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Copyright 2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Modern Systems Analysis
and Design
Third Edition
Jeffrey A. Hoffer
Joey F. George
Joseph S. Valacich
Chapter 17
System Implementation
17.1
Learning Objectives
 Describe the process of coding, testing and
converting an organizational information system
 Discuss four installation strategies
 Direct
 Parallel
 Single location
 Phased installation
 Describe the deliverables for documenting the
system and for training and supporting the users
 Distinguish between system and user documentation
and determine which types of documentation are
necessary for a given information system
17.2
Learning Objectives
 Compare the many modes available for
organizational system training, including self-training
and electronic performance support systems
 Discuss the issues of providing support to end users
 Discuss system implementation failure
 Compare the factor and political models of the
implementation process
 Show how traditional implementation issues apply to
Internet-based systems
17.3
System Implementation and
Seven major activities
 Coding
 Testing
 Installation
 Documentation
 Training
 Support
Purpose
 To convert final physical system specifications into
working and reliable software
 To document work that has been done
 To provide help for current and future users
17.4
The Process of Coding,
Testing and Installation
Coding
 Physical design specifications are turned into
working computer code
Testing
 Tests are performed using various strategies
 Testing can be performed in parallel with coding
Installation
 Process during which the current system is
replaced by the new system
17.5
The Process of Coding,
Testing and Installation:
Deliverables
Action Deliverable
Coding Code
Program Documentation
Testing Test scenarios (test plan) and test data
Results of program and system testing
Installation User guides
User training plans
Installation and conversion plan
17.6
The Process of Documenting the
System, Training Users and
Supporting Users
Two audiences for documentation
 The information systems personnel who will maintain the
system throughout its productive life
 The people who will use the system as part of their daily
lives
Deliverables
 Documentation
 System documentation
 User documentation
 User training plan
 Classes
 Tutorials
 User training modules
 Training materials
 Computer-based training aids
 User support plan
 Help desk
 On-line help
 Bulletin boards and other support mechanisms
17.7
Software Application Testing
A test plan is developed during the analysis
phase
During the design phase, a unit test plan and
a system test plan are developed
The actual testing is done during
implementation
Test plans provide improved communication
among all parties involved in testing
 Serve as checklists
17.8
Software Application Testing
Types of Testing
Inspection
 A testing technique in which participants examine
program code for predictable language-specific
errors
Walkthrough
 A peer group review of any product created during
the systems development process; also called a
structured walkthrough
Desk Checking
 A testing technique in which the program code is
sequentially executed manually by the reviewer
17.9
Software Application Testing
Types of Testing
Unit Testing
 Each module is tested alone in an attempt to
discover any errors in its code, also called module
testing
Integration Testing
 The process of bringing together all of the
modules that a program comprises for testing
purposes. Modules are typically integrated in a
top-down, incremental fashion
17.10
Software Application Testing
Types of Testing
System Testing
 The bringing together of all the programs that a
system comprises for testing purposes. Programs
are typically integrated in a top-down, incremental
fashion
Stub Testing
 A technique used in testing, especially where
modules are written and tested in a top-down
fashion, where a few lines of code are used to
substituted for subordinate modules
17.11
Software Application Testing
The Testing Process
The purpose of the testing is confirming that
the system satisfies requirements
Testing must be planned
Test Case
 A specific scenario of transactions, queries or
navigation paths that represent a typical, critical
or abnormal use of the system
 Test cases and results should be thoroughly
documented so they can be repeated for each
revision of an application
17.12
Software Application Testing
eXtreme Programming
Coding and testing are intimately
related parts of the same process
Code is written, integrated into system
and then tested
Iterative process of testing, fixing bugs
and re-testing
All coding is done by two people
working together
17.13
Software Application Testing
Acceptance Testing by Users
The process whereby actual users test a completed
information system, the end result of which is the
users’ acceptance of it
Alpha Testing
 User testing of a completed information system using
simulated data
 Recovery testing
 Forces the software (or environment) to fail in order to verify
that recovery is properly performed
 Security testing
 Verifies that protection mechanisms built into the system will
protect it from improper penetration
 Stress testing
 Tries to break the system
 Performance testing
 Determines how the system performs on the range of possible
environments in which it may be used
17.14
Software Application Testing
Acceptance Testing by Users
Beta Testing
 User testing of a completed information
system using real data in the real user
environment
17.15
Installation
The organizational process of changing
over from the current information system to
a new one
Four approaches
 Direct Installation
 Changing over from the old information system to a
new one by turning off the old system when the new
one is turned on
 Parallel Installation
 Running the old information system and the new one at
the same time until management decides the old
system can be turned off
17.16
Installation
 Single location installation
 Trying out an information system at one site
and using the experience to decide if and how
the new system should be deployed
throughout the organization
 Phased Installation
 Changing from the old information system to
the new one incrementally, starting with one
or a few functional components and then
gradually extending the installation to cover
the whole new system
17.17
Planning Installation
Considerations
 Data conversion
 Error correction
 Loading from current system
 Planned system shutdown
 Business cycle of organization
17.18
Documenting The System
System documentation
 Detailed information about a system’s design
specifications, its internal workings and its
functionality
 Internal documentation
 System documentation that is part of the program source
code or is generated at compile time
 External documentation
 System documentation that includes the outcome of
structured diagramming techniques such as data flow
and entity-relationship diagrams
17.19
Documenting The System
User Documentation
 Written or other visual information about an
application system, how it works, and how
to use it
Preparing user documentation
 Traditional source has been information
systems department
 Application-oriented documentation is now
often supplied by vendors and users
themselves
17.20
Training Information System
Users
Potential training topics
 Use of the system
 General computer concepts
 Information system concepts
 Organizational concepts
 System management
 System installation
17.21
Training Information System
Users
Training methods
 Resident expert
 Computer-aided instruction
 Formal courses
 Software help components
 Tutorials
 Interactive training manuals
 External sources, such as vendors
Electronic performance support system
(EPSS)
 Component of a software package or application
in which training and educational information is
embedded17.22
Supporting Information System
Users
Support is extremely important to users
 J.D. Power and Associates survey found
user support to be number one criterion
contributing to user satisfaction with
personal computing
Most organizations provide support by
two means
 Information center
 Help desk
17.23
Supporting Information System Users
Information Center
An organizational unit whose mission is to support
users in exploiting information technology
Staff might perform the following tasks
 Install new hardware or software and set up user accounts
 Consult with users writing programs in fourth-generation
languages
 Extract data from organizational databases onto personal
computers
 Answer basic on-demand questions
 Provide a demonstration site for viewing hardware and
software
 Work with users to submit system change requests
17.24
Supporting Information System Users
Help Desk
A single point of contact for all user inquiries
and problems about a particular information
system or for all users in a particular
department
17.25
Why Implementation Sometimes
Fails
Two conditions necessary for a
successful implementation
 Management support of the system under
development
 Involvement of users in the development
process
17.26
Why Implementation Sometimes
Fails
Insights about implementation process
 Risk
 Commitment to the project
 Commitment to change
 Extent of project definition and planning
 Realistic user expectations
Implementation success factors
 Extent to which system is used
 User’s satisfaction with system
17.27
Electronic Commerce Application:
Pine Valley Furniture
System implementation and operation of an Internet-
based electronic commerce project is no different
than other projects
Develop test cases
 Simple functionality
 Multiple functionality
 Function chains
 Elective function
 Emergency/crisis
Bug tracking and system evolution
Alpha and beta testing the WebStore
WebStore installation
17.28
Project Close Down
Evaluate team
 Reassign members to other projects
Notify all affected parties that the
development project is ending and that
you are switching to operation and
maintenance mode
Conduct post-project reviews
Close out customer contract
 Formal signoff
17.29
Summary
Process of coding, testing and
converting an organizational information
system
Four installation strategies
 Direct
 Parallel
 Single location
 Phased installation
17.30
Summary
Documentation
 System
 User
User training
Providing support for end users
Systems implementation failures
Internet development
Project Closedown
17.31

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Chapter17 system implementation

  • 1. Copyright 2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Modern Systems Analysis and Design Third Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer Joey F. George Joseph S. Valacich Chapter 17 System Implementation 17.1
  • 2. Learning Objectives  Describe the process of coding, testing and converting an organizational information system  Discuss four installation strategies  Direct  Parallel  Single location  Phased installation  Describe the deliverables for documenting the system and for training and supporting the users  Distinguish between system and user documentation and determine which types of documentation are necessary for a given information system 17.2
  • 3. Learning Objectives  Compare the many modes available for organizational system training, including self-training and electronic performance support systems  Discuss the issues of providing support to end users  Discuss system implementation failure  Compare the factor and political models of the implementation process  Show how traditional implementation issues apply to Internet-based systems 17.3
  • 4. System Implementation and Seven major activities  Coding  Testing  Installation  Documentation  Training  Support Purpose  To convert final physical system specifications into working and reliable software  To document work that has been done  To provide help for current and future users 17.4
  • 5. The Process of Coding, Testing and Installation Coding  Physical design specifications are turned into working computer code Testing  Tests are performed using various strategies  Testing can be performed in parallel with coding Installation  Process during which the current system is replaced by the new system 17.5
  • 6. The Process of Coding, Testing and Installation: Deliverables Action Deliverable Coding Code Program Documentation Testing Test scenarios (test plan) and test data Results of program and system testing Installation User guides User training plans Installation and conversion plan 17.6
  • 7. The Process of Documenting the System, Training Users and Supporting Users Two audiences for documentation  The information systems personnel who will maintain the system throughout its productive life  The people who will use the system as part of their daily lives Deliverables  Documentation  System documentation  User documentation  User training plan  Classes  Tutorials  User training modules  Training materials  Computer-based training aids  User support plan  Help desk  On-line help  Bulletin boards and other support mechanisms 17.7
  • 8. Software Application Testing A test plan is developed during the analysis phase During the design phase, a unit test plan and a system test plan are developed The actual testing is done during implementation Test plans provide improved communication among all parties involved in testing  Serve as checklists 17.8
  • 9. Software Application Testing Types of Testing Inspection  A testing technique in which participants examine program code for predictable language-specific errors Walkthrough  A peer group review of any product created during the systems development process; also called a structured walkthrough Desk Checking  A testing technique in which the program code is sequentially executed manually by the reviewer 17.9
  • 10. Software Application Testing Types of Testing Unit Testing  Each module is tested alone in an attempt to discover any errors in its code, also called module testing Integration Testing  The process of bringing together all of the modules that a program comprises for testing purposes. Modules are typically integrated in a top-down, incremental fashion 17.10
  • 11. Software Application Testing Types of Testing System Testing  The bringing together of all the programs that a system comprises for testing purposes. Programs are typically integrated in a top-down, incremental fashion Stub Testing  A technique used in testing, especially where modules are written and tested in a top-down fashion, where a few lines of code are used to substituted for subordinate modules 17.11
  • 12. Software Application Testing The Testing Process The purpose of the testing is confirming that the system satisfies requirements Testing must be planned Test Case  A specific scenario of transactions, queries or navigation paths that represent a typical, critical or abnormal use of the system  Test cases and results should be thoroughly documented so they can be repeated for each revision of an application 17.12
  • 13. Software Application Testing eXtreme Programming Coding and testing are intimately related parts of the same process Code is written, integrated into system and then tested Iterative process of testing, fixing bugs and re-testing All coding is done by two people working together 17.13
  • 14. Software Application Testing Acceptance Testing by Users The process whereby actual users test a completed information system, the end result of which is the users’ acceptance of it Alpha Testing  User testing of a completed information system using simulated data  Recovery testing  Forces the software (or environment) to fail in order to verify that recovery is properly performed  Security testing  Verifies that protection mechanisms built into the system will protect it from improper penetration  Stress testing  Tries to break the system  Performance testing  Determines how the system performs on the range of possible environments in which it may be used 17.14
  • 15. Software Application Testing Acceptance Testing by Users Beta Testing  User testing of a completed information system using real data in the real user environment 17.15
  • 16. Installation The organizational process of changing over from the current information system to a new one Four approaches  Direct Installation  Changing over from the old information system to a new one by turning off the old system when the new one is turned on  Parallel Installation  Running the old information system and the new one at the same time until management decides the old system can be turned off 17.16
  • 17. Installation  Single location installation  Trying out an information system at one site and using the experience to decide if and how the new system should be deployed throughout the organization  Phased Installation  Changing from the old information system to the new one incrementally, starting with one or a few functional components and then gradually extending the installation to cover the whole new system 17.17
  • 18. Planning Installation Considerations  Data conversion  Error correction  Loading from current system  Planned system shutdown  Business cycle of organization 17.18
  • 19. Documenting The System System documentation  Detailed information about a system’s design specifications, its internal workings and its functionality  Internal documentation  System documentation that is part of the program source code or is generated at compile time  External documentation  System documentation that includes the outcome of structured diagramming techniques such as data flow and entity-relationship diagrams 17.19
  • 20. Documenting The System User Documentation  Written or other visual information about an application system, how it works, and how to use it Preparing user documentation  Traditional source has been information systems department  Application-oriented documentation is now often supplied by vendors and users themselves 17.20
  • 21. Training Information System Users Potential training topics  Use of the system  General computer concepts  Information system concepts  Organizational concepts  System management  System installation 17.21
  • 22. Training Information System Users Training methods  Resident expert  Computer-aided instruction  Formal courses  Software help components  Tutorials  Interactive training manuals  External sources, such as vendors Electronic performance support system (EPSS)  Component of a software package or application in which training and educational information is embedded17.22
  • 23. Supporting Information System Users Support is extremely important to users  J.D. Power and Associates survey found user support to be number one criterion contributing to user satisfaction with personal computing Most organizations provide support by two means  Information center  Help desk 17.23
  • 24. Supporting Information System Users Information Center An organizational unit whose mission is to support users in exploiting information technology Staff might perform the following tasks  Install new hardware or software and set up user accounts  Consult with users writing programs in fourth-generation languages  Extract data from organizational databases onto personal computers  Answer basic on-demand questions  Provide a demonstration site for viewing hardware and software  Work with users to submit system change requests 17.24
  • 25. Supporting Information System Users Help Desk A single point of contact for all user inquiries and problems about a particular information system or for all users in a particular department 17.25
  • 26. Why Implementation Sometimes Fails Two conditions necessary for a successful implementation  Management support of the system under development  Involvement of users in the development process 17.26
  • 27. Why Implementation Sometimes Fails Insights about implementation process  Risk  Commitment to the project  Commitment to change  Extent of project definition and planning  Realistic user expectations Implementation success factors  Extent to which system is used  User’s satisfaction with system 17.27
  • 28. Electronic Commerce Application: Pine Valley Furniture System implementation and operation of an Internet- based electronic commerce project is no different than other projects Develop test cases  Simple functionality  Multiple functionality  Function chains  Elective function  Emergency/crisis Bug tracking and system evolution Alpha and beta testing the WebStore WebStore installation 17.28
  • 29. Project Close Down Evaluate team  Reassign members to other projects Notify all affected parties that the development project is ending and that you are switching to operation and maintenance mode Conduct post-project reviews Close out customer contract  Formal signoff 17.29
  • 30. Summary Process of coding, testing and converting an organizational information system Four installation strategies  Direct  Parallel  Single location  Phased installation 17.30
  • 31. Summary Documentation  System  User User training Providing support for end users Systems implementation failures Internet development Project Closedown 17.31