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Communication and Consumer Behavior Chapter 9 Communication and Consumer Behavior
Chapter Outline Components of Communication The Communication Process Designing Persuasive Communications
Basic Communication Model Figure 9.1
The Communications Process The Message Initiator (the Source) The Sender The Receiver The Medium The Message The Target Audience (the Receivers) Feedback - the Receiver’s Response
The Message Initiator (source) Credibility of Informal Sources Credibility of Formal Sources Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers Message Credibility Includes word of mouth These sources also called opinion leaders Informal sources may not always be credible Issues with Credibility
Discussion Question How have informal sources affected your decision as a consumer? Which informal sources are the most powerful?  Why?  When?
The Message Initiator (source) Credibility of Informal Sources Credibility of Formal Sources Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers Message Credibility Neutral sources have the greatest credibility Source credibility judged on past performance, reputation, service, quality, spokesperson image, retailers, social responsibility Institutional advertising used to promote favorable company image Issues with Credibility
The Message Initiator (source) Credibility of Informal Sources Credibility of Formal Sources Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers Message Credibility Effectiveness related to: The message Synergy between endorser and type of product Demographic characteristics of endorser Corporate credibility Endorsement wording Issues with Credibility
This ad has strong synergy between the endorser and the type of product.
Discussion Question Who do you consider credible spokespeople? Why? Can you think of certain ads with credible spokespeople? Ads with spokespeople who are NOT credible?
The Message Initiator (source) Credibility of Informal Sources Credibility of Formal Sources Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers Message Credibility Credibility of retailers Reputation of the medium that carries the ad Consumer’s previous experience with product Issues with Credibility
Sleeper Effect The idea that both positive and negative credibility effects tend to disappear after a period of time.
The Target Audience (receivers) Personal characteristics and comprehension Involvement and congruency Mood Barriers to communication Selective exposure to messages Psychological noise
Feedback  The Receiver’s Response Feedback should be gathered: Promptly Accurately
Advertising Effectiveness Research Media and message exposure measures How many consumers received the message Which consumers received the message
Comscore Media Metrix weblink
Nielson Ratings at Zap2it.com weblink
A People Meter for Television Measurement
Advertising Effectiveness Research Message Attention and Interpretation Physiological measures Theater tests Readership surveys Attitudinal measures Message Recall Measures Day after recall
Eye Tracking Research weblink
Comprehensive Communication Model - Figure 9-6
Designing Persuasive Communications Communications strategy Must include objectives Includes cognitive models Newer models include perception, experience, and memory
The Three Phases and Flow  Figure 9-7
Designing Persuasive Communications Target Audience Segmentation is key Media Strategy Consumer profile Audience profiles
Excerpts from Table 9.1 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Magazines) Highly selective Selective binding possible High quality production High credibility Long message life High pass-along rate Long lead time High clutter Delayed and indirect feedback Rates vary based on circulation and selectivity
Excerpts from Table 9.1 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Television) Low costs per contact Long lead time High clutter Short message life Viewers can avoid exposure with zapping, etc. Day-after recall tests for feedback Large audiences possible Appeals to many senses Emotion and attention possible Demonstration possible Very high costs overall
Designing Persuasive Communications Message Strategy Involvement theory Central and peripheral routes
Designing Persuasive Communications Resonance Message framing Comparative advertising Order effects Repetition Wordplay Used to create a double meaning when used with a relevant picture Message Structure and Presentation
Wordplay on SUV
Designing Persuasive Communications Resonance Message framing Comparative advertising Order effects Repetition Positive framing Negative framing One-sided vs. two-sided Message Structure and Presentation
This ad uses negative framing.
Designing Persuasive Communications Resonance Message framing Comparative advertising Order effects Repetition Marketer claims product superiority over another brand Useful for positioning Message Structure and Presentation
A comparative ad
Discussion Question You are a marketer for your college/university. How could you use comparative advertising? Do you think it would be effective?
Designing Persuasive Communications Resonance Message framing Comparative advertising Order effects Repetition Primacy Recency Order of benefits Brand name Message Structure and Presentation
Designing Persuasive Communications Resonance Message framing Comparative advertising Order effects Repetition Important for learning Message Structure and Presentation
Emotional Advertising Appeals Fear Humor Abrasive advertising Sex in advertising Audience participation
Table 9.2 Impact of Humor on Advertising Humor attracts attention. Humor does not harm comprehension. Humor is not more effective at increasing persuasion. Humor does not enhance source credibility. Humor enhances liking. Humor that is relevant to the product is superior to humor that is unrelated to the product. Audience demographic factors affect the response to humorous advertising appeals. The nature of the product affects the appropriateness of a humorous treatment. Humor is more effective with existing products than with new products. Humor is more appropriate for low-involvement products and feeling-oriented products than for high-involvement products.

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Chapter 9 Communication And Consumer Behavior

  • 1. Communication and Consumer Behavior Chapter 9 Communication and Consumer Behavior
  • 2. Chapter Outline Components of Communication The Communication Process Designing Persuasive Communications
  • 4. The Communications Process The Message Initiator (the Source) The Sender The Receiver The Medium The Message The Target Audience (the Receivers) Feedback - the Receiver’s Response
  • 5. The Message Initiator (source) Credibility of Informal Sources Credibility of Formal Sources Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers Message Credibility Includes word of mouth These sources also called opinion leaders Informal sources may not always be credible Issues with Credibility
  • 6. Discussion Question How have informal sources affected your decision as a consumer? Which informal sources are the most powerful? Why? When?
  • 7. The Message Initiator (source) Credibility of Informal Sources Credibility of Formal Sources Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers Message Credibility Neutral sources have the greatest credibility Source credibility judged on past performance, reputation, service, quality, spokesperson image, retailers, social responsibility Institutional advertising used to promote favorable company image Issues with Credibility
  • 8. The Message Initiator (source) Credibility of Informal Sources Credibility of Formal Sources Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers Message Credibility Effectiveness related to: The message Synergy between endorser and type of product Demographic characteristics of endorser Corporate credibility Endorsement wording Issues with Credibility
  • 9. This ad has strong synergy between the endorser and the type of product.
  • 10. Discussion Question Who do you consider credible spokespeople? Why? Can you think of certain ads with credible spokespeople? Ads with spokespeople who are NOT credible?
  • 11. The Message Initiator (source) Credibility of Informal Sources Credibility of Formal Sources Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers Message Credibility Credibility of retailers Reputation of the medium that carries the ad Consumer’s previous experience with product Issues with Credibility
  • 12. Sleeper Effect The idea that both positive and negative credibility effects tend to disappear after a period of time.
  • 13. The Target Audience (receivers) Personal characteristics and comprehension Involvement and congruency Mood Barriers to communication Selective exposure to messages Psychological noise
  • 14. Feedback The Receiver’s Response Feedback should be gathered: Promptly Accurately
  • 15. Advertising Effectiveness Research Media and message exposure measures How many consumers received the message Which consumers received the message
  • 17. Nielson Ratings at Zap2it.com weblink
  • 18. A People Meter for Television Measurement
  • 19. Advertising Effectiveness Research Message Attention and Interpretation Physiological measures Theater tests Readership surveys Attitudinal measures Message Recall Measures Day after recall
  • 22. Designing Persuasive Communications Communications strategy Must include objectives Includes cognitive models Newer models include perception, experience, and memory
  • 23. The Three Phases and Flow Figure 9-7
  • 24. Designing Persuasive Communications Target Audience Segmentation is key Media Strategy Consumer profile Audience profiles
  • 25. Excerpts from Table 9.1 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Magazines) Highly selective Selective binding possible High quality production High credibility Long message life High pass-along rate Long lead time High clutter Delayed and indirect feedback Rates vary based on circulation and selectivity
  • 26. Excerpts from Table 9.1 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Television) Low costs per contact Long lead time High clutter Short message life Viewers can avoid exposure with zapping, etc. Day-after recall tests for feedback Large audiences possible Appeals to many senses Emotion and attention possible Demonstration possible Very high costs overall
  • 27. Designing Persuasive Communications Message Strategy Involvement theory Central and peripheral routes
  • 28. Designing Persuasive Communications Resonance Message framing Comparative advertising Order effects Repetition Wordplay Used to create a double meaning when used with a relevant picture Message Structure and Presentation
  • 30. Designing Persuasive Communications Resonance Message framing Comparative advertising Order effects Repetition Positive framing Negative framing One-sided vs. two-sided Message Structure and Presentation
  • 31. This ad uses negative framing.
  • 32. Designing Persuasive Communications Resonance Message framing Comparative advertising Order effects Repetition Marketer claims product superiority over another brand Useful for positioning Message Structure and Presentation
  • 34. Discussion Question You are a marketer for your college/university. How could you use comparative advertising? Do you think it would be effective?
  • 35. Designing Persuasive Communications Resonance Message framing Comparative advertising Order effects Repetition Primacy Recency Order of benefits Brand name Message Structure and Presentation
  • 36. Designing Persuasive Communications Resonance Message framing Comparative advertising Order effects Repetition Important for learning Message Structure and Presentation
  • 37. Emotional Advertising Appeals Fear Humor Abrasive advertising Sex in advertising Audience participation
  • 38. Table 9.2 Impact of Humor on Advertising Humor attracts attention. Humor does not harm comprehension. Humor is not more effective at increasing persuasion. Humor does not enhance source credibility. Humor enhances liking. Humor that is relevant to the product is superior to humor that is unrelated to the product. Audience demographic factors affect the response to humorous advertising appeals. The nature of the product affects the appropriateness of a humorous treatment. Humor is more effective with existing products than with new products. Humor is more appropriate for low-involvement products and feeling-oriented products than for high-involvement products.