SlideShare a Scribd company logo
A	
  presenta*on	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  HBR	
  ar*cle	
  
by	
  Thomas	
  M.	
  Hout	
  &	
  Pankaj	
  Ghemawat	
  (December	
  2010)	
  
The Cold War
1.  Drivers of China’s Discontent
2.  China’s Plan to Win the Tech Wars
3.  Three Examples (High Speed Rail,Wind Energy,
Software)
4.  Is Conflict Inevitable?
5.  Succeeding in the New China
6.  Summary & Discussion
Overview	
  
The Drivers of
China’s Discontent
August. 16, 2010
Despite China’s huge trade
surpluses with US & W Europe
the greatest profits have
been reaped by foreign
companies rather than
Chinese companies.
These foreign companies dominate China’s
high-tech industries, accounting for 85% of
the high-tech exports in 2008.
To keep its economy growing at 9% and
provide jobs for the next generation of
better-educated workers and boost
income levels.
China needed a plan…
China would see a shift to countries such as
	
  
With the inevitable
appreciation of the
that would eventually render China’s
low-tech exports uncompetitive.
	
  
China’s Plans for
Winning the Tech War
Since 2006 the Chinese government
has been implementing new policies
that seek to appropriate technology
from foreign multinationals in several
key industries.
Air Transportation
Water Purification
Nuclear Power
Satellites
Electric Cars
1.  Limit investment by foreign companies.
2.  Require a high degree of local content in
equipment produced in China.
3.  Force the transfer of proprietary technologies from
foreign companies to their joint ventures with
China’s state-owned enterprises.
Three-pronged plan to contain foreign companies
and enable Chinese companies to create advanced
technologies:
	
  
China’s Plans for Winning the Tech War:
•  Increase R&D spending from 1.5% of GDP in 2006 to
2.5% by 2020.
•  Reduce dependence on imported technology by 30%.
•  Become one of the world’s top 5 economies according
to patents granted and scientific papers published.
CHINA’S GROWING R&D
1.  Offer tax incentives.
2.  Increased spending in research institutions and
funding support for the development of domestic
technologies.
3.  Tailored policies to favor domestic technologies.
4.  Enforced Joint Ventures.
The Chinese government is using 4 mechanisms to
achieve these goals:
	
  
R&D
UNITED STATES VS CHINA
The State’s
Strategies
Example #1
High Speed Rail
High Speed Rail
Example #2
Wind Energy
Power Generation
Example #3
Software
Information Technology
Is Conflict
Inevitable?
It depends…
- US and China appear to be
pragmatic and unlikely to
commit self-destructive
policies
- Structurally prone to
conflict. They differ
radically in beliefs,
expectations, and objectives
- Both nations have common
interests: developing clean
energy, protecting the
environment, and reining in
rogue states
Succeeding in the
New China
Teaming up with Chinese companies is becoming
essential to compete in emerging markets.
China vs The World
Discussion
& Summary
•  The Chinese government is determined that China
maintains its position as one of the world’s leading
economies.
•  Over the past 4 years China has quietly shifted
from a successful low- and middle-tech
manufacturing economy to a high-tech one.
•  Since 2006 the Chinese government has been
implementing new policies to increase R&D and
appropriate technology from multinationals.
Summary
	
  
•  Does the global realignment of business represent
more threat or challenge to Western corporations?
•  Is there any option for global institutions to play a
larger role?
•  Is China’s rise simply ‘history repeating itself’?
Another ‘America’ for the 21st Century…?
Discussion Topics
	
  
THANK
YOU!

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China vs the World: Whose Technology Is It?

  • 1. A  presenta*on  based  on  the  HBR  ar*cle   by  Thomas  M.  Hout  &  Pankaj  Ghemawat  (December  2010)  
  • 3.
  • 4. 1.  Drivers of China’s Discontent 2.  China’s Plan to Win the Tech Wars 3.  Three Examples (High Speed Rail,Wind Energy, Software) 4.  Is Conflict Inevitable? 5.  Succeeding in the New China 6.  Summary & Discussion Overview  
  • 7. Despite China’s huge trade surpluses with US & W Europe the greatest profits have been reaped by foreign companies rather than Chinese companies. These foreign companies dominate China’s high-tech industries, accounting for 85% of the high-tech exports in 2008.
  • 8. To keep its economy growing at 9% and provide jobs for the next generation of better-educated workers and boost income levels. China needed a plan… China would see a shift to countries such as   With the inevitable appreciation of the that would eventually render China’s low-tech exports uncompetitive.  
  • 10. Since 2006 the Chinese government has been implementing new policies that seek to appropriate technology from foreign multinationals in several key industries.
  • 16. 1.  Limit investment by foreign companies. 2.  Require a high degree of local content in equipment produced in China. 3.  Force the transfer of proprietary technologies from foreign companies to their joint ventures with China’s state-owned enterprises. Three-pronged plan to contain foreign companies and enable Chinese companies to create advanced technologies:  
  • 17. China’s Plans for Winning the Tech War: •  Increase R&D spending from 1.5% of GDP in 2006 to 2.5% by 2020. •  Reduce dependence on imported technology by 30%. •  Become one of the world’s top 5 economies according to patents granted and scientific papers published. CHINA’S GROWING R&D
  • 18. 1.  Offer tax incentives. 2.  Increased spending in research institutions and funding support for the development of domestic technologies. 3.  Tailored policies to favor domestic technologies. 4.  Enforced Joint Ventures. The Chinese government is using 4 mechanisms to achieve these goals:  
  • 28. It depends… - US and China appear to be pragmatic and unlikely to commit self-destructive policies - Structurally prone to conflict. They differ radically in beliefs, expectations, and objectives - Both nations have common interests: developing clean energy, protecting the environment, and reining in rogue states
  • 30. Teaming up with Chinese companies is becoming essential to compete in emerging markets.
  • 31. China vs The World Discussion & Summary
  • 32. •  The Chinese government is determined that China maintains its position as one of the world’s leading economies. •  Over the past 4 years China has quietly shifted from a successful low- and middle-tech manufacturing economy to a high-tech one. •  Since 2006 the Chinese government has been implementing new policies to increase R&D and appropriate technology from multinationals. Summary  
  • 33. •  Does the global realignment of business represent more threat or challenge to Western corporations? •  Is there any option for global institutions to play a larger role? •  Is China’s rise simply ‘history repeating itself’? Another ‘America’ for the 21st Century…? Discussion Topics  

Editor's Notes

  1. Gordon
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  18. Nick1. Tax breaks on returns from capital investments in technology-based start-ups and accelerated depreciation of investments in R&D2.3. On a national, provincial, and municipal level in cities like Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou.4. Forcing multinationals to transfer their newest technologies to joint ventures with Chinese companies.
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  22. Gordon$30 billion market49% maximum stake in Joint Ventures70% minimum systems locally produced IJV partners become competitors outside of China –China Daily article CSR China South Locomotive & Rolling Stock Corporation Limitedand CNR China Northern Locomotive & Rolling Stock Industry Limitedmain players (China CNR Corp. and CSR Corp., the nation’s largest trainmakers, jumped in Shanghai trading after a report that the government is planning to spend as much as 4 trillion yuan ($600 billion) expanding rail networks, 2010)
  23. Gordon
  24. GordonUnderline as a strategic industry – position to be world leaderOffer large subsidies and incentivesIncrease local content requirementIncrease tariffs on imported componentsSinovel and Goldwind – Currently 17%, set to grow significantly
  25. Gordon
  26. GordonTax rebates to local companiesAttempted source code disclosure act, later rescindedProduct standards & specifications particular to China (WAPI & TD-SCDMA)Massive R&D Expense to lead world technologyMicrosoft has a good presence, convincing local regulators to mandate official copies & within administration. All these case studies are underpinned by the global demand model, basically the corporate champions exist wherever the market of greatest demand lies, in most industries in the future that will be China, China is graduating from importer of tech to developer of new tech.
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  30. NickThe state is paying less attention than it once did to consumer product giants….But the government has fundamentally changed the game for technology-rich companies.The government’s new policies will for force companies to bring cutting-edge R&D into China earlier than they might of planned or on different terms than they would have liked.
  31. Gordon
  32. Nick & Gordon
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