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1
CHEMISTRY
TITLE:
STUDY OF INSECTICIDES AND
PESTICIDES IN FRUITS AND
VEGETABLES
Student name: Dhruv Kumar
Roll no:
Class: XII
2
CERTIFICATE
Name: Dhruv Kumar
Roll no:
Class: XII
School: Geetanjali Olympiad School
This is certified to be the Bona fide work of the
student in the Chemistry Laboratory during
theacademic year 2023-24.
Teacher’s Signature:
Examiner’s Signature:
Principal’s Signature:
School Seal:
Date:
3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my deepest appreciation to
all those who provide me with the possibility to
complete this project. I would like to thank my
chemistry teacher whose
valuable guidance has helped me complete this
project.
His suggestions and instructions have served as a
major contributor towards the completion of this
project.
I take this opportunity to thank our head of the
institution, who was always
supportive and helpful in fulfilling all our academic
requirements.
Last but not the least, I would like to thank all my
classmates who have helped me to complete this
project.
4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Aim
 Introduction
 Requirements
 Procedures
 Observation
 Results/Conclusion
 Bibliograph/References
5
INTRODUCTION
Pesticides are essential tools to increase agricultural productivity and
cultivation convenience by protecting crops from pests, pathogen and
weeds. However, pesticides inevitably remain in agricultural products
andsoil. Excessive use of pesticides causes these chemicals and
metabolites to remain in the environment and food, causing serious
problems in the ecosystem and public health.Chronic human exposure
to unsafe levels of pesticides can cause a wide range of diseases
affecting human health. Pesticides have potential adverse effects on
human health such as carcinogenesis, immunotoxicity, birth defects,
genetic changes, neurological toxicityand endocrine disruption. Fruits
and vegetables are usually consumed directly without processing after
washing, so they are the main cause of pesticide residue ingestion in
humans. Human intakes of hazardous substances from pesticide
residues in
agricultural products can be significantly higher than intakes of these
substances associated with water consumption and air intake. Therefore,
it is very important to monitor residual pesticides in fruits and
vegetables and to assess if they cause a risk to human health.
6
Fruits and vegetables are essential for human nutrition containing
functional compounds such as carotenoids, phenolics, trace minerals,
vitamins and fiber. However, they may containtoxic residual pesticides
due to the use of pesticides during the production process ofagricultural
products.
7
Pesticide residues in agricultural products are usually monitored with
reference to maximumresidue limits (MRLs), which represent the highest
concentration of pesticide residues that is legally permitted or accepted
in food commodities after the use of pesticides In Korea, the Ministry of
Food and Drug Safety and the Rural Development Administration are
responsible for managing pesticides.
To ensure the safety of agricultural products, Korea has implemented
the PLS (Positive ListSystem) since 2019. PLS register pesticides used
in domestic or imported foods and establishes pesticide MRLs in
agricultural products.
It is a system that pesticide MRLs in agricultural products is applied at
0.01 mg/kguniformly except for registered pesticides.
Government and related organizations are trying to ensure safe use
of pesticides, but pesticide residues are continuously detectedin
agricultural products. Some agricultural products occur in excess of
MRLs and exposure to pesticide residues is likely to harm humans.
8
9
AIM
To study the presence of insecticides or pesticides(nitrogen containing) in
various fruits and vegetables taken from various mediums (frommarket,
organically grown and homegrown)
10
MATERIALS REQUIRED
 Beakers
 Funnel
 Glass rod
 Filter paper
 China dish
 Water bath
 Tripod stand
 Fusion tube
 Knife
 Test tube
 Samples of various fruits and vegetables (from market)
 Alcohol
 Sodium metal
 Ferric chloride
 Ferrous sulphate crystals
 Distilled water
 Dil. Sulphuric acid.
11
PROCEDURE
1. Take different types of fruits and vegetablesand cut them into
small pieces separately.
2. Transfer the cut pieces of various fruits and vegetables into it
separately and crush them.
3. Take different kinds for each kind of fruits andvegetables and place
the crushed fruits and vegetables in these beakers and add 100 ml
ofalcohol to each of these. Stir well and filter.
4. Collect the filtrate in separate china dishes.
5. Evaporate the alcohol by heating the china dishes one by one
over a water bath and let the residue dry in the oven.
6. Heat a small piece of sodium in a fusion tube till it melts.
7. Then add one of the above residues from the china dish to this
fusion tube and heat it till red hot.
8. Drop the hot fusion tube in a china dish containing about 10
ml of distilled water.
9. Break the tube and boil the contents of the china dish for
about 5 minutes.
10. Cool and filter the solution. Collect the filtrate.
11. To the filtrate add 1 ml of freshly prepared ferrous sulphate
solution and warm the contents.
12. Then add 2-3 drops of ferric chloride solution and acidify with
dilute HCl.
13. If a blue or green ppt or colouration is obtained it indicates
the presence of nitrogen containing insecticides.
14. Repeat the test of nitrogen for residues obtained from other
fruits and vegetables and record the observation.
12
OBSERVATION
Sl
no.
Name of fruits or
vegetables
Test for the presence
ofnitrogen
Presence of
insecticides or
pesticides
1 Apple (from the market) Positive Yes
2 Grapes (from the
market)
Positive Yes
3 Brinjal (organically
grown)
Inconclusive -
4 Tomato (home grown) Negative No
13
14
15
RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS
It is seen that the fruits and vegetable that were bought form the market
show positive result in the nitrogen test. This proves that the market
bought grocery items have been treated with pesticides and insecticides
which is extremely harmful.
On the other hand, the brinjal that was grown organically does not show
a definite result.
The tomato that was home grown shows a negative result to the
nitrogen test. Out of all the three, consuming the home-grown items is
proved to be the healthiest.
16
BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES
1. www.encyclopedia.com
2. www.wikipedia.com
3. Britannica encyclopedia
4. Practical manual in chemistry
5. Emearta encyclopedia
6. www.seminarsonly.com
7. www.sciencedirect.com

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chemistry-project.pdfxffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff

  • 1. 1 CHEMISTRY TITLE: STUDY OF INSECTICIDES AND PESTICIDES IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Student name: Dhruv Kumar Roll no: Class: XII
  • 2. 2 CERTIFICATE Name: Dhruv Kumar Roll no: Class: XII School: Geetanjali Olympiad School This is certified to be the Bona fide work of the student in the Chemistry Laboratory during theacademic year 2023-24. Teacher’s Signature: Examiner’s Signature: Principal’s Signature: School Seal: Date:
  • 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my deepest appreciation to all those who provide me with the possibility to complete this project. I would like to thank my chemistry teacher whose valuable guidance has helped me complete this project. His suggestions and instructions have served as a major contributor towards the completion of this project. I take this opportunity to thank our head of the institution, who was always supportive and helpful in fulfilling all our academic requirements. Last but not the least, I would like to thank all my classmates who have helped me to complete this project.
  • 4. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS  Aim  Introduction  Requirements  Procedures  Observation  Results/Conclusion  Bibliograph/References
  • 5. 5 INTRODUCTION Pesticides are essential tools to increase agricultural productivity and cultivation convenience by protecting crops from pests, pathogen and weeds. However, pesticides inevitably remain in agricultural products andsoil. Excessive use of pesticides causes these chemicals and metabolites to remain in the environment and food, causing serious problems in the ecosystem and public health.Chronic human exposure to unsafe levels of pesticides can cause a wide range of diseases affecting human health. Pesticides have potential adverse effects on human health such as carcinogenesis, immunotoxicity, birth defects, genetic changes, neurological toxicityand endocrine disruption. Fruits and vegetables are usually consumed directly without processing after washing, so they are the main cause of pesticide residue ingestion in humans. Human intakes of hazardous substances from pesticide residues in agricultural products can be significantly higher than intakes of these substances associated with water consumption and air intake. Therefore, it is very important to monitor residual pesticides in fruits and vegetables and to assess if they cause a risk to human health.
  • 6. 6 Fruits and vegetables are essential for human nutrition containing functional compounds such as carotenoids, phenolics, trace minerals, vitamins and fiber. However, they may containtoxic residual pesticides due to the use of pesticides during the production process ofagricultural products.
  • 7. 7 Pesticide residues in agricultural products are usually monitored with reference to maximumresidue limits (MRLs), which represent the highest concentration of pesticide residues that is legally permitted or accepted in food commodities after the use of pesticides In Korea, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety and the Rural Development Administration are responsible for managing pesticides. To ensure the safety of agricultural products, Korea has implemented the PLS (Positive ListSystem) since 2019. PLS register pesticides used in domestic or imported foods and establishes pesticide MRLs in agricultural products. It is a system that pesticide MRLs in agricultural products is applied at 0.01 mg/kguniformly except for registered pesticides. Government and related organizations are trying to ensure safe use of pesticides, but pesticide residues are continuously detectedin agricultural products. Some agricultural products occur in excess of MRLs and exposure to pesticide residues is likely to harm humans.
  • 8. 8
  • 9. 9 AIM To study the presence of insecticides or pesticides(nitrogen containing) in various fruits and vegetables taken from various mediums (frommarket, organically grown and homegrown)
  • 10. 10 MATERIALS REQUIRED  Beakers  Funnel  Glass rod  Filter paper  China dish  Water bath  Tripod stand  Fusion tube  Knife  Test tube  Samples of various fruits and vegetables (from market)  Alcohol  Sodium metal  Ferric chloride  Ferrous sulphate crystals  Distilled water  Dil. Sulphuric acid.
  • 11. 11 PROCEDURE 1. Take different types of fruits and vegetablesand cut them into small pieces separately. 2. Transfer the cut pieces of various fruits and vegetables into it separately and crush them. 3. Take different kinds for each kind of fruits andvegetables and place the crushed fruits and vegetables in these beakers and add 100 ml ofalcohol to each of these. Stir well and filter. 4. Collect the filtrate in separate china dishes. 5. Evaporate the alcohol by heating the china dishes one by one over a water bath and let the residue dry in the oven. 6. Heat a small piece of sodium in a fusion tube till it melts. 7. Then add one of the above residues from the china dish to this fusion tube and heat it till red hot. 8. Drop the hot fusion tube in a china dish containing about 10 ml of distilled water. 9. Break the tube and boil the contents of the china dish for about 5 minutes. 10. Cool and filter the solution. Collect the filtrate. 11. To the filtrate add 1 ml of freshly prepared ferrous sulphate solution and warm the contents. 12. Then add 2-3 drops of ferric chloride solution and acidify with dilute HCl. 13. If a blue or green ppt or colouration is obtained it indicates the presence of nitrogen containing insecticides. 14. Repeat the test of nitrogen for residues obtained from other fruits and vegetables and record the observation.
  • 12. 12 OBSERVATION Sl no. Name of fruits or vegetables Test for the presence ofnitrogen Presence of insecticides or pesticides 1 Apple (from the market) Positive Yes 2 Grapes (from the market) Positive Yes 3 Brinjal (organically grown) Inconclusive - 4 Tomato (home grown) Negative No
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  • 15. 15 RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS It is seen that the fruits and vegetable that were bought form the market show positive result in the nitrogen test. This proves that the market bought grocery items have been treated with pesticides and insecticides which is extremely harmful. On the other hand, the brinjal that was grown organically does not show a definite result. The tomato that was home grown shows a negative result to the nitrogen test. Out of all the three, consuming the home-grown items is proved to be the healthiest.
  • 16. 16 BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES 1. www.encyclopedia.com 2. www.wikipedia.com 3. Britannica encyclopedia 4. Practical manual in chemistry 5. Emearta encyclopedia 6. www.seminarsonly.com 7. www.sciencedirect.com