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CHARTERED INSTITUTE
OF PUBLIC RELATIONS

CIPR
STATE OF
THE PROFESSION
SURVEY
2013/14
@CIPR_UK #stateofpr
CONTENTS
// METHODOLOGY
METHODOLOGY 	
INTRODUCTION	
CIPR STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2013/14	
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY	
SAMPLE PROFILE AND CONTEXT	
PROFESSIONALISM AND QUALIFICATIONS 	
SKILLS 	
CAREER GOALS AND JOB SATISFACTION 	
SALARIES AND BONUSES	
RECRUITMENT AND REDUNDANCIES	
BUDGET SPEND AND NEW BUSINESS	
PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE BOARDROOM	
BUSINESS CASE FOR DIVERSITY	
CROSS-INDUSTRY CONVERGENCE 	
FUTURE CHALLENGES	

2
3
4
5
7
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

ComRes interviewed 2,531 public relations professionals online
between 25 October and 6 December 2013. ComRes is a
member of the British Polling Council and abides by its rules.
The survey was conducted according to the Code of Conduct of
the Market Research Society.
ComRes is a member of the British Polling Council and abides
by its rules (www.britishpollingcouncil.org). This commits us to the
highest standards of transparency.
The BPC’s rules state that all data and research findings made
on the basis of surveys conducted by member organisations that
enter the public domain, must include reference to the following:

•• 	The company conducting the research (ComRes)
•• 	The client commissioning the survey
•• 	Dates of interviewing
•• 	Method of obtaining the interviews (e.g. in-person, post, 		
		telephone, internet)
•• 	The universe effectively represented (all adults, voters etc.)
•• 	The percentages upon which conclusions are based
•• 	Size of the sample and geographic coverage.
The full data set can be downloaded from ComRes.co.uk.

2///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

2
INTRODUCTION

The 2013/14 CIPR State of the Profession Survey is a great story for
the future of public relations. What we see is a terrific opportunity for
anybody that is willing to embrace change.
More than nine out of ten of you say that being considered a
professional is important. My challenge to you is how serious are
you about putting this ambition into practice?
Professionalism is more than box ticking and abiding by a
code of practice.
In this business, we see required skills that continue to
change, and our responsibilities continue to grow, each and
every individual needs to accept responsibility for their own
professional development.
These results also show that CIPR members who have a
positive attitude to self-improvement and proactively manage
their careers are ahead at every stage in terms of confidence,
responsibility, and pay.
Personally I can show a direct and on-going correlation between
my skills and my income throughout my career. To me, there is no
clearer value in pursuing this agenda.
As we also see social forms of media and communication
impacting upon every department within an organisation
– we must grab the opportunity to lead that dialogue.

We must also look to do more about gender pay inequality.
A truly professional discipline does not accept having a pay gap
between men and women who are doing exactly the same jobs,
particularly as this gap significantly increases with seniority.
Embracing all facets of professionalism will also bring about
a fundamental change in how public relations practitioners
are perceived.
Without a shift to professionalism, the reputation of public
relations will continue to suffer. We’re all judged at a bar set by
the lowest common denominator, often in position by those
without any foundation knowledge. This must change.
Fulfilling our own professional ambitions will be no easy task.
We must accept that in order to be considered as a contender
for the board, public relations must be practised by those who
candidly embrace principles of ethics and morality, as well as
technical skill.
Only by taking this agenda seriously, will we develop an identity
and thrive as a professional discipline of our own.
Stephen Waddington MCIPR,

In this climate, developing our own set of rigorous professional
standards has never been more important, but we need
wholesale commitment for this to succeed.

CIPR President and Chartered Public
Relations Practitioner

3///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

3
33%

£ 65 % £
£
£ £ £

A third of younger
practitioners aged
between 18-24
are unemployed

Fairly satisfied
with their skills
and knowledge

At least 7 in 10
work on strategic
planning and
media relations

CIPR STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2013/14

Sales
Marketing

organisation type (All respondents)

Advertising

1 in 6 ‘very satisfied’ they have
the skills to tackle future challenges

Wor
more
with
depar

ANNUAL BENCHMARKING STUDY INTO THE BIGGEST TRENDS AND ISSUES FACING THE PR PROFESSION
HR

29%

42%

Sales
Marketing

ust under a third of
Advertising
ose aged over sixty
work freelance

Say that they are spen

HR

Events

IT

17%

5-34

35-44

68%

Experience in
a PR role

10%
45-60

12%

Professional
qualification

7%
10%

decline in the number of respondents working for not-for-profits/NGOs
as the sample profile grows older

35
25
20

89%

I want to hold a senior
management position,
but not in a public
relations firm

I have already achieved
my career goal(s)

15
10
5
0
CAREER GOALS

How important is it to be considered a professional?

OF NONMEMBERS AGREE

34%

19%

30

MOST IMPORTANT QUALITY
FOR PR PROFESSIONALS

OF CIPR
MEMBERS AGREE

I want public relations to

27%

Academic
60+
qualification

95%

IT

Working time pitching for be my career for life
ding more
new business
more closely as compared to
12 months ago
with other
departments

Customer
Service

14%

35%

65 %
Fairly satisfied
with their skills
and knowledge

Events

33%

A third of younger
practitioners aged
between 18-24
are unemployed

1 in 6 ‘very satisfied’ they have
the skills to tackle future challenges

27%

65 %
Fairly satisfied
with their skills
and knowledge

Women are notably more likely
than men to hold mid-level
positions such as Manager

£56,380
Consultancy /
agency

£
£
£
£
£
£

£53,890

£
£
£
£
£
£
15%

In-house in the
private sector

£52,680

£
£
£
£
£
£

Freelance

£42,770

29% £40,560

In-house for a
not-for-profit
organisationunder a third In-house in the
Just / NGO
of
those aged over sixty
public sector
work freelance

£
£
£
£
17%
£
25-34

Media
Mean salary by organisation type (All respondents)
relations

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Customer
Service

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

£
£
£
£
14%
£
18%
35-44

Information
provision

10%
45-60

4
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

For the first time, the CIPR State of the Profession survey took in the views of both CIPR members
(75%) and non-members (25%) of the 2,531 respondents, providing a comprehensive overview
of the public relations profession as a whole.
// PROFESSIONALISM AND QUALIFICATIONS

// FUTURE SKILLS

// EXPANDING REMIT OF PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTICE

Professionalism is desired as a central pillar for public relations
professionals. More than nine of out ten (94%) of public
relations practitioners say that being considered a professional
is important to them.

There is no doubt that the diversity of expertise required to
practice public relations continues to be top of the agenda
for public relations professionals looking to future proof
themselves and their organisations.

However, with just three-quarters of practitioners saying
that they hold any academic qualification (76%), less than
half any professional standard qualification (44%), and
that the most important asset considered for any public
relations professionals is having on the job experience in
a public relations role (68%), ultimately, respondents are
pointing towards a practice which hasn’t yet realised its own
professional ambitions.

One in three respondents say that the biggest challenge to
public relations in the next five years will be an expanding skill
set required of professionals (35%), but the practice is split
when it comes to confidence in embracing this requirement.

The integration of public relations and marketing
communications departments continues to be on the rise,
with 71% stating that they are now working more closely with
at least one other department compared to two years ago
(the same as in 2012). Respondents also indicate that areas
of work are increasingly being shared between multitudes of
departments working more closely together.

The increasing diversity of
expertise required to practice
public relations continues to
be top of the agenda

One in six say that they are ‘very satisfied’ (16%), and one
in seven say that they are ‘not very satisfied’ or ‘not at all
satisfied’ (14%) that they have the skills and knowledge
required to deal with changes to the practice of public
relations in the future.
Nevertheless, satisfaction with current skills required for
practicing public relations appears to be high – with over nine
in ten (93%), saying that they are at least ‘fairly satisfied’
that they have the appropriate skills and knowledge required
of their role at the current time.

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

The most common departmental convergence occurs between
marketing (48%), events (41%), and customer service (37%),
with the most established area of shared responsibility being the
management of social or digital media, which occurs for three
out of five respondents (60%).
Areas of converging responsibility come from within the
traditional remit of public relations. These include;
internal communications (54%), event management (47%),
media relations (46%), and strategic planning (44%).
Results also show that convergence works both ways
– with many respondents seeing an increased responsibility in their
role for marketing and related functions, including copywriting
(56%), print and design (42%), website design and coding (35%),
strategic partnerships (34%), and content marketing (32%).

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

5
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

// CAREER GOALS AND JOB SATISFACTION

// RECRUITMENT, SALARIES AND PAY INEQUALITY

// BUSINESS CASE FOR DIVERSITY

When asked about career goals, just less than one in three
respondents (27%) say that they want to hold a senior
managerial position, but not in a public relations firm.
A third of public relations practitioners surveyed want public
relations to be their career for life (35%), while smaller, but still
sizeable proportions, want to be the MD / owner / director of
a public relations firm (13%).

Public relations is showing strong indicators of recovering
from the economic downturn. In consultancies, recruitment for
public relations roles is on the rise at a much faster rate than
in-house (51% compared to 30%).

For the first time public relations professionals were asked
about the effectiveness of campaigns delivered by diverse
teams, intended to indicate the professions’ acceptance of
the business case for diversity.

Two in five consultancy practitioners also say that they are
spending more time pitching for new business compared to
12 months ago (46%), with a third spending the same amount
of time (33%), a positive movement that suggests the
amount of work available is increasing.

More than half of all respondents agree that campaigns are
more effective if practised by teams that are socially (67%),
culturally (64%), ethnically (51%), and gender (50%), diverse
or proportionate. However, only a third of respondents agree
that teams proportionately made up of people with a disability
(33%) deliver more effective campaigns.

On top of this fact, there is significant evidence that public
relations is a stressful industry in which to work; while two in five
respondents say that they enjoy their job and look forward to
work (39%), more than half either say that they enjoy their job
but feel under pressure, or enjoy some aspects of their job not
all of it (57%).

2 in 5
Two in five respondents say
that they enjoy their job and
look forward to work

However as business begins to thrive, as in previous surveys,
gender continues to influence pay and seniority. Men are twice
as likely as women to say that they are directors, partners or
MDs (18% compared with 9% respectively), and are also more
likely to say that they are the owners of a public relations
company (16% compared with 9% respectively). Men (50%)
are also more likely than women (44%) to directly brief board
members / senior staff.
According to respondents, the mean salary for a male public
relations practitioner is £56,840, while that for a female
practitioner is £44,450.
Results also show that from Officer level and above,
men also earn more than women when performing the same
roles, a disparity that continues to rise with seniority.

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

64% of respondents agree that public relations campaigns can
be more effective if practiced by teams who are representative
of the audience(s) they are communicating with.

// THE VALUE OF CIPR MEMBERSHIP
Including the views of non-members alongside that of
members for the first time has provided results that point to
the value of CIPR membership in helping keep public relations
practitioners ahead of the curve.
Indicators for this fact include that CIPR members have greater
confidence than non-members in embracing the challenges of
the future (6 percentage points more); high satisfaction with
their current skill set (5 percentage points more in terms of
being ‘very satisfied’); a tendency to have more responsibility
for directly briefing the board (7 percentage points more);
and that on average, CIPR members earn just less than
£10,000 more per annum than those outside of the Institute.

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

6
35%

SAMPLE PROFILE AND CONTEXT
I want public relations to
be my career for life

27%
35

30 //

I want to hold a senior
management position,
but not in a public
relations firm

ORGANISATION TYPE

19

%
greatest proportion of practitioners surveyed say that
I have already the public sector (27%).
are employed in-house in achieved
my career goal(s)
15 This compares to 25% in 2012/13, 29% in 2011 and 34% in
10 2010. The next most common role is working in-house in the
5 private sector (23%), followed by working in a consultancy or
0 agency (21%). Public relations practitioners who took part in
CAREER GOALS
the survey are least likely to be employed in-house for a
not-for-profit / NGO (13%) or work freelance (10%).
25 The

20 they

ORGANISATION TYPE (All respondents, n=2,531)
In-house in the public sector

27%

In-house in the private sector

23%

Consultancy / agency

21%

In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO

13%

Freelance

10%

Not currently employed

4%

Retired

1%

// ORGANISATION TYPE – BY AGE

// SENIORITY

There is a clear trend by age in terms of which roles public
relations professionals fulfil. Younger public relations
practitioners aged 18-24 are most likely to say that they work
in a consultancy / agency (28%), although a third (33%) of
those in this age group are unemployed, pointing to the fact
that they are likely to be students.

The largest number of respondents say that they are in
mid-level managerial positions (31%). Around one in
six say that they are either Officers (17%) or Heads of
Communications or Associate Directors (16%). One in eight
say that they are Directors, Partners or MDs (12%), while one
in nine (11%) are owners.

In terms of the number of respondents working for not-forprofits / NGOs, the peak is 17% among those aged 25-34,
and 14% among those aged 35-44 (this compares with 5% of
those aged 18-24, 10% of those aged 45-60, and 7% of those
aged over 60).

Unsurprisingly, older respondents and those who have worked
in public relations for a longer period of time, are the most
likely to say that they hold senior positions such as Owner,
Director, Partner or MD. For example, two in five (41%) of
those aged 60 and over are owners, compared to none of
those aged 18-24.

15%

15%

IN-HOUSE IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR

Consumer or public
ORGANISATION TYPE
campaigning
(All respondents by age:
18-24 n=130; 25-34 n=831;
35-44 n=688; 45-60 n=737;
Over 60 n=135)

IN-HOUSE IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

IN-HOUSE FOR A NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANISATION / NGO

CONSULTANCY / AGENCY

28%

FREELANCE

NOT CURRENTLY EMPLOYED

Organisation type - 18 to 24 year olds

18%

Just less than a third (29%) Information aged 60+ say that they
of those
work freelance, significantlyprovision than those in any other age
more
group (ranging from 2% of those aged 18-24 to 16% of those
aged 45-60). This suggests that public relations professionals
tend to begin their careers working in-house or for a
consultancy or agency, before switching to working freelance.

Media
relations

33%

18-24

25-34

35-44

45-60

60+

In-house in the private sector

17%

28%

27%

18%

8%

In-house in the public sector

15%

28%

29%

30%

11%

In-house for a not-for-profit
organisation / NGO
Consultancy / agency
Freelance
Not currently employed
Retired

5%

17%

14%

10%

22%

18%

22%

CIPR members are more likely than non-members to say that
they hold senior positions; for example, 14% of CIPR members
are the owners of a public relations firm, compared to 5% of
non-members.

7%

28%

Those who work for a consultancy / agency are significantly
more likely than those who work in-house to say that they
hold senior positions. For example, almost three in ten (29%)
of those working for a consultancy / agency say that they
are a Director, Partner or MD, compared with 6% of those
working in-house. This potentially reflects the fact that most
consultancies or agencies that respondents work for are small
in size, and so there is more potential for respondents to hold
senior positions.

24%
29%

2%

3%

9%

16%

33%

2%

2%

2%

4%

0%

0%

0%

1%

16%

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

7
£56,380
Consultancy /
agency

£53,890

£52,680
SAMPLE PROFILE AND CONTEXT
£42,770

£
£
£
£
£
£

£
£
£
£
£
£

In-house in the
private sector

// SENIORITY – BY GENDER

£
£
£
£
£
£

Freelance

In-house for a
not-for-profit
organisation / NGO

£
£
£
£
£

£40,560

£
£
£
£
£

In-house in the
public sector

// SECTORS

As in previous surveys in 2012/13 and 2011, gender appears
to influence seniority strongly. Men are twice as likely as
women to say that they are Directors, Partners or MDs
(18% compared to 9% respectively), and are also more likely to
be the owners of a public relations company (16% compared
to 9% respectively).

In-house practitioners are most likely to say that they work in
the public sector, either for local or central government (26%)
or for the armed forces / emergency services / NHS (15%).
However, these figures are affected by the high proportion
of public sector practitioners, with nearly half (49%)
of those working in-house in the public sector saying that
the sector in which their organisation does most of its work
Women are notably more likely than men to say that they
is local or central government, compared to 16% of those
hold mid-level positions such as Officer (19% compared to
working in-house for an NGO and 5% of those working
13% of men) or Manager (34% comparedsalary by organisation type (All respondents) in the private sector.
in-house
Mean to 27% of men).

TOP 15 SECTORS (who work in-house, n=1,610)
Public sector - local/central government

26%

Public sector - armed services/emergency services/NHS

15%

Education

14%

Charity/voluntary sector

12%

Financial services/corporate

10%

SENIORITY – BY GENDER
(All respondents who are
not unemployed or retired,
male n=824; female n=1563)

MALE

FEMALE

1%

1%

4%

8%

Officer

13%

19%

Manager

27%

34%

Head of Communications / Associate Director

16%

Director / Partner / MD

18%

9%

Owner

16%

9%

Other

4%

Intern / Trainee
Assistant / Executive

At least 7 in 10
work on strategic
planning and
media relations

The private sector is the most varied in terms of which sector
practitioners work in, with no one sector particularly dominant.
Sales
One in five private sector practitioners say that they work in
Marketing
financial services (22%), while one in six (17%) work in utilities.

16%
Advertising

HR

Freelance public relations practitioners are most likely to say
Working
that they work in the charity / voluntary sector (34%). This is
more closely
followed by central or localother
with government (24%) and education
Events
departments
(23%). While these three lead the field, freelancers work for
clients across a spread of industries.

4%

IT

34%

Customer
Service

27%

8%

Transport

7%

Health/pharmaceutical (private sector)

6%

Property and construction

NGO practitioners are perhaps unsurprisingly most likely to
say that they work in the charity or voluntary sector (48%),
followed by the education sector (22%).

Utilities (waste, water, oil, gas, electricity)

6%

Science/engineering

6%

Manufacturing

5%

Construction

5%

Digital/technology

5%

Retail/wholesale

4%

Travel and tourism

4%

1 in 5
sector practitioners work in
financial services (22%)

Women are notably more likely
than men to hold mid-level
positions such as Manager

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

8
£52,680

£ £
SAMPLE PROFILE AND CONTEXT £
£ £ £
£ £ £
£ £ £
£ £ £
£ £ £

Freelance

£42,770
In-house for a
not-for-profit
organisation / NGO

£
£
£
£
£

// AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY

The most common tasks for respondents are strategic
planning and media relations, with at least seven in ten (70%)
working at least occasionally on these areas. While the amount
of time spent on each area is mostly consistent, there are
notable differences between those working in-house,
for a consultancy or freelance.
Those working in-house are the most likely to say that
they spend time working on information provision (64%)
or internal communications (60%).

AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY
(All respondents who work
in-house, n=1,610; for a
consultancy / agency, n=535;
or freelance, n=244)
Sponsorship

Corporate social responsibility
Public affairs/lobbying
Consumer or public campaigning
Branding

£40,560

£
£
£
£
£

In-house in the
public sector

// LEVEL OF RESPONSIBLITY

13%

42%

74%

56%

Research, planning
and measurement

At least 7 in 10
work on strategic
planning and
media relations

52%

64%

56%

Social or digital media management

54%

60%

60%

Internal communications

37%

30%

60%

Information provision

55%

47%

64%

Media relations

74%

78%

70%

74%

83%

Sales

Marketing

Advertising
LEVEL OF RESPONSIBILITY
(All respondents who are not unemployed or retired, n=2,389)
I contribute to the development of communications strategy
I directly brief board members/senior staff
HR
I contribute to the development of organisational strategy

Events

I am responsible for part of the communications budget of my
organisation
I am responsible for the communications budget of my organisation
IT
Customer
I am responsible for the overall budget of my organisation
Service

27%

As might be expected, responsibility tends to increase with
age and years in public relations, with those with more
experience in public relations more likely to hold greater
responsibilities such as the overall budget of their organisation,
or the communications budget of their organisation.
Around half of those who work for a consultancy or freelance
say that they are responsible for the overall budget of their
organisation (46% and 51% respectively), and around two fifths
say that they contribute to the development of organisational
strategy (44% and 36% respectively). This reflects the fact that
those working for a consultancy are more likely than those
working in-house to hold senior positions, while those who are
freelance are perhaps likely to say this because they are
self-employed, and thus responsible for their own budgets.

70%

Strategic planning

34%

Two-thirds of respondents say that they contribute to the
development of communications strategy (67%), just under
a half directly brief board members / senior staff (46%),
and a third contribute to the development of organisational
strategy (35%).

40%

38%

Those working for a consultancy / agency are the most likely
Event management
37%
Mean salary by organisation type (All respondents)
to say that they spend time working on strategic planning
Crisis management
36%
(83%) and media relations (78%), as well as on contributing
Contributing to
to business strategy (74%).
business strategy
70%

38%

34%

35%

37%

34%

30%

27%

38%

23%

25%

20%

30%

13%

26%

13%

IN-HOUSE

£53,890
In-house in the
private sector

CONSULTANCY

Consultancy /
agency

FREELANCE

£56,380

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Those who work in-house are the most likely to say that they
are responsible for part of the communications budget of
their organisation (39%), directly brief board members (51%)
or contribute to the development of communications strategy
Working(71%). This reflects the fact that in-house public relations
67%
practitioners are more likely to hold mid-level positions such
more closely
46%
with other Manager or Associate Director, rather than being at the very
as
35%
departments of their organisations.
top
32%
22%
17%

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

9
PROFESSIONALISM AND QUALIFICATIONS
33%

65 %
// ACADEMIC OR PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS

Fairly satisfied
with their skills
and knowledge

// IMPORTANT QUALITIES FOR PUBLIC

Three-quarters of public relations practitioners (76%) say
that they hold an academic qualification. This is most
commonly an undergraduate degree in a subject other than
public relations (51%).

RELATIONS PROFESSIONALS

More than two-fifths (44%) of public relations practitioners say
that they hold a professional qualification. The most common
qualification to hold is a diploma (18%). Less than one in ten
hold any of the other specific types of qualification specified.
Of those in work, public relations professionals working
for a consultancy or agency (32%) are less likely than those
working freelance (48%) or in-house (49%) to say that they
hold a professional qualification.

LEVEL OF ACADEMIC AND/OR PROFESSIONAL
QUALIFICATION (All respondents, n=2,531)
Academic qualification

76%

Professional qualification

44%

A third of younger
practitioners aged
between 18-24
are unemployed

LEAST IMPORTANT QUALITY FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS

PROFESSIONALS (All respondents, n=2,531)
Experience in a public relations role is overwhelmingly the most
important quality that public relations professionals believe it
Experience in a role in another sector, not necessarily in public relations
is important for people in their profession to have; two-thirds
An academic qualification
(68%) say that it is the most important. Perhaps surprisingly,
A professional qualification
those with the most experience in public relations are the least
Experience in a public relations role
likely to say this. Just half (51%) of those who have worked in
% of the above
%
None
public relations for 31 years or more say that experience in
Just under a third of
those aged over sixty know
Don’t
a public relations role is most important, compared to three
work freelance
Say that they are spen
quarters (74%) of those with 3-5 years in PR.
ding more time pitching for

29

1 in 6 ‘very satisfied’ t
the skills to tackle future
42%

36%
17%

42

1%
1%
1%

new business as compared to

Interestingly, given that public relations professionals
are more likely to hold an academic than a professional
qualification, they are more likely to say that it is important
for public relations professionals to have a professional
qualification (12% most important, 34% second most
important) than an academic one (10% most important,
19% second most important).

// IS BEING A CONSIDERED A12 months ago
PROFESSIONAL
IMPORTANT?

17%
25-34

Few public relations practitioners say that experience in
another sector is the most important asset for public relations
professionals (6%).

Virtually all (94%) of public relations practitioners
surveyed agree that being considered a professional is
important to them.

14

CIPR members (95%) are more likely to agree with this
%
statement than non-members (89%).
35-44

10%
45-60

7%

HOW IMPORTANT IS IT TO BE
CONSIDERED A PROFESSIONAL?

60+

MEMBERS

NONMEMBERS

95%

89%

1%

A decline in the number of respondents working for not-for-profits/NGOs
(All respondents – by membership:
as the n=1,895, non-members n=636)
memberssample profile grows older

3%

Agree

MOST IMPORTANT QUALITY FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS
PROFESSIONALS (All respondents, n=2,531)

Disagree

Experience in a public relations role

68%

A professional qualification

12%

An academic qualification

10%

Experience in a role in another sector, not necessarily in public relations

6%

None of the above

1%

Don’t know

1%

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

How important is it to be considered a professional?

95%

OF CIPR
MEMBERS AGREE

89%

OF NONMEMBERS AGREE

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

10
SKILLS

An overwhelming majority (93%) say that they are satisfied that they have
the appropriate skills and knowledge required of them at the current time.
This has remained unchanged since last year.
A large majority (84%) similarly say that they are satisfied
that they have the appropriate skills and knowledge required
of them by their organisation to deal with changes to the
practice of public relations in the future. This has remained
unchanged since 2012/13 (85%). However, CIPR members
(86%) are again more likely to be satisfied with their skills than
non-members (80%).
Just one in six (16%) say that they are ‘very satisfied’ that
they have the skills and knowledge required for the future,
almost half the proportion who say so of the present day (29%).

1 in 6 ‘very satisfied’ they have
the skills to tackle future challenges

1 in 6

One in seven (14%) say that they are not very or not at all
satisfied that they have the skills and knowledge required
to deal with changes to the practice of public relations in
the future, double the proportion who say this of the
present day (7%).

SATISFACTION WITH CURRENT SKILLS
(All respondents who are not retired, n=2,485)
Very satisfied with my skills and knowledge

29%

Fairly satisfied with my skills and knowledge

65%

Not very satisfied with my skills and knowledge

6%

Not at all satisfied with my skills and knowledge

1%

SATISFACTION WITH SKILLS TO
DEAL WITH CHANGES IN PRACTICE
(All respondents who are not retired, n=2,485)
Very satisfied with my skills and knowledge

16%

Fairly satisfied with my skills and knowledge

68%

Not very satisfied with my skills and knowledge

13%

Not at all satisfied with my skills and knowledge

1%

Say that they are
‘very satisfied’ that they have
the skills and knowledge
required for the future

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

11
CAREER GOALS AND JOB SATISFACTION

35%
A third of public relations
professionals (35%) want
public relations to be their
career for life

// CAREER GOALS

// JOB SATISFACTION

A third of public relations professionals (35%) want public
relations to be their career for life. This is higher among
CIPR members (37%) than non-members (28%). A quarter of
the public relations professionals surveyed (27%) want to hold
a senior management position not in PR, a fifth (18%) want to
own their own company, and around one in eight (13%) want
to be the owner of a public relations firm.

Two in five public relations professionals (39%) say that they
enjoy their job and look forward to work, while three in ten
(28%) say that they enjoy their job but feel under pressure.
A similar proportion (30%) say that they enjoy aspects of their
job, but not all, while 2% do not enjoy their job.

Those working in-house are more likely than consultancy or
freelance practitioners to say that they want public relations
to be their career for life (38%, compared to 27% for both
respectively), or that they want to hold a senior non-PR
position (35%, compared to 16% and 11% respectively).
A fifth (19%) say that they have already achieved their
career goals. As might be expected, there is a clear trend by
age, with 35% of those aged 45-60 and 76% of those aged
over 60 agreeing, compared to just 2% of those aged 25-34.
Those working for a consultancy (33%) or freelance (46%) are
also more likely than in-house practitioners (10%) to say this,
reflecting the higher proportion of senior figures or older
people in consultancy or freelance roles.

JOB SATISFACTION
(All respondents who are not unemployed or retired, n=2,389)
I enjoy my job and look forward to work

39%

I enjoy my job but feel under pressure at work

28%

I enjoy aspects of my job, but not all

30%

I don’t enjoy my job

2%

Job satisfaction is highest among freelancers (60% enjoy
their job and look forward to work) and lowest among those
working in-house in the public sector (30% enjoy their job
and look forward to work). Those aged over 60 are the most
likely age group to say that they enjoy their job and look
forward to work (58%), with those least enjoying their work
being aged 25-34 (30%).

CAREER GOALS (All respondents, n=2,531)
I want public relations to be my career for life

35%

I want to hold a senior management position,
but not in a public relations firm

27%

I want to own my own company

18%

I want to be an MD/owner/director of a public relations firm

13%

Other

8%

I have already achieved my career goal(s)

19%

None of the above

12%

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

12
SALARIES AND BONUSES

The largest proportion of public relations practitioners earn
between £30,001 and £40,000 per annum (22%), followed by
those earning between £20,001 and £30,000 (19%) and those
earning £40,001 and £50,000 (15%). The mean level of earnings
in public relations is £48,680. CIPR members (£51,100) tend to
have higher earnings than non-members (£41,800).

// SALARIES – BY GENDER
As in 2012/13, men are notably more likely than women to earn
a high salary, with women’s pay being more focused than that of
men around £20,001 to £30,000 (21% compared to 14%)
and £30,001 to £40,000 (24% compared to 19%). At the highest
end of the pay scale, men are twice as likely as women to earn
more than £150,000 (7% compared to 3% respectively).
The mean salary for a male public relations practitioner is
£56,840, while that for a female practitioner is £44,450.
Results also show the fact that from Officer level and above,
men also earn more than women when performing the
same roles, a disparity that rises with seniority.

// SALARIES – BY ORGANISATION TYPE

// BONUS CULTURE

Salaries for those who work in public relations for a consultancy
(mean salary of £56,380) or in the private sector (mean salary
of £53,890) tend to be slightly higher than those for freelancers
(mean salary of £52,680), whose income tends to be higher than
that of those working for not-for-profit or NGO (mean salary
of £42,770) or who work in public relations in the public sector
(mean salary of £40,560). A public relations professional working
in a consultancy will on average earn around £15,000 more than
one working in-house in the public sector.

Those who work in-house in the private sector are the most
likely to say that they have received a bonus in the last
12 months (67%). They are followed by those working for a
consultancy / agency (41%). This compared to a quarter (25%)
of those working in-house for not-for-profit or NGOs and one
in seven (15%) of those working in-house in the public sector
who say that they received a bonus. Less than one in ten
freelancers (7%) say that they received a bonus in the last
12 months.

Consultancy / agency

£56,380

In-house in the private sector

67%

In-house in the private sector

£53,890

Consultancy / agency

41%

Freelance

£52,680

In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO

25%

In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO

£42,770

In-house in the public sector

15%

In-house in the public sector

£40,560

Freelance

£56,380
MEAN SALARY BY SENIORITY AND BY GENDER
(All respondents – Officer level and above: female officer n=297; male officer
n=107; female manager n=526; male manager n=223; female head of comms level
n=254; male head of comms level n=135; female director/partner level n=144;
male director/partner level n=149; female owner n=143; male owner n=131)
Female Officer level

£28,020

Male Officer level

£28,200

Female Manager level

£39,710

Male Manager level

£42,240

Female Head of comms level

£58,660

Male Head of comms level

£63,700

Female Director/partner level

£82,350

Male Director/partner level

£90,450

Female Owner

£56,060

Male Owner

£75,640

RECEIPT OF A BONUS BY ORGANISATION TYPE
(All respondents who are not unemployed or retired by role:
In-house private n=586; In-house public n=696; In-house NGO n=328;
Consultancy / Agency n=535; Freelance n=244)

MEAN SALARY BY ORGANISATION TYPE
(All respondents who are not unemployed or retired by role:
In-house private n=586; In-house public n=696; In-house NGO
n=328; Consultancy / Agency n=535; Freelance n=244)

Consultancy /
agency

£
£
£
£
£
£

£53,890

£
£
£
£
£
£

In-house in the
private sector

Receiving a bonus is more common among men (37%)
than women (32%).

£52,680

£
£
£
£
£
£

Freelance

7%

£42,770
In-house for a
not-for-profit
organisation / NGO

£
£
£
£
£

£40,560

£
£
£
£
£

In-house in the
public sector

The two groups most likely to receive a bonus, those who
work in-house in the private sector (13.6%) and those working
for a consultancy / agency (14.6%) have roughly equal average
bonuses when equated to their salaries.
Those working in-house in the public sector (8.0%) or for
not-for-profit or NGOs (7.3%) are not only less likely than
private or consultancy practitioners to receive a bonus,
but their average bonus is also smaller.

Mean salary by organisation type (All respondents)

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

13
RECRUITMENT AND REDUNDANCIES

// RECRUITMENT

// RECRUITMENT CRITERIA

Three in five respondents (62%) say that their organisation is
recruiting, and one-third (35%) say that they are recruiting for
public relations staff. Recruitment for staff generally is most
likely among in-house practitioners working in the private
sector (69%) or for NGOs (68%).

The criteria most commonly required for junior (45%) or
senior (64%) public relations roles is on the job experience in
a public relations role. It is notable that even for junior roles,
just less than half require some on the job experience for
candidates to be considered.

Those working for a consultancy / agency are by far the most
likely to say that their organisation is recruiting for public
relations roles (51%, compared to 27% of those working
in-house in the public sector).
CURRENTLY RECRUITING FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS ROLES
BY ORGANISATION TYPE
(All respondents who work in-house or for a consultancy by role:
In-house private n=586; In-house public n=696; In-house NGO
n=328; Consultancy / Agency n=535)
Consultancy / agency

34%

In-house in the private sector

32%

In-house in the public sector

27%

NET: in house

30%

JUNIOR

SENIOR

Some on the job experience in a PR role

45%

64%

An undergraduate degree

44%

48%

A professional qualification

8%

23%

A member of a professional body/association

5%

19%

Candidates must have a masters degree

2%

9%

The organisation uses a recruitment
consultant/agency

19%

24%

Not aware of any of these criteria
being in place

11%

9%

Don’t know

14%

13%

51%

In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO

Just less than half say that applicants for junior (44%)
or senior (48%) roles must have an undergraduate degree.
Around a fifth say that applicants for senior roles must have
a professional qualification (23%) or be a member of a
professional body (19%). Few say either of these criteria are in
place for junior roles (8% and 5% respectively). This suggests
that professional qualifications / membership become
increasingly important to public relations professionals looking
to take up a new position as they become more senior.

RECRUITMENT CRITERIA FOR
JUNIOR AND SENIOR ROLES
(All respondents who work in-house or for
a consultancy by role: In-house private
n=586; In-house public n=696; In-house
NGO n=328; Consultancy / Agency n=535)

When recruiting for junior roles, consultancies are notably
less likely than in-house firms to look for public relations
experience (37% compared to 48%), but more likely to look for
an undergraduate degree (49% compared to 42%).
Public sector in-house practitioners are the least likely to say
that their organisation uses a recruitment consultancy for
junior (10%) or senior (13%) roles.

// REDUNDANCIES
A quarter of respondents (25%) say that their organisation
in general is making redundancies, and one in ten say that
they are making redundancies in public relations (10%).
Redundancies are significantly more likely among those
working in-house in the public sector, both in general (41%)
and in the case of public relations jobs (17%). Just 3% of
those working for a consultancy say that their organisation is
making redundancies.

One in ten say that they are
making redundancies in public
relations (10%)

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

14
%

BUDGET SPEND AND NEW BUSINESS

// MAIN AREAS OF SPEND

The priorities of those
who work in-house in
the public sector are
evenly split

Those working in-house in the private sector are more likely
than public sector in-house practitioners to say that they spend
most of their budget on media relations (20% compared with
15%), although they are still less likely to say so compared to
those who work for a consultancy. Private sector practitioners
are the group most likely to say that they spend a majority of
their budget on branding (9% compared with 3% for in-house
public sector) or internal communications (7% compared with
4% for in-house public sector).
Those who work in-house for an NGO are the most likely to
say that they spend a majority of their budget on public affairs
or lobbying (10% compared with 6% for in-house private and
3% for in-house public), perhaps reflecting the importance
these groups place on engaging with the Government.

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

FREELANCE

Consumer or public
campaigning

The priorities of those who work in-house in the public sector
are split between information provision (18%), media relations
(15%), consumer or public campaigning (15%) and event
management (11%). Less than one in ten in this sector say that
a majority of their budget is spent on anything else.

CONSULTANCY /
AGENCY

15%

Those who work for a consultancy or agency are by far the
most likely to say that a majority of their fees are spent on
media relations (49%), followed by those working freelance
(33%). However, both these groups are generally less likely
than other public relations practitioners to say that a majority
of their fees are spent on anything else, with the exception of
strategic planning (8% and 15% respectively), where they are
notably more likely to say so.

NGO

Information
provision

IN-HOUSE
PUBLIC

18%

Media
relations

17%

20%

15%

18%

49%

33%

12%

8%

15%

13%

3%

2%

11%

12%

11%

11%

4%

5%

Branding

6%

9%

3%

6%

4%

5%

Internal communications

5%

7%

4%

4%

2%

5%

Public affairs /lobbying

15%

IN-HOUSE
PRIVATE

MAIN AREAS OF PUBLIC
RELATIONS SPEND –
EXCLUDING STAFF COSTS
(All respondents who are not
unemployed or retired by role:
In-house private n=586;
In-house public n=696;
In-house NGO n=328;
Consultancy / Agency n=535;
freelance n=244)

ALL IN-HOUSE

Overall, public relations professionals are most likely to
say that the majority of their clients’ fees are spent on media
relations, as might be expected of an activity central to
the profession.

6%

6%

3%

10%

5%

5%

Information provision

12%

3%

18%

13%

2%

5%

Social or digital media
management

5%

4%

6%

4%

5%

8%

Sponsorship

2%

4%

1%

1%

1%

0%

Corporate social responsibility

3%

6%

2%

1%

0%

2%

Research, planning and
measurement

4%

4%

4%

5%

5%

5%

Strategic planning

2%

2%

1%

1%

8%

15%

Crisis management

1%

2%

1%

1%

2%

1%

Media relations
Consumer or public
campaigning
Event management

// PITCHING FOR NEW BUSINESS
Two in five public relations professionals (42%) say that
they are spending more time pitching for new business as
compared to 12 months ago. A third (33%) say that the
amount of time they spend on this has remained the same,
while one in six (16%) say that they are spending less time
pitching for new business.
Those working for a consultancy or agency (46%) are
significantly more likely than freelancers (34%) to say that they
are spending more time pitching for new business.

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

15
PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE BOARDROOM

Overall, more than half (56%) of board members with public
relations responsibilities are men. This rises to three in five
(61%) among those working in-house in the public sector.
Two-fifths (43%) are women. Those working in-house for
not-for-profit or NGOs are the only group more likely to say
that their board member with public relations responsibilities
is a woman (51%) than a man (48%).

NO, I THINK THAT
PUBLIC RELATIONS
IS NOT VALUED BY
MY BOARD

DON’T KNOW

Only one in eight in-house practitioners (13% private,
13% public, 12% NGO) say that their board does not value the
role of public relations. In each case, a plurality agree that their
board values the role of PR, but does not have someone with
responsibility for it (46% private, 41% public, 48% NGO).

YES, BUT THERE IS
NOBODY WITH
RESPONSIBILITY FOR
PUBLIC RELATIONS ON THE
BOARD

Overall, more than
half of board members
with public relations
responsibilities are men

// BOARD REPRESENTATION – BY GENDER

REPRESENTATION

YES, AND THERE IS
SOMEONE WITH
RESPONSIBILITY FOR
PUBLIC RELATIONS
ON THE BOARD

56%

// VALUE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS AND BOARD

In-house in the private sector

39%

46%

13%

2%

In-house in the public sector

40%

41%

13%

5%

In-house for a not-for-profit
organisation / NGO

34%

48%

12%

5%

VALUE OF PUBLIC
RELATIONS IN THE
BOARDROOM BY
ORGANISATION
(All who work in-house,
n=1,610)

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

BOARD REPRESENTATION BY GENDER
(All who work in-house, n=1,610)

MALE

FEMALE

In-house in the private sector

58%

41%

In-house in the public sector

61%

38%

In-house for a not-for-profit organisation /
NGO

48%

51%

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

16
BUSINESS CASE FOR DIVERSITY

51%

There is general agreement among the public relations profession that
public relations campaigns can be more effective if practised by teams
who are socially diverse (67%), of all ages (67%), culturally diverse (64%)
or representative of the audiences they are communicating with (64%).

Around half agree that
public relations campaigns
can be more effective if
practised by teams that are
ethnically diverse

Around half agree that public relations campaigns can be
more effective if practised by teams that are ethnically diverse
(51%) or made up of a proportionate number of men and
women (50%), although three in ten (28%) disagree with this
last statement.
A third (33%) agree that public relations campaigns can
be more effective if practised by teams made up of a
proportionate number of people with and without disabilities,
while similar proportions disagree (30%) and say that they
‘don’t know’ (31%).

BUSINESS CASE FOR DIVERSITY:
“I AGREE THAT PUBLIC RELATIONS CAMPAIGNS CAN BE MORE EFFECTIVE
IF PRACTISED BY TEAMS WHO ARE:” (All respondents, n=2,531)
Socially diverse

67%

Of all ages

67%

Representative of the audience(s) they are communicating with

64%

Culturally diverse

64%

Ethnically diverse

51%

Made up of a proportionate number of men and women

50%

Made up of a proportionate number of people
with and without disabilities

33%

As might be expected, those from another ethnic background
(71%) are significantly more likely than those from a white
background (49%) to agree that ethnic diversity makes public
relations campaigns more effective. Interestingly, no such
trend is apparent among people from different sexes or age
groups when looking at their respective questions.
Those working for a consultancy / agency are notably less
likely than other practitioners to agree that public relations
campaigns are more effective when conducted by teams that
are diverse in terms of ethnicity, culture, gender or disability.

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

17
90

n the
ctor

£52,680

CROSS-INDUSTRY CONVERGENCE
£ £42,770
Freelance

£
£
£
£
£

In-house for a
not-for-profit
organisation / NGO

£
£
£
£
£

£40,560

£
£
£
£
£

In-house in the
public sector

// CONVERGENCE – BY DEPARTMENT

// CONVERGENCE

Public relations professionals continue to work increasingly
closely with other departments. 71% say that they are working
more closely with at least one other department, the same as
in 2012/13. Just less than half (48%) say that they are working
more closely with their marketing department, while two in
five (41%) say that they are working more closely with their
events department, and slightly less say they are working more
ry by organisation type (All respondents) service (37%).
closely with customer
Around a third say so of IT (32%), HR (30%) and advertising
(29%). A quarter (25%) say that they are working more closely
with their sales department.

Sales

// CONVERGENCE

– BY AREAS OF ‘PUBLIC RELATIONS’ RESPONSIBILITY

– BY NEW AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY

Areas of work are increasingly being shared between
departments working more closely together. The key areas of
convergence are social or digital media management (60%),
internal communications (54%), event management (47%),
media relations (46%), strategic planning (44%) and
branding (42%).

Public relations professionals continue to work more closely
with other departments, and as a result many now have
responsibility for some marketing and related functions,
including copywriting (56%), print and design (42%) and
website design and coding (35%). A third of public relations
practitioners (34%) say that they are now responsible for
strategic partnerships, although this has dropped from
39% in 2012/13.

Patterns of convergence have altered since 2012/13.
Departments are increasingly sharing responsibility for social
or digital media management (60% compared to 51%),
internal communications (54% compared to 48%) and crisis
management (37% compared to 32%). However, convergence
appears to have slowed in the areas of branding
(42% compared to 48%) and consumer or public campaigning
(28% compared to 35%).

TOP 6 NEW AREAS OF CONVERGING RESPONSIBILITY
FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES
(All respondents who say that public relations in their organisation
is working more closely with other departments, n=1,519)

HR

Events

Working
more closely
with other
departments

Social or digital media management

Marketing

37%

IT

32%

HR

30%

Advertising

29%

Sales

42%

41%

Customer Service

44%

48%

Events

29%

46%

Branding

WORKING MORE CLOSELY WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS
(All respondents who work in-house or for a consultancy, n=2,145)

32%

47%

Strategic planning

34%

`54%

Media relations

35%

60%

Internal communications

Customer
Service

42%

Advertising

Event management

IT

Print and design

Content marketing

TOP 6 AREAS OF CONVERGING RESPONSIBILITY
FROM PUBLIC RELATIONS
(All respondents who say that public relations in their organisation
is working more closely with other departments, n=1,519)

56%

Strategic partnerships

Advertising

Copywriting

Website design and coding

Marketing

25%

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

18
FUTURE CHALLENGES

39%
Those working for
a consultancy or agency
are the most likely to say that
the biggest challenge to
public relations will be an
expanding skill set required
of professionals (39%).

One in three public relations practitioners (35%) say that
the biggest challenge to public relations in the next five
years will be an expanding skill set required of professionals.
A fifth (22%) say that it will be a lack of understanding of
measurement and evaluation, while less than one in six say
that it will be a poor public reputation of public relations
(16%) or under-representation of public relations practitioners
at board level (15%).
Those working for a consultancy or agency are the most likely
to say that the biggest challenge to public relations will be an
expanding skill set required of professionals (39%).
Those working freelance (13%) are notably less likely than
in-house (24%) or consultancy-based (25%) practitioners to
say that the biggest challenge will be a lack of understanding
of measurement and evaluation, which perhaps suggests
that freelancers feel that they have a better understanding of
measurement and evaluation than other professionals.

BIGGEST CHALLENGE TO PUBLIC RELATIONS IN NEXT FIVE
YEARS (All respondents, n=2,531)
An expanding skill set required of professionals

35%

Lack of understanding of measurement and evaluation

22%

A poor public reputation of public relations

16%

Under-representation of public relations practitioners at board level

15%

Other

6%

Don’t know

5%

19///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr

19

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CIPR State of the Profession 2013/14

  • 1. CHARTERED INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS CIPR STATE OF THE PROFESSION SURVEY 2013/14 @CIPR_UK #stateofpr
  • 2. CONTENTS // METHODOLOGY METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION CIPR STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2013/14 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SAMPLE PROFILE AND CONTEXT PROFESSIONALISM AND QUALIFICATIONS SKILLS CAREER GOALS AND JOB SATISFACTION SALARIES AND BONUSES RECRUITMENT AND REDUNDANCIES BUDGET SPEND AND NEW BUSINESS PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE BOARDROOM BUSINESS CASE FOR DIVERSITY CROSS-INDUSTRY CONVERGENCE FUTURE CHALLENGES 2 3 4 5 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 ComRes interviewed 2,531 public relations professionals online between 25 October and 6 December 2013. ComRes is a member of the British Polling Council and abides by its rules. The survey was conducted according to the Code of Conduct of the Market Research Society. ComRes is a member of the British Polling Council and abides by its rules (www.britishpollingcouncil.org). This commits us to the highest standards of transparency. The BPC’s rules state that all data and research findings made on the basis of surveys conducted by member organisations that enter the public domain, must include reference to the following: •• The company conducting the research (ComRes) •• The client commissioning the survey •• Dates of interviewing •• Method of obtaining the interviews (e.g. in-person, post, telephone, internet) •• The universe effectively represented (all adults, voters etc.) •• The percentages upon which conclusions are based •• Size of the sample and geographic coverage. The full data set can be downloaded from ComRes.co.uk. 2///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION The 2013/14 CIPR State of the Profession Survey is a great story for the future of public relations. What we see is a terrific opportunity for anybody that is willing to embrace change. More than nine out of ten of you say that being considered a professional is important. My challenge to you is how serious are you about putting this ambition into practice? Professionalism is more than box ticking and abiding by a code of practice. In this business, we see required skills that continue to change, and our responsibilities continue to grow, each and every individual needs to accept responsibility for their own professional development. These results also show that CIPR members who have a positive attitude to self-improvement and proactively manage their careers are ahead at every stage in terms of confidence, responsibility, and pay. Personally I can show a direct and on-going correlation between my skills and my income throughout my career. To me, there is no clearer value in pursuing this agenda. As we also see social forms of media and communication impacting upon every department within an organisation – we must grab the opportunity to lead that dialogue. We must also look to do more about gender pay inequality. A truly professional discipline does not accept having a pay gap between men and women who are doing exactly the same jobs, particularly as this gap significantly increases with seniority. Embracing all facets of professionalism will also bring about a fundamental change in how public relations practitioners are perceived. Without a shift to professionalism, the reputation of public relations will continue to suffer. We’re all judged at a bar set by the lowest common denominator, often in position by those without any foundation knowledge. This must change. Fulfilling our own professional ambitions will be no easy task. We must accept that in order to be considered as a contender for the board, public relations must be practised by those who candidly embrace principles of ethics and morality, as well as technical skill. Only by taking this agenda seriously, will we develop an identity and thrive as a professional discipline of our own. Stephen Waddington MCIPR, In this climate, developing our own set of rigorous professional standards has never been more important, but we need wholesale commitment for this to succeed. CIPR President and Chartered Public Relations Practitioner 3///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 3
  • 4. 33% £ 65 % £ £ £ £ £ A third of younger practitioners aged between 18-24 are unemployed Fairly satisfied with their skills and knowledge At least 7 in 10 work on strategic planning and media relations CIPR STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2013/14 Sales Marketing organisation type (All respondents) Advertising 1 in 6 ‘very satisfied’ they have the skills to tackle future challenges Wor more with depar ANNUAL BENCHMARKING STUDY INTO THE BIGGEST TRENDS AND ISSUES FACING THE PR PROFESSION HR 29% 42% Sales Marketing ust under a third of Advertising ose aged over sixty work freelance Say that they are spen HR Events IT 17% 5-34 35-44 68% Experience in a PR role 10% 45-60 12% Professional qualification 7% 10% decline in the number of respondents working for not-for-profits/NGOs as the sample profile grows older 35 25 20 89% I want to hold a senior management position, but not in a public relations firm I have already achieved my career goal(s) 15 10 5 0 CAREER GOALS How important is it to be considered a professional? OF NONMEMBERS AGREE 34% 19% 30 MOST IMPORTANT QUALITY FOR PR PROFESSIONALS OF CIPR MEMBERS AGREE I want public relations to 27% Academic 60+ qualification 95% IT Working time pitching for be my career for life ding more new business more closely as compared to 12 months ago with other departments Customer Service 14% 35% 65 % Fairly satisfied with their skills and knowledge Events 33% A third of younger practitioners aged between 18-24 are unemployed 1 in 6 ‘very satisfied’ they have the skills to tackle future challenges 27% 65 % Fairly satisfied with their skills and knowledge Women are notably more likely than men to hold mid-level positions such as Manager £56,380 Consultancy / agency £ £ £ £ £ £ £53,890 £ £ £ £ £ £ 15% In-house in the private sector £52,680 £ £ £ £ £ £ Freelance £42,770 29% £40,560 In-house for a not-for-profit organisationunder a third In-house in the Just / NGO of those aged over sixty public sector work freelance £ £ £ £ 17% £ 25-34 Media Mean salary by organisation type (All respondents) relations ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Customer Service Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr £ £ £ £ 14% £ 18% 35-44 Information provision 10% 45-60 4
  • 5. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY For the first time, the CIPR State of the Profession survey took in the views of both CIPR members (75%) and non-members (25%) of the 2,531 respondents, providing a comprehensive overview of the public relations profession as a whole. // PROFESSIONALISM AND QUALIFICATIONS // FUTURE SKILLS // EXPANDING REMIT OF PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTICE Professionalism is desired as a central pillar for public relations professionals. More than nine of out ten (94%) of public relations practitioners say that being considered a professional is important to them. There is no doubt that the diversity of expertise required to practice public relations continues to be top of the agenda for public relations professionals looking to future proof themselves and their organisations. However, with just three-quarters of practitioners saying that they hold any academic qualification (76%), less than half any professional standard qualification (44%), and that the most important asset considered for any public relations professionals is having on the job experience in a public relations role (68%), ultimately, respondents are pointing towards a practice which hasn’t yet realised its own professional ambitions. One in three respondents say that the biggest challenge to public relations in the next five years will be an expanding skill set required of professionals (35%), but the practice is split when it comes to confidence in embracing this requirement. The integration of public relations and marketing communications departments continues to be on the rise, with 71% stating that they are now working more closely with at least one other department compared to two years ago (the same as in 2012). Respondents also indicate that areas of work are increasingly being shared between multitudes of departments working more closely together. The increasing diversity of expertise required to practice public relations continues to be top of the agenda One in six say that they are ‘very satisfied’ (16%), and one in seven say that they are ‘not very satisfied’ or ‘not at all satisfied’ (14%) that they have the skills and knowledge required to deal with changes to the practice of public relations in the future. Nevertheless, satisfaction with current skills required for practicing public relations appears to be high – with over nine in ten (93%), saying that they are at least ‘fairly satisfied’ that they have the appropriate skills and knowledge required of their role at the current time. ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// The most common departmental convergence occurs between marketing (48%), events (41%), and customer service (37%), with the most established area of shared responsibility being the management of social or digital media, which occurs for three out of five respondents (60%). Areas of converging responsibility come from within the traditional remit of public relations. These include; internal communications (54%), event management (47%), media relations (46%), and strategic planning (44%). Results also show that convergence works both ways – with many respondents seeing an increased responsibility in their role for marketing and related functions, including copywriting (56%), print and design (42%), website design and coding (35%), strategic partnerships (34%), and content marketing (32%). Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 5
  • 6. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY // CAREER GOALS AND JOB SATISFACTION // RECRUITMENT, SALARIES AND PAY INEQUALITY // BUSINESS CASE FOR DIVERSITY When asked about career goals, just less than one in three respondents (27%) say that they want to hold a senior managerial position, but not in a public relations firm. A third of public relations practitioners surveyed want public relations to be their career for life (35%), while smaller, but still sizeable proportions, want to be the MD / owner / director of a public relations firm (13%). Public relations is showing strong indicators of recovering from the economic downturn. In consultancies, recruitment for public relations roles is on the rise at a much faster rate than in-house (51% compared to 30%). For the first time public relations professionals were asked about the effectiveness of campaigns delivered by diverse teams, intended to indicate the professions’ acceptance of the business case for diversity. Two in five consultancy practitioners also say that they are spending more time pitching for new business compared to 12 months ago (46%), with a third spending the same amount of time (33%), a positive movement that suggests the amount of work available is increasing. More than half of all respondents agree that campaigns are more effective if practised by teams that are socially (67%), culturally (64%), ethnically (51%), and gender (50%), diverse or proportionate. However, only a third of respondents agree that teams proportionately made up of people with a disability (33%) deliver more effective campaigns. On top of this fact, there is significant evidence that public relations is a stressful industry in which to work; while two in five respondents say that they enjoy their job and look forward to work (39%), more than half either say that they enjoy their job but feel under pressure, or enjoy some aspects of their job not all of it (57%). 2 in 5 Two in five respondents say that they enjoy their job and look forward to work However as business begins to thrive, as in previous surveys, gender continues to influence pay and seniority. Men are twice as likely as women to say that they are directors, partners or MDs (18% compared with 9% respectively), and are also more likely to say that they are the owners of a public relations company (16% compared with 9% respectively). Men (50%) are also more likely than women (44%) to directly brief board members / senior staff. According to respondents, the mean salary for a male public relations practitioner is £56,840, while that for a female practitioner is £44,450. Results also show that from Officer level and above, men also earn more than women when performing the same roles, a disparity that continues to rise with seniority. ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// 64% of respondents agree that public relations campaigns can be more effective if practiced by teams who are representative of the audience(s) they are communicating with. // THE VALUE OF CIPR MEMBERSHIP Including the views of non-members alongside that of members for the first time has provided results that point to the value of CIPR membership in helping keep public relations practitioners ahead of the curve. Indicators for this fact include that CIPR members have greater confidence than non-members in embracing the challenges of the future (6 percentage points more); high satisfaction with their current skill set (5 percentage points more in terms of being ‘very satisfied’); a tendency to have more responsibility for directly briefing the board (7 percentage points more); and that on average, CIPR members earn just less than £10,000 more per annum than those outside of the Institute. Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 6
  • 7. 35% SAMPLE PROFILE AND CONTEXT I want public relations to be my career for life 27% 35 30 // I want to hold a senior management position, but not in a public relations firm ORGANISATION TYPE 19 % greatest proportion of practitioners surveyed say that I have already the public sector (27%). are employed in-house in achieved my career goal(s) 15 This compares to 25% in 2012/13, 29% in 2011 and 34% in 10 2010. The next most common role is working in-house in the 5 private sector (23%), followed by working in a consultancy or 0 agency (21%). Public relations practitioners who took part in CAREER GOALS the survey are least likely to be employed in-house for a not-for-profit / NGO (13%) or work freelance (10%). 25 The 20 they ORGANISATION TYPE (All respondents, n=2,531) In-house in the public sector 27% In-house in the private sector 23% Consultancy / agency 21% In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO 13% Freelance 10% Not currently employed 4% Retired 1% // ORGANISATION TYPE – BY AGE // SENIORITY There is a clear trend by age in terms of which roles public relations professionals fulfil. Younger public relations practitioners aged 18-24 are most likely to say that they work in a consultancy / agency (28%), although a third (33%) of those in this age group are unemployed, pointing to the fact that they are likely to be students. The largest number of respondents say that they are in mid-level managerial positions (31%). Around one in six say that they are either Officers (17%) or Heads of Communications or Associate Directors (16%). One in eight say that they are Directors, Partners or MDs (12%), while one in nine (11%) are owners. In terms of the number of respondents working for not-forprofits / NGOs, the peak is 17% among those aged 25-34, and 14% among those aged 35-44 (this compares with 5% of those aged 18-24, 10% of those aged 45-60, and 7% of those aged over 60). Unsurprisingly, older respondents and those who have worked in public relations for a longer period of time, are the most likely to say that they hold senior positions such as Owner, Director, Partner or MD. For example, two in five (41%) of those aged 60 and over are owners, compared to none of those aged 18-24. 15% 15% IN-HOUSE IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR Consumer or public ORGANISATION TYPE campaigning (All respondents by age: 18-24 n=130; 25-34 n=831; 35-44 n=688; 45-60 n=737; Over 60 n=135) IN-HOUSE IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN-HOUSE FOR A NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANISATION / NGO CONSULTANCY / AGENCY 28% FREELANCE NOT CURRENTLY EMPLOYED Organisation type - 18 to 24 year olds 18% Just less than a third (29%) Information aged 60+ say that they of those work freelance, significantlyprovision than those in any other age more group (ranging from 2% of those aged 18-24 to 16% of those aged 45-60). This suggests that public relations professionals tend to begin their careers working in-house or for a consultancy or agency, before switching to working freelance. Media relations 33% 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-60 60+ In-house in the private sector 17% 28% 27% 18% 8% In-house in the public sector 15% 28% 29% 30% 11% In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO Consultancy / agency Freelance Not currently employed Retired 5% 17% 14% 10% 22% 18% 22% CIPR members are more likely than non-members to say that they hold senior positions; for example, 14% of CIPR members are the owners of a public relations firm, compared to 5% of non-members. 7% 28% Those who work for a consultancy / agency are significantly more likely than those who work in-house to say that they hold senior positions. For example, almost three in ten (29%) of those working for a consultancy / agency say that they are a Director, Partner or MD, compared with 6% of those working in-house. This potentially reflects the fact that most consultancies or agencies that respondents work for are small in size, and so there is more potential for respondents to hold senior positions. 24% 29% 2% 3% 9% 16% 33% 2% 2% 2% 4% 0% 0% 0% 1% 16% ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 7
  • 8. £56,380 Consultancy / agency £53,890 £52,680 SAMPLE PROFILE AND CONTEXT £42,770 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ In-house in the private sector // SENIORITY – BY GENDER £ £ £ £ £ £ Freelance In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO £ £ £ £ £ £40,560 £ £ £ £ £ In-house in the public sector // SECTORS As in previous surveys in 2012/13 and 2011, gender appears to influence seniority strongly. Men are twice as likely as women to say that they are Directors, Partners or MDs (18% compared to 9% respectively), and are also more likely to be the owners of a public relations company (16% compared to 9% respectively). In-house practitioners are most likely to say that they work in the public sector, either for local or central government (26%) or for the armed forces / emergency services / NHS (15%). However, these figures are affected by the high proportion of public sector practitioners, with nearly half (49%) of those working in-house in the public sector saying that the sector in which their organisation does most of its work Women are notably more likely than men to say that they is local or central government, compared to 16% of those hold mid-level positions such as Officer (19% compared to working in-house for an NGO and 5% of those working 13% of men) or Manager (34% comparedsalary by organisation type (All respondents) in the private sector. in-house Mean to 27% of men). TOP 15 SECTORS (who work in-house, n=1,610) Public sector - local/central government 26% Public sector - armed services/emergency services/NHS 15% Education 14% Charity/voluntary sector 12% Financial services/corporate 10% SENIORITY – BY GENDER (All respondents who are not unemployed or retired, male n=824; female n=1563) MALE FEMALE 1% 1% 4% 8% Officer 13% 19% Manager 27% 34% Head of Communications / Associate Director 16% Director / Partner / MD 18% 9% Owner 16% 9% Other 4% Intern / Trainee Assistant / Executive At least 7 in 10 work on strategic planning and media relations The private sector is the most varied in terms of which sector practitioners work in, with no one sector particularly dominant. Sales One in five private sector practitioners say that they work in Marketing financial services (22%), while one in six (17%) work in utilities. 16% Advertising HR Freelance public relations practitioners are most likely to say Working that they work in the charity / voluntary sector (34%). This is more closely followed by central or localother with government (24%) and education Events departments (23%). While these three lead the field, freelancers work for clients across a spread of industries. 4% IT 34% Customer Service 27% 8% Transport 7% Health/pharmaceutical (private sector) 6% Property and construction NGO practitioners are perhaps unsurprisingly most likely to say that they work in the charity or voluntary sector (48%), followed by the education sector (22%). Utilities (waste, water, oil, gas, electricity) 6% Science/engineering 6% Manufacturing 5% Construction 5% Digital/technology 5% Retail/wholesale 4% Travel and tourism 4% 1 in 5 sector practitioners work in financial services (22%) Women are notably more likely than men to hold mid-level positions such as Manager ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 8
  • 9. £52,680 £ £ SAMPLE PROFILE AND CONTEXT £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Freelance £42,770 In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO £ £ £ £ £ // AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY The most common tasks for respondents are strategic planning and media relations, with at least seven in ten (70%) working at least occasionally on these areas. While the amount of time spent on each area is mostly consistent, there are notable differences between those working in-house, for a consultancy or freelance. Those working in-house are the most likely to say that they spend time working on information provision (64%) or internal communications (60%). AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY (All respondents who work in-house, n=1,610; for a consultancy / agency, n=535; or freelance, n=244) Sponsorship Corporate social responsibility Public affairs/lobbying Consumer or public campaigning Branding £40,560 £ £ £ £ £ In-house in the public sector // LEVEL OF RESPONSIBLITY 13% 42% 74% 56% Research, planning and measurement At least 7 in 10 work on strategic planning and media relations 52% 64% 56% Social or digital media management 54% 60% 60% Internal communications 37% 30% 60% Information provision 55% 47% 64% Media relations 74% 78% 70% 74% 83% Sales Marketing Advertising LEVEL OF RESPONSIBILITY (All respondents who are not unemployed or retired, n=2,389) I contribute to the development of communications strategy I directly brief board members/senior staff HR I contribute to the development of organisational strategy Events I am responsible for part of the communications budget of my organisation I am responsible for the communications budget of my organisation IT Customer I am responsible for the overall budget of my organisation Service 27% As might be expected, responsibility tends to increase with age and years in public relations, with those with more experience in public relations more likely to hold greater responsibilities such as the overall budget of their organisation, or the communications budget of their organisation. Around half of those who work for a consultancy or freelance say that they are responsible for the overall budget of their organisation (46% and 51% respectively), and around two fifths say that they contribute to the development of organisational strategy (44% and 36% respectively). This reflects the fact that those working for a consultancy are more likely than those working in-house to hold senior positions, while those who are freelance are perhaps likely to say this because they are self-employed, and thus responsible for their own budgets. 70% Strategic planning 34% Two-thirds of respondents say that they contribute to the development of communications strategy (67%), just under a half directly brief board members / senior staff (46%), and a third contribute to the development of organisational strategy (35%). 40% 38% Those working for a consultancy / agency are the most likely Event management 37% Mean salary by organisation type (All respondents) to say that they spend time working on strategic planning Crisis management 36% (83%) and media relations (78%), as well as on contributing Contributing to to business strategy (74%). business strategy 70% 38% 34% 35% 37% 34% 30% 27% 38% 23% 25% 20% 30% 13% 26% 13% IN-HOUSE £53,890 In-house in the private sector CONSULTANCY Consultancy / agency FREELANCE £56,380 ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Those who work in-house are the most likely to say that they are responsible for part of the communications budget of their organisation (39%), directly brief board members (51%) or contribute to the development of communications strategy Working(71%). This reflects the fact that in-house public relations 67% practitioners are more likely to hold mid-level positions such more closely 46% with other Manager or Associate Director, rather than being at the very as 35% departments of their organisations. top 32% 22% 17% Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 9
  • 10. PROFESSIONALISM AND QUALIFICATIONS 33% 65 % // ACADEMIC OR PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS Fairly satisfied with their skills and knowledge // IMPORTANT QUALITIES FOR PUBLIC Three-quarters of public relations practitioners (76%) say that they hold an academic qualification. This is most commonly an undergraduate degree in a subject other than public relations (51%). RELATIONS PROFESSIONALS More than two-fifths (44%) of public relations practitioners say that they hold a professional qualification. The most common qualification to hold is a diploma (18%). Less than one in ten hold any of the other specific types of qualification specified. Of those in work, public relations professionals working for a consultancy or agency (32%) are less likely than those working freelance (48%) or in-house (49%) to say that they hold a professional qualification. LEVEL OF ACADEMIC AND/OR PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION (All respondents, n=2,531) Academic qualification 76% Professional qualification 44% A third of younger practitioners aged between 18-24 are unemployed LEAST IMPORTANT QUALITY FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSIONALS (All respondents, n=2,531) Experience in a public relations role is overwhelmingly the most important quality that public relations professionals believe it Experience in a role in another sector, not necessarily in public relations is important for people in their profession to have; two-thirds An academic qualification (68%) say that it is the most important. Perhaps surprisingly, A professional qualification those with the most experience in public relations are the least Experience in a public relations role likely to say this. Just half (51%) of those who have worked in % of the above % None public relations for 31 years or more say that experience in Just under a third of those aged over sixty know Don’t a public relations role is most important, compared to three work freelance Say that they are spen quarters (74%) of those with 3-5 years in PR. ding more time pitching for 29 1 in 6 ‘very satisfied’ t the skills to tackle future 42% 36% 17% 42 1% 1% 1% new business as compared to Interestingly, given that public relations professionals are more likely to hold an academic than a professional qualification, they are more likely to say that it is important for public relations professionals to have a professional qualification (12% most important, 34% second most important) than an academic one (10% most important, 19% second most important). // IS BEING A CONSIDERED A12 months ago PROFESSIONAL IMPORTANT? 17% 25-34 Few public relations practitioners say that experience in another sector is the most important asset for public relations professionals (6%). Virtually all (94%) of public relations practitioners surveyed agree that being considered a professional is important to them. 14 CIPR members (95%) are more likely to agree with this % statement than non-members (89%). 35-44 10% 45-60 7% HOW IMPORTANT IS IT TO BE CONSIDERED A PROFESSIONAL? 60+ MEMBERS NONMEMBERS 95% 89% 1% A decline in the number of respondents working for not-for-profits/NGOs (All respondents – by membership: as the n=1,895, non-members n=636) memberssample profile grows older 3% Agree MOST IMPORTANT QUALITY FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSIONALS (All respondents, n=2,531) Disagree Experience in a public relations role 68% A professional qualification 12% An academic qualification 10% Experience in a role in another sector, not necessarily in public relations 6% None of the above 1% Don’t know 1% ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// How important is it to be considered a professional? 95% OF CIPR MEMBERS AGREE 89% OF NONMEMBERS AGREE Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 10
  • 11. SKILLS An overwhelming majority (93%) say that they are satisfied that they have the appropriate skills and knowledge required of them at the current time. This has remained unchanged since last year. A large majority (84%) similarly say that they are satisfied that they have the appropriate skills and knowledge required of them by their organisation to deal with changes to the practice of public relations in the future. This has remained unchanged since 2012/13 (85%). However, CIPR members (86%) are again more likely to be satisfied with their skills than non-members (80%). Just one in six (16%) say that they are ‘very satisfied’ that they have the skills and knowledge required for the future, almost half the proportion who say so of the present day (29%). 1 in 6 ‘very satisfied’ they have the skills to tackle future challenges 1 in 6 One in seven (14%) say that they are not very or not at all satisfied that they have the skills and knowledge required to deal with changes to the practice of public relations in the future, double the proportion who say this of the present day (7%). SATISFACTION WITH CURRENT SKILLS (All respondents who are not retired, n=2,485) Very satisfied with my skills and knowledge 29% Fairly satisfied with my skills and knowledge 65% Not very satisfied with my skills and knowledge 6% Not at all satisfied with my skills and knowledge 1% SATISFACTION WITH SKILLS TO DEAL WITH CHANGES IN PRACTICE (All respondents who are not retired, n=2,485) Very satisfied with my skills and knowledge 16% Fairly satisfied with my skills and knowledge 68% Not very satisfied with my skills and knowledge 13% Not at all satisfied with my skills and knowledge 1% Say that they are ‘very satisfied’ that they have the skills and knowledge required for the future ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 11
  • 12. CAREER GOALS AND JOB SATISFACTION 35% A third of public relations professionals (35%) want public relations to be their career for life // CAREER GOALS // JOB SATISFACTION A third of public relations professionals (35%) want public relations to be their career for life. This is higher among CIPR members (37%) than non-members (28%). A quarter of the public relations professionals surveyed (27%) want to hold a senior management position not in PR, a fifth (18%) want to own their own company, and around one in eight (13%) want to be the owner of a public relations firm. Two in five public relations professionals (39%) say that they enjoy their job and look forward to work, while three in ten (28%) say that they enjoy their job but feel under pressure. A similar proportion (30%) say that they enjoy aspects of their job, but not all, while 2% do not enjoy their job. Those working in-house are more likely than consultancy or freelance practitioners to say that they want public relations to be their career for life (38%, compared to 27% for both respectively), or that they want to hold a senior non-PR position (35%, compared to 16% and 11% respectively). A fifth (19%) say that they have already achieved their career goals. As might be expected, there is a clear trend by age, with 35% of those aged 45-60 and 76% of those aged over 60 agreeing, compared to just 2% of those aged 25-34. Those working for a consultancy (33%) or freelance (46%) are also more likely than in-house practitioners (10%) to say this, reflecting the higher proportion of senior figures or older people in consultancy or freelance roles. JOB SATISFACTION (All respondents who are not unemployed or retired, n=2,389) I enjoy my job and look forward to work 39% I enjoy my job but feel under pressure at work 28% I enjoy aspects of my job, but not all 30% I don’t enjoy my job 2% Job satisfaction is highest among freelancers (60% enjoy their job and look forward to work) and lowest among those working in-house in the public sector (30% enjoy their job and look forward to work). Those aged over 60 are the most likely age group to say that they enjoy their job and look forward to work (58%), with those least enjoying their work being aged 25-34 (30%). CAREER GOALS (All respondents, n=2,531) I want public relations to be my career for life 35% I want to hold a senior management position, but not in a public relations firm 27% I want to own my own company 18% I want to be an MD/owner/director of a public relations firm 13% Other 8% I have already achieved my career goal(s) 19% None of the above 12% ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 12
  • 13. SALARIES AND BONUSES The largest proportion of public relations practitioners earn between £30,001 and £40,000 per annum (22%), followed by those earning between £20,001 and £30,000 (19%) and those earning £40,001 and £50,000 (15%). The mean level of earnings in public relations is £48,680. CIPR members (£51,100) tend to have higher earnings than non-members (£41,800). // SALARIES – BY GENDER As in 2012/13, men are notably more likely than women to earn a high salary, with women’s pay being more focused than that of men around £20,001 to £30,000 (21% compared to 14%) and £30,001 to £40,000 (24% compared to 19%). At the highest end of the pay scale, men are twice as likely as women to earn more than £150,000 (7% compared to 3% respectively). The mean salary for a male public relations practitioner is £56,840, while that for a female practitioner is £44,450. Results also show the fact that from Officer level and above, men also earn more than women when performing the same roles, a disparity that rises with seniority. // SALARIES – BY ORGANISATION TYPE // BONUS CULTURE Salaries for those who work in public relations for a consultancy (mean salary of £56,380) or in the private sector (mean salary of £53,890) tend to be slightly higher than those for freelancers (mean salary of £52,680), whose income tends to be higher than that of those working for not-for-profit or NGO (mean salary of £42,770) or who work in public relations in the public sector (mean salary of £40,560). A public relations professional working in a consultancy will on average earn around £15,000 more than one working in-house in the public sector. Those who work in-house in the private sector are the most likely to say that they have received a bonus in the last 12 months (67%). They are followed by those working for a consultancy / agency (41%). This compared to a quarter (25%) of those working in-house for not-for-profit or NGOs and one in seven (15%) of those working in-house in the public sector who say that they received a bonus. Less than one in ten freelancers (7%) say that they received a bonus in the last 12 months. Consultancy / agency £56,380 In-house in the private sector 67% In-house in the private sector £53,890 Consultancy / agency 41% Freelance £52,680 In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO 25% In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO £42,770 In-house in the public sector 15% In-house in the public sector £40,560 Freelance £56,380 MEAN SALARY BY SENIORITY AND BY GENDER (All respondents – Officer level and above: female officer n=297; male officer n=107; female manager n=526; male manager n=223; female head of comms level n=254; male head of comms level n=135; female director/partner level n=144; male director/partner level n=149; female owner n=143; male owner n=131) Female Officer level £28,020 Male Officer level £28,200 Female Manager level £39,710 Male Manager level £42,240 Female Head of comms level £58,660 Male Head of comms level £63,700 Female Director/partner level £82,350 Male Director/partner level £90,450 Female Owner £56,060 Male Owner £75,640 RECEIPT OF A BONUS BY ORGANISATION TYPE (All respondents who are not unemployed or retired by role: In-house private n=586; In-house public n=696; In-house NGO n=328; Consultancy / Agency n=535; Freelance n=244) MEAN SALARY BY ORGANISATION TYPE (All respondents who are not unemployed or retired by role: In-house private n=586; In-house public n=696; In-house NGO n=328; Consultancy / Agency n=535; Freelance n=244) Consultancy / agency £ £ £ £ £ £ £53,890 £ £ £ £ £ £ In-house in the private sector Receiving a bonus is more common among men (37%) than women (32%). £52,680 £ £ £ £ £ £ Freelance 7% £42,770 In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO £ £ £ £ £ £40,560 £ £ £ £ £ In-house in the public sector The two groups most likely to receive a bonus, those who work in-house in the private sector (13.6%) and those working for a consultancy / agency (14.6%) have roughly equal average bonuses when equated to their salaries. Those working in-house in the public sector (8.0%) or for not-for-profit or NGOs (7.3%) are not only less likely than private or consultancy practitioners to receive a bonus, but their average bonus is also smaller. Mean salary by organisation type (All respondents) ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 13
  • 14. RECRUITMENT AND REDUNDANCIES // RECRUITMENT // RECRUITMENT CRITERIA Three in five respondents (62%) say that their organisation is recruiting, and one-third (35%) say that they are recruiting for public relations staff. Recruitment for staff generally is most likely among in-house practitioners working in the private sector (69%) or for NGOs (68%). The criteria most commonly required for junior (45%) or senior (64%) public relations roles is on the job experience in a public relations role. It is notable that even for junior roles, just less than half require some on the job experience for candidates to be considered. Those working for a consultancy / agency are by far the most likely to say that their organisation is recruiting for public relations roles (51%, compared to 27% of those working in-house in the public sector). CURRENTLY RECRUITING FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS ROLES BY ORGANISATION TYPE (All respondents who work in-house or for a consultancy by role: In-house private n=586; In-house public n=696; In-house NGO n=328; Consultancy / Agency n=535) Consultancy / agency 34% In-house in the private sector 32% In-house in the public sector 27% NET: in house 30% JUNIOR SENIOR Some on the job experience in a PR role 45% 64% An undergraduate degree 44% 48% A professional qualification 8% 23% A member of a professional body/association 5% 19% Candidates must have a masters degree 2% 9% The organisation uses a recruitment consultant/agency 19% 24% Not aware of any of these criteria being in place 11% 9% Don’t know 14% 13% 51% In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO Just less than half say that applicants for junior (44%) or senior (48%) roles must have an undergraduate degree. Around a fifth say that applicants for senior roles must have a professional qualification (23%) or be a member of a professional body (19%). Few say either of these criteria are in place for junior roles (8% and 5% respectively). This suggests that professional qualifications / membership become increasingly important to public relations professionals looking to take up a new position as they become more senior. RECRUITMENT CRITERIA FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR ROLES (All respondents who work in-house or for a consultancy by role: In-house private n=586; In-house public n=696; In-house NGO n=328; Consultancy / Agency n=535) When recruiting for junior roles, consultancies are notably less likely than in-house firms to look for public relations experience (37% compared to 48%), but more likely to look for an undergraduate degree (49% compared to 42%). Public sector in-house practitioners are the least likely to say that their organisation uses a recruitment consultancy for junior (10%) or senior (13%) roles. // REDUNDANCIES A quarter of respondents (25%) say that their organisation in general is making redundancies, and one in ten say that they are making redundancies in public relations (10%). Redundancies are significantly more likely among those working in-house in the public sector, both in general (41%) and in the case of public relations jobs (17%). Just 3% of those working for a consultancy say that their organisation is making redundancies. One in ten say that they are making redundancies in public relations (10%) ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 14
  • 15. % BUDGET SPEND AND NEW BUSINESS // MAIN AREAS OF SPEND The priorities of those who work in-house in the public sector are evenly split Those working in-house in the private sector are more likely than public sector in-house practitioners to say that they spend most of their budget on media relations (20% compared with 15%), although they are still less likely to say so compared to those who work for a consultancy. Private sector practitioners are the group most likely to say that they spend a majority of their budget on branding (9% compared with 3% for in-house public sector) or internal communications (7% compared with 4% for in-house public sector). Those who work in-house for an NGO are the most likely to say that they spend a majority of their budget on public affairs or lobbying (10% compared with 6% for in-house private and 3% for in-house public), perhaps reflecting the importance these groups place on engaging with the Government. ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// FREELANCE Consumer or public campaigning The priorities of those who work in-house in the public sector are split between information provision (18%), media relations (15%), consumer or public campaigning (15%) and event management (11%). Less than one in ten in this sector say that a majority of their budget is spent on anything else. CONSULTANCY / AGENCY 15% Those who work for a consultancy or agency are by far the most likely to say that a majority of their fees are spent on media relations (49%), followed by those working freelance (33%). However, both these groups are generally less likely than other public relations practitioners to say that a majority of their fees are spent on anything else, with the exception of strategic planning (8% and 15% respectively), where they are notably more likely to say so. NGO Information provision IN-HOUSE PUBLIC 18% Media relations 17% 20% 15% 18% 49% 33% 12% 8% 15% 13% 3% 2% 11% 12% 11% 11% 4% 5% Branding 6% 9% 3% 6% 4% 5% Internal communications 5% 7% 4% 4% 2% 5% Public affairs /lobbying 15% IN-HOUSE PRIVATE MAIN AREAS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS SPEND – EXCLUDING STAFF COSTS (All respondents who are not unemployed or retired by role: In-house private n=586; In-house public n=696; In-house NGO n=328; Consultancy / Agency n=535; freelance n=244) ALL IN-HOUSE Overall, public relations professionals are most likely to say that the majority of their clients’ fees are spent on media relations, as might be expected of an activity central to the profession. 6% 6% 3% 10% 5% 5% Information provision 12% 3% 18% 13% 2% 5% Social or digital media management 5% 4% 6% 4% 5% 8% Sponsorship 2% 4% 1% 1% 1% 0% Corporate social responsibility 3% 6% 2% 1% 0% 2% Research, planning and measurement 4% 4% 4% 5% 5% 5% Strategic planning 2% 2% 1% 1% 8% 15% Crisis management 1% 2% 1% 1% 2% 1% Media relations Consumer or public campaigning Event management // PITCHING FOR NEW BUSINESS Two in five public relations professionals (42%) say that they are spending more time pitching for new business as compared to 12 months ago. A third (33%) say that the amount of time they spend on this has remained the same, while one in six (16%) say that they are spending less time pitching for new business. Those working for a consultancy or agency (46%) are significantly more likely than freelancers (34%) to say that they are spending more time pitching for new business. Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 15
  • 16. PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE BOARDROOM Overall, more than half (56%) of board members with public relations responsibilities are men. This rises to three in five (61%) among those working in-house in the public sector. Two-fifths (43%) are women. Those working in-house for not-for-profit or NGOs are the only group more likely to say that their board member with public relations responsibilities is a woman (51%) than a man (48%). NO, I THINK THAT PUBLIC RELATIONS IS NOT VALUED BY MY BOARD DON’T KNOW Only one in eight in-house practitioners (13% private, 13% public, 12% NGO) say that their board does not value the role of public relations. In each case, a plurality agree that their board values the role of PR, but does not have someone with responsibility for it (46% private, 41% public, 48% NGO). YES, BUT THERE IS NOBODY WITH RESPONSIBILITY FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS ON THE BOARD Overall, more than half of board members with public relations responsibilities are men // BOARD REPRESENTATION – BY GENDER REPRESENTATION YES, AND THERE IS SOMEONE WITH RESPONSIBILITY FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS ON THE BOARD 56% // VALUE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS AND BOARD In-house in the private sector 39% 46% 13% 2% In-house in the public sector 40% 41% 13% 5% In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO 34% 48% 12% 5% VALUE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE BOARDROOM BY ORGANISATION (All who work in-house, n=1,610) ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// BOARD REPRESENTATION BY GENDER (All who work in-house, n=1,610) MALE FEMALE In-house in the private sector 58% 41% In-house in the public sector 61% 38% In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO 48% 51% Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 16
  • 17. BUSINESS CASE FOR DIVERSITY 51% There is general agreement among the public relations profession that public relations campaigns can be more effective if practised by teams who are socially diverse (67%), of all ages (67%), culturally diverse (64%) or representative of the audiences they are communicating with (64%). Around half agree that public relations campaigns can be more effective if practised by teams that are ethnically diverse Around half agree that public relations campaigns can be more effective if practised by teams that are ethnically diverse (51%) or made up of a proportionate number of men and women (50%), although three in ten (28%) disagree with this last statement. A third (33%) agree that public relations campaigns can be more effective if practised by teams made up of a proportionate number of people with and without disabilities, while similar proportions disagree (30%) and say that they ‘don’t know’ (31%). BUSINESS CASE FOR DIVERSITY: “I AGREE THAT PUBLIC RELATIONS CAMPAIGNS CAN BE MORE EFFECTIVE IF PRACTISED BY TEAMS WHO ARE:” (All respondents, n=2,531) Socially diverse 67% Of all ages 67% Representative of the audience(s) they are communicating with 64% Culturally diverse 64% Ethnically diverse 51% Made up of a proportionate number of men and women 50% Made up of a proportionate number of people with and without disabilities 33% As might be expected, those from another ethnic background (71%) are significantly more likely than those from a white background (49%) to agree that ethnic diversity makes public relations campaigns more effective. Interestingly, no such trend is apparent among people from different sexes or age groups when looking at their respective questions. Those working for a consultancy / agency are notably less likely than other practitioners to agree that public relations campaigns are more effective when conducted by teams that are diverse in terms of ethnicity, culture, gender or disability. ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 17
  • 18. 90 n the ctor £52,680 CROSS-INDUSTRY CONVERGENCE £ £42,770 Freelance £ £ £ £ £ In-house for a not-for-profit organisation / NGO £ £ £ £ £ £40,560 £ £ £ £ £ In-house in the public sector // CONVERGENCE – BY DEPARTMENT // CONVERGENCE Public relations professionals continue to work increasingly closely with other departments. 71% say that they are working more closely with at least one other department, the same as in 2012/13. Just less than half (48%) say that they are working more closely with their marketing department, while two in five (41%) say that they are working more closely with their events department, and slightly less say they are working more ry by organisation type (All respondents) service (37%). closely with customer Around a third say so of IT (32%), HR (30%) and advertising (29%). A quarter (25%) say that they are working more closely with their sales department. Sales // CONVERGENCE – BY AREAS OF ‘PUBLIC RELATIONS’ RESPONSIBILITY – BY NEW AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY Areas of work are increasingly being shared between departments working more closely together. The key areas of convergence are social or digital media management (60%), internal communications (54%), event management (47%), media relations (46%), strategic planning (44%) and branding (42%). Public relations professionals continue to work more closely with other departments, and as a result many now have responsibility for some marketing and related functions, including copywriting (56%), print and design (42%) and website design and coding (35%). A third of public relations practitioners (34%) say that they are now responsible for strategic partnerships, although this has dropped from 39% in 2012/13. Patterns of convergence have altered since 2012/13. Departments are increasingly sharing responsibility for social or digital media management (60% compared to 51%), internal communications (54% compared to 48%) and crisis management (37% compared to 32%). However, convergence appears to have slowed in the areas of branding (42% compared to 48%) and consumer or public campaigning (28% compared to 35%). TOP 6 NEW AREAS OF CONVERGING RESPONSIBILITY FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES (All respondents who say that public relations in their organisation is working more closely with other departments, n=1,519) HR Events Working more closely with other departments Social or digital media management Marketing 37% IT 32% HR 30% Advertising 29% Sales 42% 41% Customer Service 44% 48% Events 29% 46% Branding WORKING MORE CLOSELY WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS (All respondents who work in-house or for a consultancy, n=2,145) 32% 47% Strategic planning 34% `54% Media relations 35% 60% Internal communications Customer Service 42% Advertising Event management IT Print and design Content marketing TOP 6 AREAS OF CONVERGING RESPONSIBILITY FROM PUBLIC RELATIONS (All respondents who say that public relations in their organisation is working more closely with other departments, n=1,519) 56% Strategic partnerships Advertising Copywriting Website design and coding Marketing 25% ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 18
  • 19. FUTURE CHALLENGES 39% Those working for a consultancy or agency are the most likely to say that the biggest challenge to public relations will be an expanding skill set required of professionals (39%). One in three public relations practitioners (35%) say that the biggest challenge to public relations in the next five years will be an expanding skill set required of professionals. A fifth (22%) say that it will be a lack of understanding of measurement and evaluation, while less than one in six say that it will be a poor public reputation of public relations (16%) or under-representation of public relations practitioners at board level (15%). Those working for a consultancy or agency are the most likely to say that the biggest challenge to public relations will be an expanding skill set required of professionals (39%). Those working freelance (13%) are notably less likely than in-house (24%) or consultancy-based (25%) practitioners to say that the biggest challenge will be a lack of understanding of measurement and evaluation, which perhaps suggests that freelancers feel that they have a better understanding of measurement and evaluation than other professionals. BIGGEST CHALLENGE TO PUBLIC RELATIONS IN NEXT FIVE YEARS (All respondents, n=2,531) An expanding skill set required of professionals 35% Lack of understanding of measurement and evaluation 22% A poor public reputation of public relations 16% Under-representation of public relations practitioners at board level 15% Other 6% Don’t know 5% 19///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Chartered Institute of Public Relations: State of the Profession 2014  @CIPR_UK  #stateofpr 19