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Circularity Innovations:
Cases from the Bio-, Blue-,
Urban, Shared, Repair and
Carbon Economies
Teodor Kalpakchiev
http://the-enpi.org
1
Earth 2100
2
Circularity Principles
• Waste hierarchy – from 3R to 9R to
prioritize looping
• Materials remain in the economy –
downcycling, upcycling,
repurposing
• Modular, repair and regenerative
economy
• Biomimicry and system integration
• Four levels – product,
manufacturing, cities, horizontal
• ICT connectivity, learning and
dematerialization
3
From the Grave to the Cradle
4
Regenerative Economy
5
Bioeconomy
• Circular by nature – biomimicry as
a starting point
• How to value nature in a circular
economy?
• Reuse, valorization and upcycling
of biomaterials, waste and side-
products
• Diversified outputs: food, materials
and energy
• Low-tech and high-tech solutions
6
Cases
Waste-fed biosilk worms Waste-fed protein-rich larvae
7
Cases
Organic fertilizers Utensils from wheat bran
8
Cases
Biogas/Bioethanol Anaerobic Digestate
9
Cases
Retrofitting Renewable Construction
10
Cases
Lichen/Moss-based carbon capture Plant-based air filtering
11
Cases
Edible biopackaging Selling Bulk to avoid packaging
12
Biomimicry
• Biomimicry based emulation of
nature’s functioning and
interconnectedness
• Copying solutions into the
techno-scene
• Grease on buildings to improve
insulation
• Aerodynamic shapes for cars or
wind turbines
• Urban photosynthesis via PVs and
vertical gardens
13
Urban Ecology and Urban Mining
Design for Decomissioning Closed-cycle bio-regionalism
14
Cases
Incentivized reverse vending Recycling Kiosks
15
Cases
Integrated solar food production Autonomous lighting
16
Cases
Cogeneration of heat and electricity
Public space ecology and storage of
human heat
17
Cases
Cogeneration for District Heating
Diesel exhaustive fumes and soot into
ink
18
Cases
Biorefineries Eco-industrial parks
19
Cases
Positive Energy Districts PV and telecharging roads
20
Cases
Ceramic tiles from solid waste Waste-to-energy ash bricks
21
Cases
Compost for Vertical Gardening
Methane collection from greywater
and biowaste
22
Blue Economy
• Circular tourism, circular value
chains, circular ports
• Water as a space for storing and
creating sustainable energy
• Transferring marine ecology onto
terrestial land
• Seabed biotechnology
• Regenerative upcycling of marine
waste
• Strengthening restorative
livelihoods
23
Cases
Ocean Waves Water Turbines
24
Cases
Floating Wetlands Floating PVs
25
Cases
Aquaponics Microalgae fuels
26
Cases
Protein from recycled carbon dioxide
Protein from land-based seaweed
plants
27
Cases
Reusable bags from fishnets Building blocks from marine plastic
28
Cases
Thread and cushioning from marine
plastics Modular houses from marine plastics
29
Shared Economy
Examples
• Leasing society
• Performance contracting
• Tele-Living
• Servitization
• Collaborative models
30
Cases
Public Whirpools Shared Vehicles
31
Cases
Looped refilling Lighting as service
32
Cases
Furniture as service Clothes as service
33
Cases
Mobile neighbourhood laundries Online free reuse groups
34
Cases
Makers‘ Movement
Co-creation/sharing of 3D printing
designs
35
ICT-enabled optimization
• Open, distributed, secure
communication protocols for
circularity
• Blockchain for sustainable
development – promising cases
• IoT enabled waste stream
redirection and resource
efficiency
• AI, sensor, machine learning
powered waste reduction
36
Cases
Sensor-aided waste collection Smart homes
37
Cases
Drone-powered Precision
Permaculture 4.0
Drone Enabled Data for Circular
Humanitarian and Natural Disaster Relief
38
Cases
Dematerialization of transactions,
school records, ID, decentralized trade
AI prediction of product returns and
repurposing, reverse selling of used
clothing back to retailers
39
Cases
AI-powered urban resource
metabolism AI-powered supply chain
40
Cases
RFID labels enabled reverse logistics
for a secondary resource market Smart Forestry
41
Repair Economy
Performance Contracting Reverse logistics repair centres
42
Cases
Repair Cafes Old phone drones
43
Cases
Old phone parts powered machine
learning for the sorting of waste Virtual Markets
44
Carbon Sequestration
Carbon capture for sustainable biofuels Carbon repurposing and storage
45
Cases
Substitution of sand in concrete with
waste-to-energy ashes and captured soot Turning CO2 back into coal
46
Cases
Marine Hydrogen Terrestrial Hydrogen
47
Cases
Calcium looping for carbon storage Underground storage
48
Cases
Carbon Algae Recycling Photobiorectors
49
Cases
Renewable Forest Biofuels Used Algae into Biodiesel
50
Copyright
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License
The work, the logo, the sequence is owned by the-enpi.org
Pictures, excluding the-enpi.org logo, without their headings might be
freely reproduced.
Distribution and reference only without changes and in explicit
notification to the author.
51

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