SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Urban China:
Toward Efficient, Inclusive, and
Sustainable Urbanization
April 2014, Boston
UCI Urban Leaders Roundtable
Key Messages
1. Reform land management and institutions, and
urban planning
2. Give migrants urban residency and provide equal
access to services
3. Reform local finances by creating stable revenues,
and allow local governments to borrow directly,
with strict central government rules.
4. Strengthen enforcement of environmental
legislation
Strains of Urbanization
 Excessive land consumption and increasing sprawl
 Fragmented and poorly functioning land market
Shanghai 2000-2010 growth:
Area 1,470 km2 up to 3,216 km2
Average density = 6,200
people/km2
Drop of 34% in 10 years
Map produced by University of Wisconsin-Madison, May
2013. Administrative boundaries from University of
Michigan – China Data Center.
Density in
China’s large
cities decreases
rapidly
1. Land Management and Institutions
 Develop a unified and vibrant market, enhance equality
and benefits of urbanization for all
 Move away from land quotas and growth restrictions – enable market
prices to drive urban land allocation
 Require all land use rights to be auctioned (incl. industrial land)
 Property taxes for densification
 Stronger property rights for farmers, with higher compensation for
requisition
 Legal limits on rural land taken for public purposes
 New mechanisms for converting rural land to urban use and shifting
zoning of industrial land to commercial and residential use
1. Land Management and Institutions
 Redefine Role of Government in Planning Process:
 Less planning, better & more transparent regulations
 Combine economic, transport, housing and land use
planning
 More flexibility to adjust zoning and density (FARs)
 Incentives for urban redevelopment and optimization of land
use in cities
 Livability and diversity through service quality, flexibility,
mixed-use space
1. Land Management and Institutions
 Move from Superblock to
Smaller Blocks
 Reduce block sizes to
encourage walking and biking
 Facilitate redevelopment and
urban regeneration
 Integrate land use and
transport planning
 Densify cities around major
transport systems
 Focus on integration between
modes and accessibility
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Density(inhab/km²)
Built up area (km²)
Guangzhou
Seoul
2. Urban Residency and Access to Services
 Reform the hukou household-registration
 Remove barriers to labor mobility from rural to urban areas,
and between cities to boost worker’s wages
 Evolve the hukou system into a residency system providing
a minimum standard of public service to any resident
 Provide equal access to quality services for all citizens
China’s rising inequality
Source: World Bank DRC (2014)
3. Local Finances and Governance
 Place urban finances on a more sustainable footing
while creating financial discipline for local governments
 Move to a revenue system (incl.
property taxes and higher charges for
urban services
 Allow local governments to borrow
directly, within strict rules
 Take measures to address over-
indebtedness
 Adjust performance evaluation for a
more sustainable urbanization
process
 Improve financial management and
transparency of local governments
Gross land revenues are
large, but net revenues are
declining
Source: World Bank DRC (2014)
4. Environment
 Pollution-related health problems cost China $300 billion p/y
 Water resources are becoming more scarce, GHG emissions a
pressing issue
 Environmental management by jurisdiction, not by scope or
scale of problem
 Technical/engineering solutions without complementary
institutional and economic policies
Per capita CO2 emissions for 11 Large Chinese Cities
and Other Cities around the World
Source: Chinese cities: Wang and others 2012; Other cities: Carbon Disclosure Project 2012
4. Environment
 Enforcement, Enforcement, Enforcement
 Green governance” with incentives and market-based tools,
such as taxes and trading systems for carbon, air and water
pollution, and energy
 “Improve data collection, information dissemination, and public
participation in holding polluters accountable.
 Cross-border and cross-sector management of cross border
environmental challenges (air and water quality management
and urban form)
TRANSPORT WATER &
WASTEWATER
POWER &
HEATING
SOLID
WASTE
INDUSTRY EE BUILDINGS EE
Abhas K. Jha
Sector Manager
Transport, Urban Development, Disaster Risk Management
East Asia and Pacific Region
ajha(at)worldbank.org
(at)abhaskjha
www.worldbank.org/eapdisasters

More Related Content

What's hot

Compact city gothenburg
Compact city   gothenburgCompact city   gothenburg
Compact city gothenburg
laserd
 
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Dr. Jana Plamínková, City Counci...
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Dr. Jana Plamínková, City Counci...2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Dr. Jana Plamínková, City Counci...
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Dr. Jana Plamínková, City Counci...
OECD Environment
 
compact city definition and concept
compact city definition and conceptcompact city definition and concept
compact city definition and concept
Deepti Verma
 
Compact City
Compact CityCompact City
Metro Update on the Regional Transportation Plan
Metro Update on the Regional Transportation Plan Metro Update on the Regional Transportation Plan
Metro Update on the Regional Transportation Plan
Congress for the New Urbanism
 
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 2: Presentation by Ms. Marie Cugny-Seguin, Natural ...
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 2: Presentation by Ms. Marie Cugny-Seguin, Natural ...2016 GGSD Forum - Session 2: Presentation by Ms. Marie Cugny-Seguin, Natural ...
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 2: Presentation by Ms. Marie Cugny-Seguin, Natural ...
OECD Environment
 
An Urban Design Approach to a Sustainable Compact City in New Growth Potentia...
An Urban Design Approach to a Sustainable Compact City in New Growth Potentia...An Urban Design Approach to a Sustainable Compact City in New Growth Potentia...
An Urban Design Approach to a Sustainable Compact City in New Growth Potentia...
drboon
 
Compact city
Compact cityCompact city
Compact city
CoEP
 
2016 GGSD Forum - Opening Session: Presentation by Mr. Stanley Yip. Professor...
2016 GGSD Forum - Opening Session: Presentation by Mr. Stanley Yip. Professor...2016 GGSD Forum - Opening Session: Presentation by Mr. Stanley Yip. Professor...
2016 GGSD Forum - Opening Session: Presentation by Mr. Stanley Yip. Professor...
OECD Environment
 
Urban Consolidation 2003
Urban Consolidation 2003Urban Consolidation 2003
Urban Consolidation 2003
Elisa Sutanudjaja
 
Metrolinx Green Paper 1: Towards Sustainable Transportation
Metrolinx Green Paper 1:  Towards Sustainable TransportationMetrolinx Green Paper 1:  Towards Sustainable Transportation
Metrolinx Green Paper 1: Towards Sustainable Transportation
Metrolinx
 
CUTA 2008: Matti S. Presentation
CUTA 2008: Matti S. PresentationCUTA 2008: Matti S. Presentation
CUTA 2008: Matti S. Presentation
cuta_dn
 
The Need for Integrated Spatial Strategies for Urbanization Impact on Air Pol...
The Need for Integrated Spatial Strategies for Urbanization Impact on Air Pol...The Need for Integrated Spatial Strategies for Urbanization Impact on Air Pol...
The Need for Integrated Spatial Strategies for Urbanization Impact on Air Pol...
Jimly Faraby
 
Minister of Environment & Energy of Greece
Minister of Environment & Energy of GreeceMinister of Environment & Energy of Greece
Minister of Environment & Energy of Greece
OECD CFE
 
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Mr. Philip McCann, Faculty of Sp...
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Mr. Philip McCann, Faculty of Sp...2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Mr. Philip McCann, Faculty of Sp...
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Mr. Philip McCann, Faculty of Sp...
OECD Environment
 
Ee agna
Ee agnaEe agna
THE CITY IN REGIONAL SCIENCE
THE CITY IN REGIONAL SCIENCETHE CITY IN REGIONAL SCIENCE
THE CITY IN REGIONAL SCIENCE
Regional Science Academy
 
Concepts And Issues In Planning Show
Concepts And Issues In Planning ShowConcepts And Issues In Planning Show
Concepts And Issues In Planning Show
landivc
 
Factors for City Transformation
Factors for City TransformationFactors for City Transformation
Factors for City Transformation
Iram Aziz
 
Walkable city
Walkable cityWalkable city
Walkable city
SayeedAnwer2
 

What's hot (20)

Compact city gothenburg
Compact city   gothenburgCompact city   gothenburg
Compact city gothenburg
 
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Dr. Jana Plamínková, City Counci...
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Dr. Jana Plamínková, City Counci...2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Dr. Jana Plamínková, City Counci...
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Dr. Jana Plamínková, City Counci...
 
compact city definition and concept
compact city definition and conceptcompact city definition and concept
compact city definition and concept
 
Compact City
Compact CityCompact City
Compact City
 
Metro Update on the Regional Transportation Plan
Metro Update on the Regional Transportation Plan Metro Update on the Regional Transportation Plan
Metro Update on the Regional Transportation Plan
 
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 2: Presentation by Ms. Marie Cugny-Seguin, Natural ...
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 2: Presentation by Ms. Marie Cugny-Seguin, Natural ...2016 GGSD Forum - Session 2: Presentation by Ms. Marie Cugny-Seguin, Natural ...
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 2: Presentation by Ms. Marie Cugny-Seguin, Natural ...
 
An Urban Design Approach to a Sustainable Compact City in New Growth Potentia...
An Urban Design Approach to a Sustainable Compact City in New Growth Potentia...An Urban Design Approach to a Sustainable Compact City in New Growth Potentia...
An Urban Design Approach to a Sustainable Compact City in New Growth Potentia...
 
Compact city
Compact cityCompact city
Compact city
 
2016 GGSD Forum - Opening Session: Presentation by Mr. Stanley Yip. Professor...
2016 GGSD Forum - Opening Session: Presentation by Mr. Stanley Yip. Professor...2016 GGSD Forum - Opening Session: Presentation by Mr. Stanley Yip. Professor...
2016 GGSD Forum - Opening Session: Presentation by Mr. Stanley Yip. Professor...
 
Urban Consolidation 2003
Urban Consolidation 2003Urban Consolidation 2003
Urban Consolidation 2003
 
Metrolinx Green Paper 1: Towards Sustainable Transportation
Metrolinx Green Paper 1:  Towards Sustainable TransportationMetrolinx Green Paper 1:  Towards Sustainable Transportation
Metrolinx Green Paper 1: Towards Sustainable Transportation
 
CUTA 2008: Matti S. Presentation
CUTA 2008: Matti S. PresentationCUTA 2008: Matti S. Presentation
CUTA 2008: Matti S. Presentation
 
The Need for Integrated Spatial Strategies for Urbanization Impact on Air Pol...
The Need for Integrated Spatial Strategies for Urbanization Impact on Air Pol...The Need for Integrated Spatial Strategies for Urbanization Impact on Air Pol...
The Need for Integrated Spatial Strategies for Urbanization Impact on Air Pol...
 
Minister of Environment & Energy of Greece
Minister of Environment & Energy of GreeceMinister of Environment & Energy of Greece
Minister of Environment & Energy of Greece
 
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Mr. Philip McCann, Faculty of Sp...
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Mr. Philip McCann, Faculty of Sp...2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Mr. Philip McCann, Faculty of Sp...
2016 GGSD Forum - Session 1: Presentation by Mr. Philip McCann, Faculty of Sp...
 
Ee agna
Ee agnaEe agna
Ee agna
 
THE CITY IN REGIONAL SCIENCE
THE CITY IN REGIONAL SCIENCETHE CITY IN REGIONAL SCIENCE
THE CITY IN REGIONAL SCIENCE
 
Concepts And Issues In Planning Show
Concepts And Issues In Planning ShowConcepts And Issues In Planning Show
Concepts And Issues In Planning Show
 
Factors for City Transformation
Factors for City TransformationFactors for City Transformation
Factors for City Transformation
 
Walkable city
Walkable cityWalkable city
Walkable city
 

Viewers also liked

La tectónica de placas
La tectónica de placasLa tectónica de placas
La tectónica de placas
David Joel Porras Becerra
 
Body Motion Prosthesis Vol.II
Body Motion Prosthesis Vol.IIBody Motion Prosthesis Vol.II
Body Motion Prosthesis Vol.II
Mirko Daneluzzo
 
The NEW Venue Las Vegas (1)
The NEW Venue Las Vegas (1)The NEW Venue Las Vegas (1)
The NEW Venue Las Vegas (1)
Diana Webber
 
Tabla de pregunta esencial y de contenido
Tabla de pregunta esencial y de contenidoTabla de pregunta esencial y de contenido
Tabla de pregunta esencial y de contenido
dscortes
 
Linea de multiplicacion
Linea de multiplicacionLinea de multiplicacion
Linea de multiplicacion
rincongarenstw5
 
Profitable Functions Workshop - Opening
Profitable Functions Workshop - OpeningProfitable Functions Workshop - Opening
Profitable Functions Workshop - Opening
Profitable Hospitality
 
Agile in het onderwijs
Agile in het onderwijsAgile in het onderwijs
Agile in het onderwijs
Luk Schoofs
 
business plan for Salon and wellness
business plan for Salon and wellness business plan for Salon and wellness
business plan for Salon and wellness
Narendra Kumar
 
2016 Pluja àcida LS Manlleu 1r ESO
2016 Pluja àcida LS Manlleu 1r ESO2016 Pluja àcida LS Manlleu 1r ESO
2016 Pluja àcida LS Manlleu 1r ESO
Annapujolo
 
RFID application
RFID applicationRFID application
RFID application
Elisalyk
 

Viewers also liked (10)

La tectónica de placas
La tectónica de placasLa tectónica de placas
La tectónica de placas
 
Body Motion Prosthesis Vol.II
Body Motion Prosthesis Vol.IIBody Motion Prosthesis Vol.II
Body Motion Prosthesis Vol.II
 
The NEW Venue Las Vegas (1)
The NEW Venue Las Vegas (1)The NEW Venue Las Vegas (1)
The NEW Venue Las Vegas (1)
 
Tabla de pregunta esencial y de contenido
Tabla de pregunta esencial y de contenidoTabla de pregunta esencial y de contenido
Tabla de pregunta esencial y de contenido
 
Linea de multiplicacion
Linea de multiplicacionLinea de multiplicacion
Linea de multiplicacion
 
Profitable Functions Workshop - Opening
Profitable Functions Workshop - OpeningProfitable Functions Workshop - Opening
Profitable Functions Workshop - Opening
 
Agile in het onderwijs
Agile in het onderwijsAgile in het onderwijs
Agile in het onderwijs
 
business plan for Salon and wellness
business plan for Salon and wellness business plan for Salon and wellness
business plan for Salon and wellness
 
2016 Pluja àcida LS Manlleu 1r ESO
2016 Pluja àcida LS Manlleu 1r ESO2016 Pluja àcida LS Manlleu 1r ESO
2016 Pluja àcida LS Manlleu 1r ESO
 
RFID application
RFID applicationRFID application
RFID application
 

Similar to China Urbanization_Abhas Boston_27 March 2013

ChettaAlwaysWins
ChettaAlwaysWinsChettaAlwaysWins
MPA 213 Report - J.P. Guatlo.pdf
MPA 213 Report - J.P. Guatlo.pdfMPA 213 Report - J.P. Guatlo.pdf
MPA 213 Report - J.P. Guatlo.pdf
engrjpguatlo
 
Urban & Metro Admin and Governancges.pdf
Urban & Metro Admin and Governancges.pdfUrban & Metro Admin and Governancges.pdf
Urban & Metro Admin and Governancges.pdf
Jo Balucanag - Bitonio
 
The international-dimension-of-european-urban-policy
The international-dimension-of-european-urban-policyThe international-dimension-of-european-urban-policy
The international-dimension-of-european-urban-policy
OECD Governance
 
Enabling sustainable urban growth - Ani Dasgupta - WRI Ross Center for Sustai...
Enabling sustainable urban growth - Ani Dasgupta - WRI Ross Center for Sustai...Enabling sustainable urban growth - Ani Dasgupta - WRI Ross Center for Sustai...
Enabling sustainable urban growth - Ani Dasgupta - WRI Ross Center for Sustai...
WRI Ross Center for Sustainable Cities
 
ReWire
ReWireReWire
Harbingers
HarbingersHarbingers
Infallibles
InfalliblesInfallibles
Lecture – People, Planet, Profit – A Revolution In Integrating Global And Loc...
Lecture – People, Planet, Profit – A Revolution In Integrating Global And Loc...Lecture – People, Planet, Profit – A Revolution In Integrating Global And Loc...
Lecture – People, Planet, Profit – A Revolution In Integrating Global And Loc...
Ecological Sequestration Trust
 
Eco2 Cities
Eco2 CitiesEco2 Cities
Eco2 Cities
ishana shaheed
 
Mexican Sustainable Urban and Mobility Strategy and Climate Change
Mexican Sustainable Urban and Mobility Strategy and Climate ChangeMexican Sustainable Urban and Mobility Strategy and Climate Change
Mexican Sustainable Urban and Mobility Strategy and Climate Change
Fagner Glinski
 
Outcomes of Habitat III - Joaquim Oliveira Martins, OECD
Outcomes of Habitat III  - Joaquim Oliveira Martins, OECDOutcomes of Habitat III  - Joaquim Oliveira Martins, OECD
Outcomes of Habitat III - Joaquim Oliveira Martins, OECD
OECD Governance
 
Swk2003 community involvement the duty to involve
Swk2003 community involvement  the duty to involveSwk2003 community involvement  the duty to involve
Swk2003 community involvement the duty to involve
Tim Curtis
 
[w3]ESD
[w3]ESD[w3]ESD
Public private partnerships (pp ps) as collective action for improved urban e...
Public private partnerships (pp ps) as collective action for improved urban e...Public private partnerships (pp ps) as collective action for improved urban e...
Public private partnerships (pp ps) as collective action for improved urban e...
Alexander Decker
 
Duk Hwan Son- korea's regional policy, aimd population decline and slow growth
Duk Hwan Son-  korea's  regional policy, aimd population decline and slow growthDuk Hwan Son-  korea's  regional policy, aimd population decline and slow growth
Duk Hwan Son- korea's regional policy, aimd population decline and slow growth
OECDregions
 
Place, productivity and prosperity
Place, productivity and prosperityPlace, productivity and prosperity
Place, productivity and prosperity
OECDregions
 
Leveraging the Honolulu Rail Transit Project for Economic Growth and Building...
Leveraging the Honolulu Rail Transit Project for Economic Growth and Building...Leveraging the Honolulu Rail Transit Project for Economic Growth and Building...
Leveraging the Honolulu Rail Transit Project for Economic Growth and Building...
Jesse Souki
 
Smart city1
Smart city1Smart city1
Smart city1
bharati k
 
A Research Paper on Community Led-Total Sanitation Approach in Peri-urban and...
A Research Paper on Community Led-Total Sanitation Approach in Peri-urban and...A Research Paper on Community Led-Total Sanitation Approach in Peri-urban and...
A Research Paper on Community Led-Total Sanitation Approach in Peri-urban and...
Stephen Olubulyera
 

Similar to China Urbanization_Abhas Boston_27 March 2013 (20)

ChettaAlwaysWins
ChettaAlwaysWinsChettaAlwaysWins
ChettaAlwaysWins
 
MPA 213 Report - J.P. Guatlo.pdf
MPA 213 Report - J.P. Guatlo.pdfMPA 213 Report - J.P. Guatlo.pdf
MPA 213 Report - J.P. Guatlo.pdf
 
Urban & Metro Admin and Governancges.pdf
Urban & Metro Admin and Governancges.pdfUrban & Metro Admin and Governancges.pdf
Urban & Metro Admin and Governancges.pdf
 
The international-dimension-of-european-urban-policy
The international-dimension-of-european-urban-policyThe international-dimension-of-european-urban-policy
The international-dimension-of-european-urban-policy
 
Enabling sustainable urban growth - Ani Dasgupta - WRI Ross Center for Sustai...
Enabling sustainable urban growth - Ani Dasgupta - WRI Ross Center for Sustai...Enabling sustainable urban growth - Ani Dasgupta - WRI Ross Center for Sustai...
Enabling sustainable urban growth - Ani Dasgupta - WRI Ross Center for Sustai...
 
ReWire
ReWireReWire
ReWire
 
Harbingers
HarbingersHarbingers
Harbingers
 
Infallibles
InfalliblesInfallibles
Infallibles
 
Lecture – People, Planet, Profit – A Revolution In Integrating Global And Loc...
Lecture – People, Planet, Profit – A Revolution In Integrating Global And Loc...Lecture – People, Planet, Profit – A Revolution In Integrating Global And Loc...
Lecture – People, Planet, Profit – A Revolution In Integrating Global And Loc...
 
Eco2 Cities
Eco2 CitiesEco2 Cities
Eco2 Cities
 
Mexican Sustainable Urban and Mobility Strategy and Climate Change
Mexican Sustainable Urban and Mobility Strategy and Climate ChangeMexican Sustainable Urban and Mobility Strategy and Climate Change
Mexican Sustainable Urban and Mobility Strategy and Climate Change
 
Outcomes of Habitat III - Joaquim Oliveira Martins, OECD
Outcomes of Habitat III  - Joaquim Oliveira Martins, OECDOutcomes of Habitat III  - Joaquim Oliveira Martins, OECD
Outcomes of Habitat III - Joaquim Oliveira Martins, OECD
 
Swk2003 community involvement the duty to involve
Swk2003 community involvement  the duty to involveSwk2003 community involvement  the duty to involve
Swk2003 community involvement the duty to involve
 
[w3]ESD
[w3]ESD[w3]ESD
[w3]ESD
 
Public private partnerships (pp ps) as collective action for improved urban e...
Public private partnerships (pp ps) as collective action for improved urban e...Public private partnerships (pp ps) as collective action for improved urban e...
Public private partnerships (pp ps) as collective action for improved urban e...
 
Duk Hwan Son- korea's regional policy, aimd population decline and slow growth
Duk Hwan Son-  korea's  regional policy, aimd population decline and slow growthDuk Hwan Son-  korea's  regional policy, aimd population decline and slow growth
Duk Hwan Son- korea's regional policy, aimd population decline and slow growth
 
Place, productivity and prosperity
Place, productivity and prosperityPlace, productivity and prosperity
Place, productivity and prosperity
 
Leveraging the Honolulu Rail Transit Project for Economic Growth and Building...
Leveraging the Honolulu Rail Transit Project for Economic Growth and Building...Leveraging the Honolulu Rail Transit Project for Economic Growth and Building...
Leveraging the Honolulu Rail Transit Project for Economic Growth and Building...
 
Smart city1
Smart city1Smart city1
Smart city1
 
A Research Paper on Community Led-Total Sanitation Approach in Peri-urban and...
A Research Paper on Community Led-Total Sanitation Approach in Peri-urban and...A Research Paper on Community Led-Total Sanitation Approach in Peri-urban and...
A Research Paper on Community Led-Total Sanitation Approach in Peri-urban and...
 

More from Abhas Jha

Building Cities That Work Lessons from EAP Draft 14 Dec
Building Cities That Work Lessons from EAP Draft 14 DecBuilding Cities That Work Lessons from EAP Draft 14 Dec
Building Cities That Work Lessons from EAP Draft 14 Dec
Abhas Jha
 
Metro Governance6 (00000002)
Metro Governance6 (00000002)Metro Governance6 (00000002)
Metro Governance6 (00000002)
Abhas Jha
 
Building Resilience in an Urban World
Building Resilience in an Urban WorldBuilding Resilience in an Urban World
Building Resilience in an Urban World
Abhas Jha
 
Urban Floods In The 21st Century Gp 2011
Urban Floods In The 21st Century Gp 2011Urban Floods In The 21st Century Gp 2011
Urban Floods In The 21st Century Gp 2011
Abhas Jha
 
Instruments for Disaster Risk Financing
Instruments for Disaster Risk FinancingInstruments for Disaster Risk Financing
Instruments for Disaster Risk Financing
Abhas Jha
 
Ten Lessons
Ten LessonsTen Lessons
Ten Lessons
Abhas Jha
 

More from Abhas Jha (6)

Building Cities That Work Lessons from EAP Draft 14 Dec
Building Cities That Work Lessons from EAP Draft 14 DecBuilding Cities That Work Lessons from EAP Draft 14 Dec
Building Cities That Work Lessons from EAP Draft 14 Dec
 
Metro Governance6 (00000002)
Metro Governance6 (00000002)Metro Governance6 (00000002)
Metro Governance6 (00000002)
 
Building Resilience in an Urban World
Building Resilience in an Urban WorldBuilding Resilience in an Urban World
Building Resilience in an Urban World
 
Urban Floods In The 21st Century Gp 2011
Urban Floods In The 21st Century Gp 2011Urban Floods In The 21st Century Gp 2011
Urban Floods In The 21st Century Gp 2011
 
Instruments for Disaster Risk Financing
Instruments for Disaster Risk FinancingInstruments for Disaster Risk Financing
Instruments for Disaster Risk Financing
 
Ten Lessons
Ten LessonsTen Lessons
Ten Lessons
 

China Urbanization_Abhas Boston_27 March 2013

  • 1. Urban China: Toward Efficient, Inclusive, and Sustainable Urbanization April 2014, Boston UCI Urban Leaders Roundtable
  • 2. Key Messages 1. Reform land management and institutions, and urban planning 2. Give migrants urban residency and provide equal access to services 3. Reform local finances by creating stable revenues, and allow local governments to borrow directly, with strict central government rules. 4. Strengthen enforcement of environmental legislation
  • 3. Strains of Urbanization  Excessive land consumption and increasing sprawl  Fragmented and poorly functioning land market Shanghai 2000-2010 growth: Area 1,470 km2 up to 3,216 km2 Average density = 6,200 people/km2 Drop of 34% in 10 years Map produced by University of Wisconsin-Madison, May 2013. Administrative boundaries from University of Michigan – China Data Center. Density in China’s large cities decreases rapidly
  • 4. 1. Land Management and Institutions  Develop a unified and vibrant market, enhance equality and benefits of urbanization for all  Move away from land quotas and growth restrictions – enable market prices to drive urban land allocation  Require all land use rights to be auctioned (incl. industrial land)  Property taxes for densification  Stronger property rights for farmers, with higher compensation for requisition  Legal limits on rural land taken for public purposes  New mechanisms for converting rural land to urban use and shifting zoning of industrial land to commercial and residential use
  • 5. 1. Land Management and Institutions  Redefine Role of Government in Planning Process:  Less planning, better & more transparent regulations  Combine economic, transport, housing and land use planning  More flexibility to adjust zoning and density (FARs)  Incentives for urban redevelopment and optimization of land use in cities  Livability and diversity through service quality, flexibility, mixed-use space
  • 6. 1. Land Management and Institutions  Move from Superblock to Smaller Blocks  Reduce block sizes to encourage walking and biking  Facilitate redevelopment and urban regeneration  Integrate land use and transport planning  Densify cities around major transport systems  Focus on integration between modes and accessibility 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Density(inhab/km²) Built up area (km²) Guangzhou Seoul
  • 7. 2. Urban Residency and Access to Services  Reform the hukou household-registration  Remove barriers to labor mobility from rural to urban areas, and between cities to boost worker’s wages  Evolve the hukou system into a residency system providing a minimum standard of public service to any resident  Provide equal access to quality services for all citizens China’s rising inequality Source: World Bank DRC (2014)
  • 8. 3. Local Finances and Governance  Place urban finances on a more sustainable footing while creating financial discipline for local governments  Move to a revenue system (incl. property taxes and higher charges for urban services  Allow local governments to borrow directly, within strict rules  Take measures to address over- indebtedness  Adjust performance evaluation for a more sustainable urbanization process  Improve financial management and transparency of local governments Gross land revenues are large, but net revenues are declining Source: World Bank DRC (2014)
  • 9. 4. Environment  Pollution-related health problems cost China $300 billion p/y  Water resources are becoming more scarce, GHG emissions a pressing issue  Environmental management by jurisdiction, not by scope or scale of problem  Technical/engineering solutions without complementary institutional and economic policies Per capita CO2 emissions for 11 Large Chinese Cities and Other Cities around the World Source: Chinese cities: Wang and others 2012; Other cities: Carbon Disclosure Project 2012
  • 10. 4. Environment  Enforcement, Enforcement, Enforcement  Green governance” with incentives and market-based tools, such as taxes and trading systems for carbon, air and water pollution, and energy  “Improve data collection, information dissemination, and public participation in holding polluters accountable.  Cross-border and cross-sector management of cross border environmental challenges (air and water quality management and urban form) TRANSPORT WATER & WASTEWATER POWER & HEATING SOLID WASTE INDUSTRY EE BUILDINGS EE
  • 11.
  • 12. Abhas K. Jha Sector Manager Transport, Urban Development, Disaster Risk Management East Asia and Pacific Region ajha(at)worldbank.org (at)abhaskjha www.worldbank.org/eapdisasters

Editor's Notes

  1. Urban China: Toward Efficient, Inclusive, and Sustainable Urbanization Launched 25 March 2014 after 14 months in making as a joint report by the World Bank and the Development Research Center of China’s State Council. Key messages: the report recommends that China curb rapid urban sprawl by reforming land requisition, give migrants urban residency and equal access to basic public services, and reform local finances by finding stable revenues and by allowing local governments to borrow directly within strict central rules. The government needs to strengthen the enforcement of environmental legislation and reduce the number of pollution-related health problems.
  2. Strong economic growth: In the last 30 years, China’s record economic growth lifted half a billion people out of poverty, with rapid urbanization providing abundant labor, cheap land and good infrastructure. While China has avoided some of the common ills of urbanization, strains are showing: Farmland and water resources are becoming more scarce; Inefficient urban sprawl leads to ghost towns and fragmentation Urban-rural inequality also has worsened because of immigration barriers, uneven access to public service and the inequitable distribution of gains from rural-urban land conversion. Pollution threatens people’s health;
  3. Land is the highest priority for reform. Farmland is becoming more scarce, close to “red line”: Because most of the urban expansion in recent years was on converted rural land, the report says currently the amount of farmland available is close to the “red line” of 120 million hectares, which is considered to be the minimum necessary to ensure food security. Excessive conversion of rural (“collectively owned”) to urban (“state owned”) land Disproportionate amount of land allocated to industries (at much lower prices) What needs to be done: Develop a unified and vibrant market, enhance equality and benefits of urbanization for all.
  4. Inefficient urban sprawl leads to ghost towns; Cities are becoming less livable and efficient
  5. Over the past three decades, about 260 million migrants moved to China’s cities. Challenges: Urban-rural inequality has increased Limited labor mobility due to migration barriers, uneven access to services, and he inequitable distribution of gains from rural-urban land conversion. With China’s urban population projected to rise to about one billion – or about 70 percent of the country’s population – by 2030, China’s leaders are seeking a more balanced urbanization process. Reform the hukou household-registration - Retain the use of hukou to register land rights, but link access to social services to the residency system
  6. Placing urban finances on a more sustainable footing, while creating financial discipline for local governments. Moving to a revenue system that would ensure a higher portion of local expenditures be financed by local taxes, such as property taxes and higher charges for urban services. This would impose financial discipline on local governments, because taxing locally could increase the accountability of local leadership to residents. Local governments, should be allowed to borrow directly, but within strict rules, and they should also set up measures to address over-indebtedness. Improving local governance. The performance evaluation of local officials could be adjusted to give greater incentives for a more efficient, inclusive and sustainable urbanization process. Local governments can also improve their financial management and transparency with tools such as an expenditure framework and the full disclosure of financial accounts. The report also recommends the creation of a chief financial officer’s position for each local government to ensure accountability for financial management and local borrowing.
  7. The government needs to enforce existing environmental legislation and reduce the number of pollution-related health problems, which now cost China as much as $300 billion a year. Discussion in China tends to focus on Technical/engineering solutions without complementary institutional and economic policies China already has tough environmental laws, regulations and standards, so the most important task for achieving greener urbanization is enforcement. Market-based tools, such as taxes and trading systems for carbon, air and water pollution, and energy, can be used to set effective environmental policy. China should focus on “green governance” by improving institutions, as well as the incentives and instruments that enable better environmental management. The report recommends improving the data collection and information dissemination to promote the monitoring and compliance of environmental legislation. It also encourages greater public participation in holding polluters accountable.
  8. The government needs to enforce existing environmental legislation and reduce the number of pollution-related health problems, which now cost China as much as $300 billion a year. China suffers from governance paradox of ‘advanced legislation but weak enforcement’ China already has tough environmental laws, regulations and standards, so the most important task for achieving greener urbanization is enforcement. Market-based tools, such as taxes and trading systems for carbon, air and water pollution, and energy, can be used to set effective environmental policy. China should focus on “green governance” by improving institutions, as well as the incentives and instruments that enable better environmental management. The report recommends improving the data collection and information dissemination to promote the monitoring and compliance of environmental legislation. It also encourages greater public participation in holding polluters accountable. Facilitate Clean Energy Supply- Secure cleaner urban energy sources by Increase clean energy by minimizing direct use of coal in cities through expanded access to piped natural gas—giving priority to households, commercial uses, and district heating— and increased renewable energy use by removing pricing distortions, establishing a well coordinated carbon pricing policy and restarting sector reforms that would establish a more even playing field for clean energy sources to supply urban areas. Tighten power and heating emissions regulations。 Beijing (52.7% coal) Shanghai (51.3% coal) Chongqing (67.4% coal) Improved Solid Waste Management: Improve cost recovery to promote waste reduction, recycling and safe disposal, including life-cycle product stewardship programs. Improve planning of waste disposal with better environmental impact assessments; improve waste disposal operations through reduced air and water pollution from incinerators and landfills and through proper closure, rehabilitation and safe reclamation of old landfills. Integrating Water Resources and Pollution Management: Ensure an efficient, safe and secure water supply by reforming water rights systems, by using smart technologies to measure consumption, and by improving regional water resource and pollution discharge governance at the river basin level. Expand use of payments for ecological services to address nonpoint source pollution (including agriculture) challenges and modernize urban water utility management. Rebalancing Markets and Mandates In Reducing Energy Use in Industry: Rebalance regulatory and target-based approaches by introducing market-based policy tools such as tradable energy savings certificates to promote reduction in industrial energy consumption. Also, develop EE technical and finance services, including greater use of energy savings performance contracting. Building Energy Efficiency: More Efficient and Cleaner Buildings: Establish targets for progressively tightening the energy efficiency code, broaden the use of benchmarking, lead by example by implementing aggressive efficiency programs for public buildings, promote green buildings by expanding building labelling (i.e. linking incentives with clearer labeling schemes) while strengthening capacities across the supply chain, phase out harmful construction materials to reduce indoor air pollution in buildings. Providing Safe and Sustainable Transportation: Encourage shift from private to public transport using pricing instruments, investments in better service, integrated land use planning and transport, and reduce pollution by promoting clean vehicles, especially shift to ultra low sulfur diesel and gasoline. Pilot new metro transit authority models。 Greater authority to recall vehicles
  9. In sum”