration of 8.94 lakhs (27%) resident population from City mostly to the rest of CMA (during 1971-1981). Source: CDP,chennai MIGRATION DETAILS 10
  • 11. Source: draft Master Plan ii short PROJECTIONS 11
  • 12. Road Network DISTRIBUTION OF PERSON TRIPS BY MODE - 2004 The road network of Chennai is dominated by a radial pattern converging at George Town, which is the main Central Business District (CBD) of the CMA. The road network is primarily based on the four National Highways, leading to Calcutta (NH5), Bangalore (NH4), Thiruvallur (NH 205) and Trichy (NH 45). Vehicles and persons trips in CMA Bus train car 2W cycle walk others IPT The total number of motor vehicles in CMA has increased from 144,282 29% in 1984 to 1,674,185 in 2005. 5% 4% 28% 1% 2% The number of two-wheelers has grown 13% enormously from 87,000 Rail Network 18% in 1984 to 1,266,114 in 2005. • Chennai Beach - Tambaram BG Goods Transport The number of goods line running south-west Source: CDP,chennai vehicles • Chennai in Chennai Central has increased - Thiruvallur from 6,671 According B.G.to line running west in 1980 to 32629 the CTTS in 2005. (1992-and According 95), to a • • the Chennai per capita Central trip rate - is 1.30 per day study and by Gummidipoondi the MMDA trip rate (1985) per BG household the line main running items is 5.88 of north movement per day. are • Manufactured goods (15.5%), • Building materials (9.9%), • Industrial raw materials (9.2%), • Perishables (9.1%) and • Parcels (8.5%). These • On 3 lines a typical together weekday account 7.45 for million 300,000 trips commuter by a variety trips per of travel day. modes for various Bus purposes. Transport The bus transport is being operated by Metropolitan In a group of 100, Transport 38 travels Corporation by bus, 4 by (MTC), which train, and had 30 a fleet by walk, strength 14 by of cycle, 2,773 7 by buses two in 2004. wheeler, They 2 by operate car and 537 5 by routes other and modes. carry 36 lakhs trips/day. Source: Source: CDP,CDP,chennai chennai INFRASTRUCTURE – TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 12
  • 13. C h e n n a i Me t r o p o l i t a n Wa t e r S u p p l y a n d S ew e r a g e B o a r d ( CMWS S B ) Chembarambakkamlake Veeranam Lake Chennai City Water Supply Augmentation Project-I Add 180 MLD water to Chennai City water requirement) was taken up by CMWSSB in 2004 at a cost of Rs.720 crores. It is to draw 190 MLD of raw water from Veeranam Lake Chennai City Water Supply Augmentation Project-II Estimated cost of Rs.124.00 crore. The objective of this project is to augment water supply to the city by intercepting the rainwater runoff into the sea by the construction / rehabilitation of check dams across Cooum, Adyar and Palar rivers. Rest of CMA Other Municipalities have Palar River as source, CMWSSB bulk supply or the ground water as source. Water supply in Panchayat areas is by local wells and public taps. ground water Reservoirs 70% 10% supply tank 20% The sources of surface water are the reservoirs at • Poondi, • Cholavaram, • Porur Lake • Chembarambakkam • Veeranam Lake Source of water supply to Chennai city Consumption liters per captia per day 260 270 90 Estimated of water Requirement (CMA) 140 population in lakhs 2011 2016 2021 2026 88 100 112 126 Total requirment Residential use 1165 1284 1431 1606 Other than Residential use 349 385 429 482 Industries use 116 128 143 160 Source: CMWSSB Note: Water Requirement in MLD INFRASTRUCTURE –WATER SUPPLY 13 220 Banglore Mumbai Delhi Chennai city Pune Source: CMWSSB
  • 14. Collection & Transportation WASTE GENERATION At present the Chennai Corporation and ONYX are the two agencies are the responsible for entire solid waste collection and transportation. As per the corporation the collection efficiency is around 95% in the city and Door to Door collection Residence 68% Hospitals Market 4% Restaurants/hotels /schools 11% Commercial 14% 3% • Around 3.400 tonnes of garbage is collected daily from 15 zones • The Perungudi dump yard gets 1600 tonnes and Kodungaiyur gets 1800 tonnes • Total number of bins 6980 • Waste separation 10% by CMC Future Garbage Generation Trends Source: CDP,chennai Areas future generation in 2021(tonnes) chennai city 4332 Municipalities 1326 special village panchayats 277 village panchayats 469 total CMA 6403 Source: CDP,chennai INFRASTRUCTURE – SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 14
  • 15. Chennai got projects worth Rs. 4973.71 crore, with a large part of it to be spent for the urban poor. 35 projects total, at a total cost of Rs. 3585.44 crore Central share 36% UIG funds allocation 30.5% by sector 0.2% 24.4% 2.3% 40.4% 2.3% Water Supply Solid Waste Management Sewerage Roads/Flyover/ Road Overbridges Drainage/Storm water Drains Current Scenario •23% of all projects have overspent • Less than half of the projects have been completed. (Phase 1 ends in 2013) • Lack of local capacity, rising costs of construction material, delays on funds release, elections cited as reasons. 24 projects total, at a total cost of Rs. 1388.27 crore BSUP funding by project type 77% 23% Resettlement colonies Other housing/infrast ructure projects Current Scenario • Most projects fall within the new Corporation boundaries. • Projects in the newly extended areas have been transferred to the jurisdiction of the Corporation • 29,864 tenements in Ezhil Nagar and Perumbakkam at a total cost of Rs. 1073.19 crore • Of which, for 19,412 tenements, provision of infrastructure facilities not covered by the JnNURM costs. Source: transparentchennai THE JnNURMIN CHENNAI 2005-2012 15
  • 17. Slum Clearance Scheme • Tenements are allotted either on rental basis or on hire purchase basis. • TNSCB has constructed 69594 No. of tenements from 1970 to 2004 in Chennai. • In addition TNHB had constructed 10,423 slum tenements in Chennai. Pavement Dwellers Housing Scheme • It was funded by the GOI (Rs.4, 000/- per household) GTN (Rs.1000/- per household) and HUDCO loan (Rs.8, 000/- per household) 7787 no. of families benefited under this scheme. Nehru Rozgor Yojana • Loan assistance of Rs.4, 150/- per slum family was given for up gradation of their shelter. • It was implemented by TNSCB with grant assistance from GOI & GTN and loan assistance from HUDCO.14, 000 No. of families benefited by this scheme Shelter for Shelter less Scheme • Affordable houses for slum dwellers were constructed on serviced plots, using locally available materials and adopting low cost techniques. • It was tried a pilot project in Chennai by TNSCB with GOI grant 20%, GTN grant 15% and HUDCO loan component 65%. 2982 No. of families were benefited under the scheme. SCHEMES IMPLEMENTED BY TNSCB IN CMA 17
  • 18. 18 OUTER RING ROAD • ORR connects NH45 at Vandalur, NH4 at Nazarathpet, NH 205 at Nemilichery, NH5 at Nallur and TPP road at Minjur and is of length 62.0 km. The configuration of the alignment comprises of dual system of both road and rail corridor in a width of 72m. 50m. wide portion of land is reserved for future developments. The estimated project cost is about Rs.1081.40 crores. • Land Acquisition has been taken up in two phases. The first phase of land Acquisition from NH 45 to NH 205 for a length of 29.2 km. covering 29 villages has been completed and possession taken over by CMDA. The second phase of acquisition from NH 205 to TPP Road covering 27 villages is under progress.
  • 19. 19 CHENNAI – BANGLORE EXPRESSWAY • The ambitious 262-km-long Bangalore-Chennai Expressway that will run through Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka will require nearly 2,300 hectares of land. • Sources in the NHAI said the project consultant had said the greenfield initiative would cost Rs. 7,000 crore, excluding cost of land acquisition. Following land acquisition, which would take a year and a half, the project will be completed in three years. • The road will be access-controlled like the Chennai Bypass and have several major interchanges. “For every 25 km, there will be entry/exit points The expressway will serve as an alternative to the popular NH 7 from Bangalore to Krishnagiri, NH 46 from Krishnagiri to Ranipet and NH 4 from Ranipet to Chennai. Source: The Hindu,chennai;augest12,2013
  • 20. 20 SATHANGADU IRON STEEL MARKET • Chennai is a major centre for iron Steel trade. It also serves as the feeder market for the entire south. • The growth rate of various core sectors in Chennai is quite high, but the Iron & Steel trade in Chennai does not seem to be located well enough to run efficiently or handle its growth potential. • Congested locations, cramped spaces, heavy-vehicle movement in narrow streets, traffic blockades, noise unhygienic environs - all lead to tardy and uneconomical operations. • Located ideally - over 203 acres near Tiruvottiyur on the periphery of the city, with ready access to Chennai City Port and Tiruvottiyur railhead. • India' most modern market of its kind, it is scientifically planned with excellent infrastructure, amenities and services-everything the trader seek for smooth conduct of business and full exploitation of growth potential
  • 21. 21 CHENNAI METRO RAIL PROJECT • The Chennai Metro Rail is a rapid transit system under construction in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Phase I of the project, which consists of two corridors covering a length of 45.1 kilometers (28.0 mi), is under construction. • The elevated section of the project is scheduled to be operational by spring 2015 and the entire project is scheduled to be completed by the financial year 2014– 2015. • About 55% of the corridors in Phase I are underground and the remaining corridors are elevated • At the time of construction, it cost nearly Rs.3,000 million and Rs.1,000 million to build one kilometre of tunnel and one underground station, respectively. • When the Chennai Metro Rail project was initiated in 2007, the estimated cost of the 45-km route in phase I was around Rs. 146 billion. • Phase I extension of 9 km from Washermanpet to Wimco Nagar at Tiruvottiyur cost Rs. 30,010 million as of 2014, which is expected to begin by December 2014.
  • 22. Chennai Monorail is a rail-based transit system for the Indian city of Chennai. It is proposed in the Long-term Urban Transportation Scheme of Second Master Plan by CMDA. The state government has announced plans to introduce monorail across City to reduce traffic congestion and to increase the share of public transport in the urban transport network. The aim is to increase the share of public transport in Chennai from 27% to 46% by 2026 22 CHENNAI MONO RAIL PROJECT corridor-1 (Poonamallee - Porur - Vadapalani/Kathipara) corridor-2 (Vandalur -Medavakkam - Velacheri - Kathipara) PROJECT COST The first Corridor – Vandalur to Velachery (23 km) — will have 14 stations, 12 stations will come up along the Poonamallee - Vadapalani Corridor (18 km) and 11 along the third corridor – Poonamallee to Kathipara junction (16 km). Corridor-1 - 20.68-km from Poonamallee to Kathipara with a link from Porur to Vadaplani - is expected to cost ₹32.35 billion
  • 23. The number of vehicles plying in cities run into millions. During the peak hours, the traffic moves in snail’s pace. Come monsoon season, the roads are damaged and potholes created, holding the city on ransom. Urban Amenities Pollution Vehicle exhaust, burning of garbage, CFC exhaust mixed with heat during the day creates a toxic mix. Pollution has made things worse in the cities. Nausea, severe headache, bronchitis, asthma, organ failure are few health problem faced by urban dwellers. Slum and Squatter Settlements The migration of rural poor in search of jobs to the cities have created slums and squatter settlements where there is no basic facilities. These settlements have become the breeding ground for illegal activities and crime. 23 Traffic Congestion Cities are lacking water facility round the clock. Then there is the problem of sewage disposal. Open sewer system is followed in many urban fringe areas- and when rain lashes out then it is a huge mess. Garbage disposal is another irritant. Government is not able to supply these amenities due to tremendous increase in population Traffic congestion Lacking of garbage disposal Lacking of drainage system Lacking of water facility ISSUES
  • 24. SWOT ANALYSIS 24 Op p o r t u n i t i e s S t r e n g t h T h r e a t s We a k n e s s e s Vision 2026 is to make Chennai a prime metropolis which will be more livable, economically vibrant and environmentally sustainable and with better assets for the future generations