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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
Contents
Periodic table ..........................................................................................................................................2
How to remember the first three periods ..........................................................................................2
Oxidation vs. reduction:...............................................................................................................3
ACIDS BASES AND SALTS.........................................................................................................................3
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY.........................................................................................................................7
ELECTROLYSIS..........................................................................................................................................8
METALLURGY ........................................................................................................................................10
STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: HCl................................................................................................................11
STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: AMMONIA....................................................................................................12
STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: NITRIC ACID..................................................................................................14
STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: SULPHURIC ACID..........................................................................................14
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ...........................................................................................................................16
ALKANES............................................................................................................................................16
ALKENES............................................................................................................................................17
ALKYNES............................................................................................................................................17
ALCOHOLS.........................................................................................................................................18
ACETIC ACID ......................................................................................................................................18
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS............................................................................................................................18
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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
Periodic table
How to remember the first three periods
Hi He Lied Because Boron Could Not Oxidize Fluorine.
New Nations Might Also Sign Peace Security Clause. Arthur King Can
Hi Hydrogen Atomic No 1
He Helium Atomic No 2
Lied Lithium Atomic No 3
Because Berilium Atomic No 4
Boron Boron Atomic No 5
Could Carbon Atomic No 6
Not Nitrogen Atomic No 7
Oxidize Oxygen Atomic No 8
Fluorine Fluorine Atomic No 9
New Neon Atomic No 10
Nations Sodium (Na) Atomic No 11
Might Magnesium (Mg) Atomic No 12
Also Aluminium Atomic No 13
Sign Silicon Atomic No 14
Peace Phosphorous Atomic No 15
Security Sulphur Atomic No 16
Clause Chlorine (Cl) Atomic No 17
Arthur Argon Atomic No 18
King Potassium (K) Atomic No 19
Can Caclium Atomic No 20
Group 1 (alkali metals)
Li Na K Rb Cs Fr
Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium
LIttle NAsty Kids RuB CatS FuR
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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
Group 17 (halogens)
F Cl Br I At
Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine
Fish Can't Breathe In Air.
We can easily get confused with Cations and anions
Remember this Cats has Paws  Cations positive Don’t need to remember Anion as -ve
Oxidation vs. reduction:
What happens at the Anode and what happens at the cathode?
Remember AN OIL RIG CAT
At the ANode, Oxidation Involves Loss of electrons.
Reduction Involves Gaining electrons at the CAThode
ACIDS BASES AND SALTS
ACID
 HCl + H2O H3O+
+ Cl-
BASE
 CuO + 2HCl → CuCl2 + H2O
ALKALI
 NaOH[aq] Na+
+ OH-
STRONG ACID
 HNO3 + H2O H3O+
+ NO3
-
 H2SO4 + 2H2O 2H3O+
+ SO4
2-
WEAK ACID
 CH3COOH CH3COO-
+ H+
STRONG ALKALI
 NaOH[aq] Na+
+ OH-
 KOH[aq] K+
+ OH-
WEAK ALKALI
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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
 NH4OH[aq] NH4
+
+ OH-
MONOBASIC ACID
 HCl + H2O H3O+
+ Cl-
 NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O
DIBASIC ACID
 H2SO4 + 2H2O 2H3O+
+ SO4
2-
 NaOH + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + H2O
 2NaOH + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2H2O
TRIBASIC ACID
 H3PO4 + 3H2O 3H3O+
+ PO4
3-
 NaOH + H3PO4 → NaH2PO4 + H2O
 2NaOH + H3PO4 Na2HPO4 + 2H2O
 3NaOH + H3PO4 → Na3PO4 + 3H2O
MONOACIDIC BASE
 NaOH[aq] Na+
+ OH-
DIACIDIC BASE
 Ca(OH)2[aq] Ca2+
+ 2OH-
 Cu(OH)2[aq] Cu2+
+ 2OH-
ACIDS FROM NONMETALS
 H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl
 H2 + I2 → 2HI
ACIDS FROM ACIDIC OXIDES
 CO2 + H2O → H2CO3
 SO2 + H2O → H2SO3
 SO3 + H2O → H2SO4
 P2O5 + 3H2O → 2H3PO4
ACIDS FROM SALTS
 KNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] KHSO4 + HNO3
 NaCl + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HCl
ACIDS BY OXIDATION OF NONMETALS
 S + 6HNO3 → H2SO4 + 2H2O + 6NO2↑
BASES FROM METALS
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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
 4Na + O2 → 2Na2O
 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO
BASES FROM BASIC OXIDES
 K2O + H2O → 2KOH
 Na2O + H2O → 2NaOH
BASES FROM ACTIVE METALS AND WATER
 2K + 2H2O → 2KOH + H2↑
 2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2↑
BASES FROM SALTS
 AlCl3 + 3NaOH → 3NaCl + Al(OH)3↓
 FeSO4 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + Fe(OH)2↓
BASES BY DECOMPOSITION OF SALTS
 2Pb(NO3)2 → 2PbO +4NO2 + O2↑
REACTION OF CHLORIDES NITRATES BICARBONATES AND CARBONATES WITH ACIDS
 NaCl + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HCl
 NaNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HNO3
 2NaHCO3 + H2SO4[dil] → NA2SO4 + 2H2O + 2CO2↑
 Na2CO3 + 2HCl[dil] → 2NaCl + H2O + CO2↑
FORMATION OF ACID RAIN
 S + O2 → SO2
 H2O + SO2 → H2SO3[aq]
 2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3
 H2O + SO3 → H2SO4[aq]
 N2 + O2 → 2NO [at high temp.]
 2NO + O2 → 2NO2
 H2O + 2NO2 → HNO2 + HNO3
PREPARATION OF ACIDS
NEUTRALIZATION
 CuO + H2SO4[dil] → CuSO4 + H2O
 PbO + 2HNO3[dil] → Pb(NO3)2 + 2H2O
 Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4[dil] → CuSO4 + 2H2O
 Pb(OH)2 + 2HNO3[dil] → Pb(NO3)2 + 2H2O
 PbCO3 + 2HNO3[dil] → Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2↑
 ZnCO3 + 2HNO3[dil] → Zn(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2↑
 CuCO3 + H2SO4[dil] → CuSO4 + H2O + CO2↑
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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
NEUTRALIZATON (TITRATION INVOLVED)
 NaOH + HCl[dil] → NaCl + H2O
 NaOH + HNO3[dil] → NaNO3 + H2O
 NH4OH + HCl[dil] → NH4Cl + H2O
 Na2CO3 + H2SO4[dil] → Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2↑
 (NH4)2CO3 + 2HCl[dil] → 2NH4Cl + H2O + CO2↑
 (NH4)2CO3 + H2SO4[dil] → (NH4)2SO4 + H2O + CO2↑
SIMPLE DISPLACEMENT
 Fe + H2SO4[dil] →FeSO4 + H2↑
 Fe + 2HCl[dil] → FeCl2 + H2↑
 Zn + H2SO4[dil] → ZnSO4 + H2↑
 Mg + 2HCl[dil] → MgCl2 + H2↑
DIRECT COMBINATION (SYNTHESIS)
 2Fe + 3Cl2 → 2FeCl3
 2Al + 3Cl2 → 2AlCl3
 Fe + S → FeS↓
 Zn + S → ZnS↓
 Pb + S → PbS↓
DOUBLE DECOMPOSITION (PRECIPITATION)
 Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl → 2NaNO3 + PbCl2↓
 CaCl2 + Na2CO3 → 2NaCl + CaCO3↓
 ZnSO4 + (NH4)2CO3 → (NH4)2SO4 + ZnCO3↓
 Zn(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 → 2NaNO3 + ZnCO3↓
 Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 → 2NaNO3 + PbSO4↓
PREPARATION OF PbCl2 FROM PbO
 PbO + 2HNO3[dil] →Pb(NO3)2 + H2O
 Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl → 2NaNO3 + PbCl2↓
PREPARATION OF PbSO4 FROM PbCO3
 PbCO3 + 2HNO3 → Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2↑
 Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4→ 2NaNO3 + PbSO4↓
PREPARATION OF PbCl2 FROM PbCO3
 PbCO3 + 2HNO3 → Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2↑
 Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl → 2 NaNO3 + PbCl2↓
HYDROLYSIS OF SALTS
 NH4Cl + H2O → NH4OH + HCl
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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
 NaHCO3 + H2O → NaOH + H2CO3
 Na2CO3 + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2CO3
 NaCl + H2O → NaOH + HCl
 MgCl2 + 2H2O → Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
REACTIONS OF NaOH SOLUTION ON SALTS
 Ca(NO3)2 + 2NaOH → 2NaNO3 + Ca(OH)2↓(white ppt-slightly soluble)
 MgCl2 + 2NaOH → 2NaCl + Mg(OH)2↓(dull white ppt-insoluble)
 FeSO4 + 2NaOH → 2Na2SO4 + Fe(OH)2↓(dirty green ppt-insoluble)
 FeCl3 + 3NaOH → 3NaCl + Fe(OH)3↓(reddish brown ppt-insoluble)
 CuSO4 + 2NaOH → 2NaCl + Cu(OH)2↓(pale blue ppt-insoluble)
 ZnSO4 + 2NaOH → 2Na2SO4 + Zn(OH)2↓(gelatinous white ppt-insoluble)
 Zn(OH)2 + 2NaOH[excess] →2H2O + Na2ZnO2(colourless sol-soluble)
 Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaOH → 2NaNO3 + Pb(OH)2↓(chalky white ppt-insoluble)
 Pb(OH)2 + 2NaOH[excess] → 2H2O + Na2PbO2(colourless sol-soluble)
REACTIONS OF NH4OH SOLUTION ON SALTS
 MgCl2 + 2NH4OH → 2NH4Cl + Mg(OH)2↓(dull white ppt-insoluble)
 FeSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Fe(OH)2↓(dirty green ppt-insoluble)
 FeCl3 + 2NH4OH → 3NH4Cl + Fe(OH)3↓(reddish brown ppt-insoluble)
 CuSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Cu(OH)2↓(pale blue ppt-insoluble)
 Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Cu(NH3)4]SO4(deep blue or inky
blue sol-soluble)
 Cu(OH)2 + 4NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2(deep blue or inky blue sol-soluble)
 ZnSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Zn(OH)2↓(gelatinous white ppt-insoluble)
 Zn(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH[excess] →4H2O + [Zn(NH3)4]SO4(colourlesssol-soluble)
 Zn(OH)2 + 4NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Zn(NH3)4](OH)2(colourless sol-soluble)
 Pb(NO3)2 + 2NH4OH → 2NH4NO3 + Pb(OH)2↓(chalky white-insoluble)
ACTION OF ALKALIS ON CERTAIN METALS
 Zn + 2NaOH → Na2ZnO2 + H2↑
 Zn + 2KOH → K2ZnO2 + H2↑
 Pb + 2NaOH → Na2PbO2 + H2↑
 Pb + KOH → K2PbO2 + H2↑
 2Al + 2NaOH + 2H2O → 2NaAlO2 + 3H2↑
 2Al + 2KOH + 2H2O → 2KAlO2 + 3H2↑
ACTION OF ALKALIS ON OXIDES AND HYDROXIDES OF CERTAIN METALS
 ZnO + 2NaOH → Na2ZnO2 + H2O
 Zn(OH)2 + 2NaOH → Na2ZnO2 + 2H2O
 PbO + 2NaOH → Na2PbO2 + H2O
 Pb(OH)2 + 2NaOH → Na2PbO2 + 2H2O
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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
 Al2O3 + 2NaOH → 2NaAlO2 + H2O
 Al(OH)3 + NaOH → NaAlO2 + 2H2O
 Al2O3 + 2KOH → 2KAlO2 + H2O
 Al(OH)3 + KOH → KAlO2 + 2H2O
ELECTROLYSIS
STRONG ELECTROLYTES
 HCl[aq] H1+
+ Cl1-
 HNO3[aq] H1+
+ NO3
1-
 H2SO4[aq] 2H1+
+ SO4
2-
 KOH[aq] K1+
+ OH1-
 NaOH[aq] Na1+
+ OH1-
 LiOH[aq] Li1+
+ OH1-
 PbBr2[molten] Pb2+
+ 2Br1-
 CuCl2[aq] Cu2+
+ 2Cl1-
 AgNO3[aq] Ag1+
+ NO3
1-
WEAK ELECTROLYTES
 CH3COOH[aq] CH3COO1-
+ H1+
 HCOOH[aq] HCOO1-
+ H1+
 H2CO3[aq] 2H1+
+ CO3
2-
 Ca(OH)2[aq] Ca2+
+ 2OH1-
 Mg(OH)2[aq] Mg2+
+ 2OH1-
 NH4OH[aq] NH4
1+
+ OH1-
 Na2CO3[aq] 2Na1+
+ CO3
2-
 KHCO3 [aq] K1+
+ HCO3
1-
 (CH3COO)2Pb[aq] 2CH3COO1-
+ Pb2+
ELECTROLYSIS OF MOLTEN PbBr2
 Electrolytic cell : Silica crucible
 Electrolyte : Molten PbBr2
 Electrodes : Graphite(inert)
 Temperature : >380⁰C
 Current : 3 amps
 Dissociation : PbBr2 Pb2+
+2Br1-
 Reaction at cathode : Pb2+
+2e-
→ Pb (silvery grey deposit)
 Reaction at anode : Br1-
- 1e-
→ Br
Br + Br → Br2 (reddish brown fumes)
ELECTROLYSIS OF ACIDIFIED WATER
 Electrolyte : Acidified water with dil H2SO4
 Electrodes : Platinum foil(inert)
 Temperature : Ordinary temp
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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
 Current : 3 amps
 Dissociation : H2SO4 2H1+
+ SO4
2-
H2O H1+
+ OH1-
 Reaction at cathode : H1+
+1e-
→ H x 4
2H + 2H → 2H2 (hydrogen gas evolved)
 Reaction at anode : OH1-
-1e-
→ OH x 4
4OH → 2H2O + O2 (oxygen gas evolved)
ELECTROLYSIS OF Aq.CuSO4 (USING ACTIVE ELECTRODES)
 Electrolyte : aq. CuSO4
 Electrodes : Copper(active)
 Temperature : Ordinary temp
 Current : 3 amps
 Dissociation : CuSO4 Cu2+
+ SO4
2-
H2O H1+
+ OH1-
 Reaction at cathode : Cu2+
+ 2e-
→ Cu (brownish pink deposit)
 Reaction at anode : Cu - 2e-
→ Cu2+
(no product-Cu2+
ions formed)
ELECTROLYSIS OF Aq.CuSO4 (USING INERT ELECTRODES)
 Electrolyte : aq. CuSO4
 Electrodes : Platinum or carbon(inert)
 Temperature : Ordinary temp
 Current : 3 amps
 Dissociation : CuSO4 Cu2+
+ SO4
2-
H2O H1+
+ OH1-
 Reaction at cathode : Cu2+
+ 2e-
→ Cu (brownish pink deposit)
 Reaction at anode : OH1-
- 1e-
→ OH x 2
4OH → 2H2O + O2 (oxygen gas evolved)
 Note: With active electrode anode diminishes in mass because it loses electrons.
Blue colour of CuSO4 remains unchanged with copper electrode but fades with inert
electrode because if copper anode is used, for every copper ion discharged at cathode a
copper ion is added to the sol. by the anode. Total no. of copper ions remains same. This is
not the case with inert electrodes.
ELECTROPLATING WITH NICKEL
 Electrolyte : aq. NiSO4
 Cathode : Article to be electroplated
 Anode : Block of nickel metal
 Dissociation : NiSO4 Ni2+
+SO4
2-
H2O H1+
+OH1-
 Reaction at cathode : Ni2+
+2e-
→ Ni (deposited)
 Reaction at anode : Ni – 2e-
→ Ni2+
(no product-Ni2+
ions formed)
ELECTROPLATING WITH SILVER
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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
 Electrolyte : aq. Na[Ag(CN)2] (sodium silver cyanide)
 Cathode : Cleaned article to be electroplated
 Anode : Block of silver metal
 Dissociation : Na[Ag(CN)2] Na1+
+ Ag1+
+ 2CN1-
H2O H1+
+OH1-
 Reaction at cathode : Ag1+
+1e-
→ Ag (deposited)
 Reaction at anode : Ag – 1e-
→ Ag1+
(no product-Ag1+
ions formed)
ELECTROREFINING OF COPPER
 Electrolyte : Aq. CuSO4
 Cathode : Pure thin sheet of copper
 Anode : Impure block of copper
 Dissociation : CuSO4 Cu2+
+ SO4
2-
H2O H1+
+OH1-
 Reaction at cathode : Cu2+
+ 2e-
→ Cu (deposited)
 Reaction ay anode : Cu - 2e-
→ Cu2+
(no product-Cu2+
ions formed)
METALLURGY
CONCENTRATED ORE TO OXIDE
ROASTING
 2ZnS + 3O2 → 2ZnO + 2SO2↑
 4FeS + 7O2 → 2Fe2O3 + 4SO2↑
CALCINATION
 ZnCO3 → ZnO + CO2↑
 FeCO3 → FeO + CO2↑
REDUCTION OF METALLIC OXIDES
BY ELECTROLYSIS
 Al2O3 2Al3+
+ 3O2-
 At cathode : 2Al3+
+ 6e-
→ 2Al
 At anode : 3O2-
- 6e-
→ 3[O] → 3O2↑
BY REDUCING AGENTS
 ZnO + C Zn + CO↑
 2PbO + C 2Pb + CO2↑
 Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2↑
 FeO + CO Fe + CO2↑
BY THERMAL DECOMPOSITION
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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
 2HgO 2Hg + O2↑
 2Ag2O 4Ag + O2↑
METALLURGY OF ZINC
 Roasting : 2ZnS + 3O2 2ZnO + 2SO2↑
 Calcination : ZnCO3 2ZnO + CO2↑
 Reduction : ZnO + C Zn + CO↑
METALLURGY OF IRON
 Lower region : C + O2 → CO2 + Δ
 Middle region : CO2 + C → 2CO – Δ
CaCO3 → CaO + CO2↑
CaO + SiO2 → CaSiO3 [slag]
 Upper region : Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO2↑
METALLURGY OF ALUMINIUM
CONCENTRATION OF ORE – BAEYER’S PROCESS
 Al2O3 . 2H2O 2NaAlO2 + 3H2O
 NaAlO2 + 2H2O NaOH + Al(OH)3↓
 2Al(OH)3 Al2O3 + 3H2O[vap]
ELECTROLYTIC REDUCTION OF ALUMINA – HALL HEROULT’S PROCESS
 Electrolyte : Fused alumina-1part, cryolite-3 parts, fluorspar-1 part
 Electrolytic cell : Rectangular steel tank with carbon lining
 Cathode : Gas carbon
 Anode : Thick carbon rods (graphite) attached to copper clamps
 Temperature : 950⁰C
 Current : 100 amps
 Dissociation : Na3AlF6 3Na1+
+ Al3+
+ 6F1-
CaF2 Ca2+
+ 2F1-
Al2O3 2Al3+
+ 3O2-
 At cathode : 2Al3+
+ 6e-
→ 2Al(pure metal deposited)
 At anode : 3O2-
- 6e-
→ 3[O] →3O2(oxygen gas evolved)
 Thermite welding : Fe2O3 + 2Al → Al2O3 + 2Fe + Δ
RUSTING: 4Fe + 3O2 + xH2O → 2Fe2O3 . xH2O
STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: HCl
PREPARATION
BY SYNTHESIS: H2 + Cl2 2HCl↑
IN LABORATORY: NaCl + H2SO4 [conc] NaHSO4 + HCl↑
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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
 CaO + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O
 2P2O5 + 3HCl → POCl3 + 3HPO3
ACIDIC PROPERTY
 Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2↑
 Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2↑
 Fe + 2HCl → FeCl2 + H2↑
 CuO + 2HCl →CuCl2 + H2O
 NH4OH + HCl → NH4Cl + H2O
 Na2CO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2↑
 Ca(HCO3)2 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2CO2↑
 Na2SO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + H2O + SO2↑
 NaHSO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + SO2↑
 Na2S + 2HCl → NaCl + H2S↑
 FeS + 2HCl → FeCl2 + H2S↑
 CuS + 2HCl → CuCl2 + H2S↑
 AgNO3 + HCl → AgCl↓ + HNO3
 Pb(NO3)2 + 2HCl → PbCl2↓ + 2HNO3
 Na2S2O3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + SO2 + S + H2O
REACTIONS WITH OXIDISING AGENTS
 MnO2 + 4HCl MnCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2
 PbO2 + 4HCl PbCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2
 Pb3O4 + 8HCl 3PbCl2 + 4H2O + Cl2
 2KMnO4 + 16HCl 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + 8H2O + 5Cl2
 K2Cr2O7 + 14HCl 2KCl + 2CrCl3 + 7H2O + 3Cl2
AQUA REGIA REACTION
 HNO3 + 3HCl → NOCl + 2H2O + 2[Cl]
 Au + 3[Cl] →AuCl3
 Pt + 4[Cl] → PtCl4
STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: AMMONIA
PREPARATION
FROM AMMONIUM SALTS
 (NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O + 2NH3↑
 (NH4)2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 + 2H2O + 2NH3↑
 NH4Cl + NaOH NaCl + H2O + NH3↑
IN LAB: 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2NH3↑
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CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
 2NH3 + H2SO4[conc.] → (NH4)2SO4
 6NH3 + P2O5 + 3H2O → 2(NH4)3PO4
 8NH3 + CaCl2 [fused] → CaCl2 . 8NH3
FROM METAL NITRIDES
 3Mg + N2 → Mg3N2
 Mg3N2 + 6H2O[warm] → 3Mg(OH)2 + 2NH3↑
 3Ca + N2 → Ca3N2
 Ca3N2 + 6H2O[warm] → 3Ca(OH)2 + 2NH3↑
 2Al + N2 → 2AlN
 AlN + 3H2O[warm] →Al(OH)3 + NH3↑
HABER’S PROCESS
 Temperature : 450-500⁰C
 Pressure : 200-900 atms
 If catalyst finely divided Fe then promotor Mo
 If catalyst Fe2O3 then promotor 1% K2O and 3% Al2O3
 Impurities : CO, CO2, H2S
PREPARATION OF AMMONIUM SALTS
 NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl
 NH3 + HNO3 →NH4NO3
 2NH3 + H2SO4 → (NH4)2SO4
 NH4OH + HCl → NH4Cl + H2O
 NH4OH + HNO3 → NH4NO3 + H2O
 2NH4OH + H2SO4 → (NH4)2SO4 + 2H2O
COMBUSTION: 4NH3 + 3O2 → 2N2 + 6H2O
CATALYTIC OXIDATION: 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O + Δ
2NO + O2 → 2NO2
BASIC NATURE
 NH3 + H2O → NH4OH
 NH4OH NH4
+
+ OH-
 FeSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Fe(OH)2↓(dirty green ppt-insoluble)
 FeCl3 + 2NH4OH → 3NH4Cl + Fe(OH)3↓(reddish brown ppt-insoluble)
 CuSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Cu(OH)2↓(pale blue ppt-insoluble)
 Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Cu(NH3)4]SO4(deep blue or inky
blue sol-soluble)
 Cu(OH)2 + 4NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2(deep blue or inky blue sol-soluble)
 ZnSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Zn(OH)2↓(gelatinous white ppt-insoluble)
 Zn(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH[excess] →4H2O + [Zn(NH3)4]SO4(colourlesssol-soluble)
 Zn(OH)2 + 4NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Zn(NH3)4](OH)2(colourless sol-soluble)
©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve
CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
REDUCING NATURE
 2NH3 + 3CuO →Cu + 3H2O + N2↑
 2NH3 + 3PbO → 3Pb + 3H2O + N2↑
 8NH3[excess] + 3Cl2 → 6NH4Cl + N2
 NH3 + 3Cl2[excess] → 3HCl + NCl3
STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: NITRIC ACID
PREPARATION
IN LAB
 KNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] KHSO4 + HNO3[vap]
 NaNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HNO3[vap]
DECOMPOSITION OF HNO3: 4HNO3 → 4NO2 + 2H2O + O2
OXIDISING NATURE
2HNO3[conc.] → H2O + 2NO2 + [O]
Cu + [O] → CuO
CuO + 2HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + H2O
Cu + 4HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O + NO2
 Cu + 4HNO3[conc.] → Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2NO2
 C + 4HNO3[conc.] → CO2 + 2H2O + 4NO2
 S + 6HNO3[conc.] → H2SO4 + 2H2O + 6NO2
 3Cu + 8HNO3[dil.] → 3Cu(NO3)2 + 4H2O + 2NO
 Cu + 4HNO3[conc.] → Cu(NO3)2 +2H2O +2NO2
 C7H8 + 3HNO3[conc.] → C7H5(NO2)3 + 3H2O
BROWN RING TEST
 6FeSO4 + 3H2SO4[conc.] + 2HNO3[dil.] → 3Fe2(SO4)3 + 4H2O + 2NO
 FeSO4 + NO → FeSO4 . NO
STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: SULPHURIC ACID
PREPARATION
CONTACT PROCESS
SULPHUR OR PYRITE BURNERS
 S + O2 → SO2
 2FeS + 3O2 → 2FeO + 2SO2
CONTACT TOWER
 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 + Δ
ABSORPTION TOWER
 SO3 + H2SO4 → H2S2O7
©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve
CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
DILUTION TANK
 H2S2O7 + H2O → 2H2SO4
ACIDIC NATURE
 H2SO4 + 2H2O 2H3O+
+ SO4
2-
 REACTIONS OF DIL. H2SO4
 Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2↑
 Fe + H2SO4 → FeSO4 + H2↑
 Na2O + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O
 MgO + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2O
 ZnO + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2O
 CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4 +H2O
 2NaOH + H2SO4→ Na2SO4 + 2H2O
 Zn(OH)2 + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + 2H2O
 Na2CO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2↑
 CuCO3 + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O + CO2↑
 2KHCO3 + H2SO4 → K2SO4 + 2H2O + 2CO2↑
 Na2SO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O + SO2↑
 2NaHSO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2H2O + 2SO2↑
 Na2S + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2S↑
 ZnS + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2S↑
 FeS + H2SO4 → FeSO4 + H2S↑
DIBASIC ACID
DISSSOCIATES IN TWO STEPS
H2SO4 H+
+ HSO4
-
HSO4-
H+
+ SO4
2-
H2SO4 2H+
+ SO4
2-
FORMS TWO TYPES OF SALTS
 NaOH + H2SO4 → NaHSO4[acid salt] + H2O
 2NaOH[excess] + H2SO4 → Na2SO4[normal salt] + 2H2O
NON VOLATILE ACID
 NaCl + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HCl
 KCl + H2SO4[conc.] KHSO4 + HCl
 NaNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HNO3
 KNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] KHSO4 + HNO3
OXIDISING AGENT
H2SO4 → H2O + SO2 + [O]
Cu + [O] → CuO
©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve
CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O
Cu + 2H2SO4 → CuSO4 + 2H2O + SO2↑
 C + 2H2SO4[conc.] → CO2 + 2H2O + 2SO2↑
 S + 2H2SO4[conc.] → 3SO2↑ + 2H2O
 2P + 5H2SO4[conc.] → 2H3PO4 + 2H2O + 5SO2↑
 Cu + 2H2SO4[conc.] → CuSO4 + 2H2O + SO2↑
 Zn + 2H2SO4[conc.] → ZnSO4 + 2H2O + SO2↑
STRONG DEHYDRATING AGENT
 C6H12O6 6C + 6H2O
 C12H22O11 12C + 11H2O
 [C6H10O5]n 6[C]n + 5[H2O]n
 CuSO4 . 5H2O CuSO4 + 5H2O
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
ALKANES
PREPARATION
IN LAB
 CH3COONa + NaOH CH4 + Na2CO3
 C2H5COONa + NaOH C2H6 + Na2CO3
 GENERAL METHOD – FROM ALKYL HALIDES
 CH3I + 2[H] CH4 + HI
 C2H5Br + 2[H] C2H6 + HBr
 2CH3I + 2Na C2H6 + 2NaI
SUBSTITUTION REACTION
 CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl
CH3Cl + Cl2[excess] →CH2Cl2 + HCl
CH2Cl2 + Cl2 → CHCl3 + HCl
CHCl3 + Cl2 → CCl4 + HCl
 C2H6 + Cl2 C2H5Cl + HCl
C2H5Cl + Cl2[excess] →C2H4Cl2 + HCl
C2H4Cl2 + Cl2 →C2H3Cl3 + HCl
C2H3Cl3 + Cl2 → C2H2Cl4 + HCl
C2H2Cl4 + Cl2 → C2HCl5 + HCl
C2HCl5 + Cl2 → CCl6 + HCl
OXIDATION
COMPLETE
 CH4 + 2O2[excess] → CO2 + 2H2O + Δ
 2C2H6 + 7O2[excess] → 4CO2 + 6H2O + Δ
©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve
CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
INCOMPLETE
 2CH4 + 3O2[limited] → 2CO + 4H2O + Δ
 2C2H6 + 5O2[limited] → 4CO + 6H2O +Δ
 2C2H6 + 3O2[very limited] →4C + 6H2O
ALKENES
PREPARATION
IN LAB
 BY DEHYDRATION OF C2H5OH
 C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O
 BY DEHYDROHALOGENATION OF C2H5Br
 C2H5Br + KOH[alcoholic] C2H4 + KBr + H2O
GENERAL METHOD BY CRACKING
 C2H6 C2H4 + H2
ADDITION REACTIONS
HALOGENATION
 C2H4 + Cl2 C2H4Cl2
 C2H2 + Br2 C2H4Br2
 C2H4 + I2 C2H4I2
OXIDATION
 With cold dil. KMnO4 sol-Baeyer’s Reagent
 C2H4 + H2O + [O] → C2H4(OH)2
 Combustion
 C2H4 + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 2H2O + Δ
ALKYNES
PREPARATION
IN LAB
 CaC2 + 2H2O → C2H2 + Ca(OH)2
 C2H4Br2 + 2KOH[alcoholic] C2H2 + 2KBr + 2H2O
GENERAL METHOD
 FROM METHANE
 2CH4 C2H2 + 3H2
ADDITION REACTIONS
CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION
 C2H2 + H2 C2H4 + H2 C2H6
HALOGENATION
 C2H2 + Cl2 C2H2Cl2 + Cl2 C2H2Cl4
 C2H2 + Br2 C2H2Br2 + Br2 C2H2Br4
 C2H2 + I2 C2H2I2
©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve
CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
OXIDATION
 With dil. Alkaline KMnO4
 C2H2 + 4[O] → OH-COOH
 Combustion
 2C2H2 + 5O2 → 4CO2 + 2H2O + Δ
AMMONIACAL SILVER NITRATE
 C2H2 + 2AgNO3 + 2NH4OH → Ag-C≡C-Ag + 2NH4NO3 + 2H2O
ALCOHOLS
PREPARATION
IN LAB
 C2H5Cl + NaOH[aq] C2H5OH + NaCl
 C2H5Br + KOH[aq] C2H5OH + KBr
INDUSTRIAL METHOD
 C2H4 + H2SO4 C2H5-HSO4
 C2H5-HSO4 + H2O → C2H5OH + H2SO4
COMBUSTION
 C2H5OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O
OXIDATION
 C2H5OH CH3CHO CH3COOH
SODIUM
 2C2H5OH + 2Na → 2C2H5ONa + H2
ACETIC ACID
 C2H5OH + CH3COOH CH3COO-C2H5 + H2O
SULPHURIC ACID
 C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O
 2C2H5OH[excess] C2H5-O-C2H5 + H2O
3C2H5OH +PCl3 → 3C2H5Cl + H3PO3
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
PREPARATION
 C2H5OH + [O] CH3CHO + H2O
 CH3CHO + [O] CH3COOH
ACIDIC NATURE
 CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COONa + H2O
©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve
CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10
 2CH3COOH + Ca(OH)2 → (CH3COO)2Ca + 2H2O
 CH3COOH + NH4OH → CH3COONH4 + H2O
ALCOHOLS
 C2H5OH + CH3COOH CH3COO-C2H5 + H2O

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Chemistry equations for ICSE Class 10

  • 1. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10 Contents Periodic table ..........................................................................................................................................2 How to remember the first three periods ..........................................................................................2 Oxidation vs. reduction:...............................................................................................................3 ACIDS BASES AND SALTS.........................................................................................................................3 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY.........................................................................................................................7 ELECTROLYSIS..........................................................................................................................................8 METALLURGY ........................................................................................................................................10 STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: HCl................................................................................................................11 STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: AMMONIA....................................................................................................12 STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: NITRIC ACID..................................................................................................14 STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: SULPHURIC ACID..........................................................................................14 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ...........................................................................................................................16 ALKANES............................................................................................................................................16 ALKENES............................................................................................................................................17 ALKYNES............................................................................................................................................17 ALCOHOLS.........................................................................................................................................18 ACETIC ACID ......................................................................................................................................18 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS............................................................................................................................18
  • 2. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10 Periodic table How to remember the first three periods Hi He Lied Because Boron Could Not Oxidize Fluorine. New Nations Might Also Sign Peace Security Clause. Arthur King Can Hi Hydrogen Atomic No 1 He Helium Atomic No 2 Lied Lithium Atomic No 3 Because Berilium Atomic No 4 Boron Boron Atomic No 5 Could Carbon Atomic No 6 Not Nitrogen Atomic No 7 Oxidize Oxygen Atomic No 8 Fluorine Fluorine Atomic No 9 New Neon Atomic No 10 Nations Sodium (Na) Atomic No 11 Might Magnesium (Mg) Atomic No 12 Also Aluminium Atomic No 13 Sign Silicon Atomic No 14 Peace Phosphorous Atomic No 15 Security Sulphur Atomic No 16 Clause Chlorine (Cl) Atomic No 17 Arthur Argon Atomic No 18 King Potassium (K) Atomic No 19 Can Caclium Atomic No 20 Group 1 (alkali metals) Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium LIttle NAsty Kids RuB CatS FuR
  • 3. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10 Group 17 (halogens) F Cl Br I At Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine Fish Can't Breathe In Air. We can easily get confused with Cations and anions Remember this Cats has Paws  Cations positive Don’t need to remember Anion as -ve Oxidation vs. reduction: What happens at the Anode and what happens at the cathode? Remember AN OIL RIG CAT At the ANode, Oxidation Involves Loss of electrons. Reduction Involves Gaining electrons at the CAThode ACIDS BASES AND SALTS ACID  HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl- BASE  CuO + 2HCl → CuCl2 + H2O ALKALI  NaOH[aq] Na+ + OH- STRONG ACID  HNO3 + H2O H3O+ + NO3 -  H2SO4 + 2H2O 2H3O+ + SO4 2- WEAK ACID  CH3COOH CH3COO- + H+ STRONG ALKALI  NaOH[aq] Na+ + OH-  KOH[aq] K+ + OH- WEAK ALKALI
  • 4. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10  NH4OH[aq] NH4 + + OH- MONOBASIC ACID  HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-  NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O DIBASIC ACID  H2SO4 + 2H2O 2H3O+ + SO4 2-  NaOH + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + H2O  2NaOH + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2H2O TRIBASIC ACID  H3PO4 + 3H2O 3H3O+ + PO4 3-  NaOH + H3PO4 → NaH2PO4 + H2O  2NaOH + H3PO4 Na2HPO4 + 2H2O  3NaOH + H3PO4 → Na3PO4 + 3H2O MONOACIDIC BASE  NaOH[aq] Na+ + OH- DIACIDIC BASE  Ca(OH)2[aq] Ca2+ + 2OH-  Cu(OH)2[aq] Cu2+ + 2OH- ACIDS FROM NONMETALS  H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl  H2 + I2 → 2HI ACIDS FROM ACIDIC OXIDES  CO2 + H2O → H2CO3  SO2 + H2O → H2SO3  SO3 + H2O → H2SO4  P2O5 + 3H2O → 2H3PO4 ACIDS FROM SALTS  KNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] KHSO4 + HNO3  NaCl + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HCl ACIDS BY OXIDATION OF NONMETALS  S + 6HNO3 → H2SO4 + 2H2O + 6NO2↑ BASES FROM METALS
  • 5. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10  4Na + O2 → 2Na2O  2Mg + O2 → 2MgO BASES FROM BASIC OXIDES  K2O + H2O → 2KOH  Na2O + H2O → 2NaOH BASES FROM ACTIVE METALS AND WATER  2K + 2H2O → 2KOH + H2↑  2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2↑ BASES FROM SALTS  AlCl3 + 3NaOH → 3NaCl + Al(OH)3↓  FeSO4 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + Fe(OH)2↓ BASES BY DECOMPOSITION OF SALTS  2Pb(NO3)2 → 2PbO +4NO2 + O2↑ REACTION OF CHLORIDES NITRATES BICARBONATES AND CARBONATES WITH ACIDS  NaCl + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HCl  NaNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HNO3  2NaHCO3 + H2SO4[dil] → NA2SO4 + 2H2O + 2CO2↑  Na2CO3 + 2HCl[dil] → 2NaCl + H2O + CO2↑ FORMATION OF ACID RAIN  S + O2 → SO2  H2O + SO2 → H2SO3[aq]  2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3  H2O + SO3 → H2SO4[aq]  N2 + O2 → 2NO [at high temp.]  2NO + O2 → 2NO2  H2O + 2NO2 → HNO2 + HNO3 PREPARATION OF ACIDS NEUTRALIZATION  CuO + H2SO4[dil] → CuSO4 + H2O  PbO + 2HNO3[dil] → Pb(NO3)2 + 2H2O  Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4[dil] → CuSO4 + 2H2O  Pb(OH)2 + 2HNO3[dil] → Pb(NO3)2 + 2H2O  PbCO3 + 2HNO3[dil] → Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2↑  ZnCO3 + 2HNO3[dil] → Zn(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2↑  CuCO3 + H2SO4[dil] → CuSO4 + H2O + CO2↑
  • 6. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10 NEUTRALIZATON (TITRATION INVOLVED)  NaOH + HCl[dil] → NaCl + H2O  NaOH + HNO3[dil] → NaNO3 + H2O  NH4OH + HCl[dil] → NH4Cl + H2O  Na2CO3 + H2SO4[dil] → Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2↑  (NH4)2CO3 + 2HCl[dil] → 2NH4Cl + H2O + CO2↑  (NH4)2CO3 + H2SO4[dil] → (NH4)2SO4 + H2O + CO2↑ SIMPLE DISPLACEMENT  Fe + H2SO4[dil] →FeSO4 + H2↑  Fe + 2HCl[dil] → FeCl2 + H2↑  Zn + H2SO4[dil] → ZnSO4 + H2↑  Mg + 2HCl[dil] → MgCl2 + H2↑ DIRECT COMBINATION (SYNTHESIS)  2Fe + 3Cl2 → 2FeCl3  2Al + 3Cl2 → 2AlCl3  Fe + S → FeS↓  Zn + S → ZnS↓  Pb + S → PbS↓ DOUBLE DECOMPOSITION (PRECIPITATION)  Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl → 2NaNO3 + PbCl2↓  CaCl2 + Na2CO3 → 2NaCl + CaCO3↓  ZnSO4 + (NH4)2CO3 → (NH4)2SO4 + ZnCO3↓  Zn(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 → 2NaNO3 + ZnCO3↓  Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 → 2NaNO3 + PbSO4↓ PREPARATION OF PbCl2 FROM PbO  PbO + 2HNO3[dil] →Pb(NO3)2 + H2O  Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl → 2NaNO3 + PbCl2↓ PREPARATION OF PbSO4 FROM PbCO3  PbCO3 + 2HNO3 → Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2↑  Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4→ 2NaNO3 + PbSO4↓ PREPARATION OF PbCl2 FROM PbCO3  PbCO3 + 2HNO3 → Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2↑  Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl → 2 NaNO3 + PbCl2↓ HYDROLYSIS OF SALTS  NH4Cl + H2O → NH4OH + HCl
  • 7. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10  NaHCO3 + H2O → NaOH + H2CO3  Na2CO3 + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2CO3  NaCl + H2O → NaOH + HCl  MgCl2 + 2H2O → Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY REACTIONS OF NaOH SOLUTION ON SALTS  Ca(NO3)2 + 2NaOH → 2NaNO3 + Ca(OH)2↓(white ppt-slightly soluble)  MgCl2 + 2NaOH → 2NaCl + Mg(OH)2↓(dull white ppt-insoluble)  FeSO4 + 2NaOH → 2Na2SO4 + Fe(OH)2↓(dirty green ppt-insoluble)  FeCl3 + 3NaOH → 3NaCl + Fe(OH)3↓(reddish brown ppt-insoluble)  CuSO4 + 2NaOH → 2NaCl + Cu(OH)2↓(pale blue ppt-insoluble)  ZnSO4 + 2NaOH → 2Na2SO4 + Zn(OH)2↓(gelatinous white ppt-insoluble)  Zn(OH)2 + 2NaOH[excess] →2H2O + Na2ZnO2(colourless sol-soluble)  Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaOH → 2NaNO3 + Pb(OH)2↓(chalky white ppt-insoluble)  Pb(OH)2 + 2NaOH[excess] → 2H2O + Na2PbO2(colourless sol-soluble) REACTIONS OF NH4OH SOLUTION ON SALTS  MgCl2 + 2NH4OH → 2NH4Cl + Mg(OH)2↓(dull white ppt-insoluble)  FeSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Fe(OH)2↓(dirty green ppt-insoluble)  FeCl3 + 2NH4OH → 3NH4Cl + Fe(OH)3↓(reddish brown ppt-insoluble)  CuSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Cu(OH)2↓(pale blue ppt-insoluble)  Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Cu(NH3)4]SO4(deep blue or inky blue sol-soluble)  Cu(OH)2 + 4NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2(deep blue or inky blue sol-soluble)  ZnSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Zn(OH)2↓(gelatinous white ppt-insoluble)  Zn(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH[excess] →4H2O + [Zn(NH3)4]SO4(colourlesssol-soluble)  Zn(OH)2 + 4NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Zn(NH3)4](OH)2(colourless sol-soluble)  Pb(NO3)2 + 2NH4OH → 2NH4NO3 + Pb(OH)2↓(chalky white-insoluble) ACTION OF ALKALIS ON CERTAIN METALS  Zn + 2NaOH → Na2ZnO2 + H2↑  Zn + 2KOH → K2ZnO2 + H2↑  Pb + 2NaOH → Na2PbO2 + H2↑  Pb + KOH → K2PbO2 + H2↑  2Al + 2NaOH + 2H2O → 2NaAlO2 + 3H2↑  2Al + 2KOH + 2H2O → 2KAlO2 + 3H2↑ ACTION OF ALKALIS ON OXIDES AND HYDROXIDES OF CERTAIN METALS  ZnO + 2NaOH → Na2ZnO2 + H2O  Zn(OH)2 + 2NaOH → Na2ZnO2 + 2H2O  PbO + 2NaOH → Na2PbO2 + H2O  Pb(OH)2 + 2NaOH → Na2PbO2 + 2H2O
  • 8. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10  Al2O3 + 2NaOH → 2NaAlO2 + H2O  Al(OH)3 + NaOH → NaAlO2 + 2H2O  Al2O3 + 2KOH → 2KAlO2 + H2O  Al(OH)3 + KOH → KAlO2 + 2H2O ELECTROLYSIS STRONG ELECTROLYTES  HCl[aq] H1+ + Cl1-  HNO3[aq] H1+ + NO3 1-  H2SO4[aq] 2H1+ + SO4 2-  KOH[aq] K1+ + OH1-  NaOH[aq] Na1+ + OH1-  LiOH[aq] Li1+ + OH1-  PbBr2[molten] Pb2+ + 2Br1-  CuCl2[aq] Cu2+ + 2Cl1-  AgNO3[aq] Ag1+ + NO3 1- WEAK ELECTROLYTES  CH3COOH[aq] CH3COO1- + H1+  HCOOH[aq] HCOO1- + H1+  H2CO3[aq] 2H1+ + CO3 2-  Ca(OH)2[aq] Ca2+ + 2OH1-  Mg(OH)2[aq] Mg2+ + 2OH1-  NH4OH[aq] NH4 1+ + OH1-  Na2CO3[aq] 2Na1+ + CO3 2-  KHCO3 [aq] K1+ + HCO3 1-  (CH3COO)2Pb[aq] 2CH3COO1- + Pb2+ ELECTROLYSIS OF MOLTEN PbBr2  Electrolytic cell : Silica crucible  Electrolyte : Molten PbBr2  Electrodes : Graphite(inert)  Temperature : >380⁰C  Current : 3 amps  Dissociation : PbBr2 Pb2+ +2Br1-  Reaction at cathode : Pb2+ +2e- → Pb (silvery grey deposit)  Reaction at anode : Br1- - 1e- → Br Br + Br → Br2 (reddish brown fumes) ELECTROLYSIS OF ACIDIFIED WATER  Electrolyte : Acidified water with dil H2SO4  Electrodes : Platinum foil(inert)  Temperature : Ordinary temp
  • 9. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10  Current : 3 amps  Dissociation : H2SO4 2H1+ + SO4 2- H2O H1+ + OH1-  Reaction at cathode : H1+ +1e- → H x 4 2H + 2H → 2H2 (hydrogen gas evolved)  Reaction at anode : OH1- -1e- → OH x 4 4OH → 2H2O + O2 (oxygen gas evolved) ELECTROLYSIS OF Aq.CuSO4 (USING ACTIVE ELECTRODES)  Electrolyte : aq. CuSO4  Electrodes : Copper(active)  Temperature : Ordinary temp  Current : 3 amps  Dissociation : CuSO4 Cu2+ + SO4 2- H2O H1+ + OH1-  Reaction at cathode : Cu2+ + 2e- → Cu (brownish pink deposit)  Reaction at anode : Cu - 2e- → Cu2+ (no product-Cu2+ ions formed) ELECTROLYSIS OF Aq.CuSO4 (USING INERT ELECTRODES)  Electrolyte : aq. CuSO4  Electrodes : Platinum or carbon(inert)  Temperature : Ordinary temp  Current : 3 amps  Dissociation : CuSO4 Cu2+ + SO4 2- H2O H1+ + OH1-  Reaction at cathode : Cu2+ + 2e- → Cu (brownish pink deposit)  Reaction at anode : OH1- - 1e- → OH x 2 4OH → 2H2O + O2 (oxygen gas evolved)  Note: With active electrode anode diminishes in mass because it loses electrons. Blue colour of CuSO4 remains unchanged with copper electrode but fades with inert electrode because if copper anode is used, for every copper ion discharged at cathode a copper ion is added to the sol. by the anode. Total no. of copper ions remains same. This is not the case with inert electrodes. ELECTROPLATING WITH NICKEL  Electrolyte : aq. NiSO4  Cathode : Article to be electroplated  Anode : Block of nickel metal  Dissociation : NiSO4 Ni2+ +SO4 2- H2O H1+ +OH1-  Reaction at cathode : Ni2+ +2e- → Ni (deposited)  Reaction at anode : Ni – 2e- → Ni2+ (no product-Ni2+ ions formed) ELECTROPLATING WITH SILVER
  • 10. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10  Electrolyte : aq. Na[Ag(CN)2] (sodium silver cyanide)  Cathode : Cleaned article to be electroplated  Anode : Block of silver metal  Dissociation : Na[Ag(CN)2] Na1+ + Ag1+ + 2CN1- H2O H1+ +OH1-  Reaction at cathode : Ag1+ +1e- → Ag (deposited)  Reaction at anode : Ag – 1e- → Ag1+ (no product-Ag1+ ions formed) ELECTROREFINING OF COPPER  Electrolyte : Aq. CuSO4  Cathode : Pure thin sheet of copper  Anode : Impure block of copper  Dissociation : CuSO4 Cu2+ + SO4 2- H2O H1+ +OH1-  Reaction at cathode : Cu2+ + 2e- → Cu (deposited)  Reaction ay anode : Cu - 2e- → Cu2+ (no product-Cu2+ ions formed) METALLURGY CONCENTRATED ORE TO OXIDE ROASTING  2ZnS + 3O2 → 2ZnO + 2SO2↑  4FeS + 7O2 → 2Fe2O3 + 4SO2↑ CALCINATION  ZnCO3 → ZnO + CO2↑  FeCO3 → FeO + CO2↑ REDUCTION OF METALLIC OXIDES BY ELECTROLYSIS  Al2O3 2Al3+ + 3O2-  At cathode : 2Al3+ + 6e- → 2Al  At anode : 3O2- - 6e- → 3[O] → 3O2↑ BY REDUCING AGENTS  ZnO + C Zn + CO↑  2PbO + C 2Pb + CO2↑  Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2↑  FeO + CO Fe + CO2↑ BY THERMAL DECOMPOSITION
  • 11. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10  2HgO 2Hg + O2↑  2Ag2O 4Ag + O2↑ METALLURGY OF ZINC  Roasting : 2ZnS + 3O2 2ZnO + 2SO2↑  Calcination : ZnCO3 2ZnO + CO2↑  Reduction : ZnO + C Zn + CO↑ METALLURGY OF IRON  Lower region : C + O2 → CO2 + Δ  Middle region : CO2 + C → 2CO – Δ CaCO3 → CaO + CO2↑ CaO + SiO2 → CaSiO3 [slag]  Upper region : Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO2↑ METALLURGY OF ALUMINIUM CONCENTRATION OF ORE – BAEYER’S PROCESS  Al2O3 . 2H2O 2NaAlO2 + 3H2O  NaAlO2 + 2H2O NaOH + Al(OH)3↓  2Al(OH)3 Al2O3 + 3H2O[vap] ELECTROLYTIC REDUCTION OF ALUMINA – HALL HEROULT’S PROCESS  Electrolyte : Fused alumina-1part, cryolite-3 parts, fluorspar-1 part  Electrolytic cell : Rectangular steel tank with carbon lining  Cathode : Gas carbon  Anode : Thick carbon rods (graphite) attached to copper clamps  Temperature : 950⁰C  Current : 100 amps  Dissociation : Na3AlF6 3Na1+ + Al3+ + 6F1- CaF2 Ca2+ + 2F1- Al2O3 2Al3+ + 3O2-  At cathode : 2Al3+ + 6e- → 2Al(pure metal deposited)  At anode : 3O2- - 6e- → 3[O] →3O2(oxygen gas evolved)  Thermite welding : Fe2O3 + 2Al → Al2O3 + 2Fe + Δ RUSTING: 4Fe + 3O2 + xH2O → 2Fe2O3 . xH2O STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: HCl PREPARATION BY SYNTHESIS: H2 + Cl2 2HCl↑ IN LABORATORY: NaCl + H2SO4 [conc] NaHSO4 + HCl↑
  • 12. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10  CaO + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O  2P2O5 + 3HCl → POCl3 + 3HPO3 ACIDIC PROPERTY  Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2↑  Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2↑  Fe + 2HCl → FeCl2 + H2↑  CuO + 2HCl →CuCl2 + H2O  NH4OH + HCl → NH4Cl + H2O  Na2CO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2↑  Ca(HCO3)2 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2CO2↑  Na2SO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + H2O + SO2↑  NaHSO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + SO2↑  Na2S + 2HCl → NaCl + H2S↑  FeS + 2HCl → FeCl2 + H2S↑  CuS + 2HCl → CuCl2 + H2S↑  AgNO3 + HCl → AgCl↓ + HNO3  Pb(NO3)2 + 2HCl → PbCl2↓ + 2HNO3  Na2S2O3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + SO2 + S + H2O REACTIONS WITH OXIDISING AGENTS  MnO2 + 4HCl MnCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2  PbO2 + 4HCl PbCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2  Pb3O4 + 8HCl 3PbCl2 + 4H2O + Cl2  2KMnO4 + 16HCl 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + 8H2O + 5Cl2  K2Cr2O7 + 14HCl 2KCl + 2CrCl3 + 7H2O + 3Cl2 AQUA REGIA REACTION  HNO3 + 3HCl → NOCl + 2H2O + 2[Cl]  Au + 3[Cl] →AuCl3  Pt + 4[Cl] → PtCl4 STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: AMMONIA PREPARATION FROM AMMONIUM SALTS  (NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O + 2NH3↑  (NH4)2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 + 2H2O + 2NH3↑  NH4Cl + NaOH NaCl + H2O + NH3↑ IN LAB: 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2NH3↑
  • 13. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10  2NH3 + H2SO4[conc.] → (NH4)2SO4  6NH3 + P2O5 + 3H2O → 2(NH4)3PO4  8NH3 + CaCl2 [fused] → CaCl2 . 8NH3 FROM METAL NITRIDES  3Mg + N2 → Mg3N2  Mg3N2 + 6H2O[warm] → 3Mg(OH)2 + 2NH3↑  3Ca + N2 → Ca3N2  Ca3N2 + 6H2O[warm] → 3Ca(OH)2 + 2NH3↑  2Al + N2 → 2AlN  AlN + 3H2O[warm] →Al(OH)3 + NH3↑ HABER’S PROCESS  Temperature : 450-500⁰C  Pressure : 200-900 atms  If catalyst finely divided Fe then promotor Mo  If catalyst Fe2O3 then promotor 1% K2O and 3% Al2O3  Impurities : CO, CO2, H2S PREPARATION OF AMMONIUM SALTS  NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl  NH3 + HNO3 →NH4NO3  2NH3 + H2SO4 → (NH4)2SO4  NH4OH + HCl → NH4Cl + H2O  NH4OH + HNO3 → NH4NO3 + H2O  2NH4OH + H2SO4 → (NH4)2SO4 + 2H2O COMBUSTION: 4NH3 + 3O2 → 2N2 + 6H2O CATALYTIC OXIDATION: 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O + Δ 2NO + O2 → 2NO2 BASIC NATURE  NH3 + H2O → NH4OH  NH4OH NH4 + + OH-  FeSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Fe(OH)2↓(dirty green ppt-insoluble)  FeCl3 + 2NH4OH → 3NH4Cl + Fe(OH)3↓(reddish brown ppt-insoluble)  CuSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Cu(OH)2↓(pale blue ppt-insoluble)  Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Cu(NH3)4]SO4(deep blue or inky blue sol-soluble)  Cu(OH)2 + 4NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2(deep blue or inky blue sol-soluble)  ZnSO4 + 2NH4OH → (NH4)2SO4 + Zn(OH)2↓(gelatinous white ppt-insoluble)  Zn(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH[excess] →4H2O + [Zn(NH3)4]SO4(colourlesssol-soluble)  Zn(OH)2 + 4NH4OH[excess] → 4H2O + [Zn(NH3)4](OH)2(colourless sol-soluble)
  • 14. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10 REDUCING NATURE  2NH3 + 3CuO →Cu + 3H2O + N2↑  2NH3 + 3PbO → 3Pb + 3H2O + N2↑  8NH3[excess] + 3Cl2 → 6NH4Cl + N2  NH3 + 3Cl2[excess] → 3HCl + NCl3 STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: NITRIC ACID PREPARATION IN LAB  KNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] KHSO4 + HNO3[vap]  NaNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HNO3[vap] DECOMPOSITION OF HNO3: 4HNO3 → 4NO2 + 2H2O + O2 OXIDISING NATURE 2HNO3[conc.] → H2O + 2NO2 + [O] Cu + [O] → CuO CuO + 2HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + H2O Cu + 4HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O + NO2  Cu + 4HNO3[conc.] → Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2NO2  C + 4HNO3[conc.] → CO2 + 2H2O + 4NO2  S + 6HNO3[conc.] → H2SO4 + 2H2O + 6NO2  3Cu + 8HNO3[dil.] → 3Cu(NO3)2 + 4H2O + 2NO  Cu + 4HNO3[conc.] → Cu(NO3)2 +2H2O +2NO2  C7H8 + 3HNO3[conc.] → C7H5(NO2)3 + 3H2O BROWN RING TEST  6FeSO4 + 3H2SO4[conc.] + 2HNO3[dil.] → 3Fe2(SO4)3 + 4H2O + 2NO  FeSO4 + NO → FeSO4 . NO STUDY OF COMPOUNDS: SULPHURIC ACID PREPARATION CONTACT PROCESS SULPHUR OR PYRITE BURNERS  S + O2 → SO2  2FeS + 3O2 → 2FeO + 2SO2 CONTACT TOWER  2SO2 + O2 2SO3 + Δ ABSORPTION TOWER  SO3 + H2SO4 → H2S2O7
  • 15. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10 DILUTION TANK  H2S2O7 + H2O → 2H2SO4 ACIDIC NATURE  H2SO4 + 2H2O 2H3O+ + SO4 2-  REACTIONS OF DIL. H2SO4  Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2↑  Fe + H2SO4 → FeSO4 + H2↑  Na2O + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O  MgO + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2O  ZnO + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2O  CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4 +H2O  2NaOH + H2SO4→ Na2SO4 + 2H2O  Zn(OH)2 + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + 2H2O  Na2CO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2↑  CuCO3 + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O + CO2↑  2KHCO3 + H2SO4 → K2SO4 + 2H2O + 2CO2↑  Na2SO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O + SO2↑  2NaHSO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2H2O + 2SO2↑  Na2S + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2S↑  ZnS + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2S↑  FeS + H2SO4 → FeSO4 + H2S↑ DIBASIC ACID DISSSOCIATES IN TWO STEPS H2SO4 H+ + HSO4 - HSO4- H+ + SO4 2- H2SO4 2H+ + SO4 2- FORMS TWO TYPES OF SALTS  NaOH + H2SO4 → NaHSO4[acid salt] + H2O  2NaOH[excess] + H2SO4 → Na2SO4[normal salt] + 2H2O NON VOLATILE ACID  NaCl + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HCl  KCl + H2SO4[conc.] KHSO4 + HCl  NaNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] NaHSO4 + HNO3  KNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] KHSO4 + HNO3 OXIDISING AGENT H2SO4 → H2O + SO2 + [O] Cu + [O] → CuO
  • 16. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10 CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O Cu + 2H2SO4 → CuSO4 + 2H2O + SO2↑  C + 2H2SO4[conc.] → CO2 + 2H2O + 2SO2↑  S + 2H2SO4[conc.] → 3SO2↑ + 2H2O  2P + 5H2SO4[conc.] → 2H3PO4 + 2H2O + 5SO2↑  Cu + 2H2SO4[conc.] → CuSO4 + 2H2O + SO2↑  Zn + 2H2SO4[conc.] → ZnSO4 + 2H2O + SO2↑ STRONG DEHYDRATING AGENT  C6H12O6 6C + 6H2O  C12H22O11 12C + 11H2O  [C6H10O5]n 6[C]n + 5[H2O]n  CuSO4 . 5H2O CuSO4 + 5H2O ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ALKANES PREPARATION IN LAB  CH3COONa + NaOH CH4 + Na2CO3  C2H5COONa + NaOH C2H6 + Na2CO3  GENERAL METHOD – FROM ALKYL HALIDES  CH3I + 2[H] CH4 + HI  C2H5Br + 2[H] C2H6 + HBr  2CH3I + 2Na C2H6 + 2NaI SUBSTITUTION REACTION  CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl CH3Cl + Cl2[excess] →CH2Cl2 + HCl CH2Cl2 + Cl2 → CHCl3 + HCl CHCl3 + Cl2 → CCl4 + HCl  C2H6 + Cl2 C2H5Cl + HCl C2H5Cl + Cl2[excess] →C2H4Cl2 + HCl C2H4Cl2 + Cl2 →C2H3Cl3 + HCl C2H3Cl3 + Cl2 → C2H2Cl4 + HCl C2H2Cl4 + Cl2 → C2HCl5 + HCl C2HCl5 + Cl2 → CCl6 + HCl OXIDATION COMPLETE  CH4 + 2O2[excess] → CO2 + 2H2O + Δ  2C2H6 + 7O2[excess] → 4CO2 + 6H2O + Δ
  • 17. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10 INCOMPLETE  2CH4 + 3O2[limited] → 2CO + 4H2O + Δ  2C2H6 + 5O2[limited] → 4CO + 6H2O +Δ  2C2H6 + 3O2[very limited] →4C + 6H2O ALKENES PREPARATION IN LAB  BY DEHYDRATION OF C2H5OH  C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O  BY DEHYDROHALOGENATION OF C2H5Br  C2H5Br + KOH[alcoholic] C2H4 + KBr + H2O GENERAL METHOD BY CRACKING  C2H6 C2H4 + H2 ADDITION REACTIONS HALOGENATION  C2H4 + Cl2 C2H4Cl2  C2H2 + Br2 C2H4Br2  C2H4 + I2 C2H4I2 OXIDATION  With cold dil. KMnO4 sol-Baeyer’s Reagent  C2H4 + H2O + [O] → C2H4(OH)2  Combustion  C2H4 + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 2H2O + Δ ALKYNES PREPARATION IN LAB  CaC2 + 2H2O → C2H2 + Ca(OH)2  C2H4Br2 + 2KOH[alcoholic] C2H2 + 2KBr + 2H2O GENERAL METHOD  FROM METHANE  2CH4 C2H2 + 3H2 ADDITION REACTIONS CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION  C2H2 + H2 C2H4 + H2 C2H6 HALOGENATION  C2H2 + Cl2 C2H2Cl2 + Cl2 C2H2Cl4  C2H2 + Br2 C2H2Br2 + Br2 C2H2Br4  C2H2 + I2 C2H2I2
  • 18. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10 OXIDATION  With dil. Alkaline KMnO4  C2H2 + 4[O] → OH-COOH  Combustion  2C2H2 + 5O2 → 4CO2 + 2H2O + Δ AMMONIACAL SILVER NITRATE  C2H2 + 2AgNO3 + 2NH4OH → Ag-C≡C-Ag + 2NH4NO3 + 2H2O ALCOHOLS PREPARATION IN LAB  C2H5Cl + NaOH[aq] C2H5OH + NaCl  C2H5Br + KOH[aq] C2H5OH + KBr INDUSTRIAL METHOD  C2H4 + H2SO4 C2H5-HSO4  C2H5-HSO4 + H2O → C2H5OH + H2SO4 COMBUSTION  C2H5OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O OXIDATION  C2H5OH CH3CHO CH3COOH SODIUM  2C2H5OH + 2Na → 2C2H5ONa + H2 ACETIC ACID  C2H5OH + CH3COOH CH3COO-C2H5 + H2O SULPHURIC ACID  C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O  2C2H5OH[excess] C2H5-O-C2H5 + H2O 3C2H5OH +PCl3 → 3C2H5Cl + H3PO3 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS PREPARATION  C2H5OH + [O] CH3CHO + H2O  CH3CHO + [O] CH3COOH ACIDIC NATURE  CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COONa + H2O
  • 19. ©2015 All rights reserved. Srikanth KS and Shambavi Ganesh Learn and Achieve CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS FOR ICSE CLASS 10  2CH3COOH + Ca(OH)2 → (CH3COO)2Ca + 2H2O  CH3COOH + NH4OH → CH3COONH4 + H2O ALCOHOLS  C2H5OH + CH3COOH CH3COO-C2H5 + H2O