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Chapter 4: Crop Diseases assessment and YIELD LOSS
 Disease assessment is defined as the act (or process) of quantitatively measuring
disease intensity (Campbell and Madden, 1990; Nutter et al., 1991; Nutter and
Gaunt, 1996).
 Assessment or measurement of disease is the basis of epidemiology which is the
study of disease at the level of populations of pathogens and hosts
 Plant disease assessment, also known as phytopathometery
 It is also the basis of the study of the effects of disease on crop yield and of
disease forecasting.
Definition of plant disease assessment
Crop Diseases assessment methods…..
Disease offers three parameters for measurement.
1. Disease incidence
The proportion of infected host units, out of the total units sampled
Disease incidence (I)=
𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑑
x100
2. Severity – the percentage area of diseased tissue/the proportion of the area
of a plant or plant organ (e.g. leaf area, seed, root etc) that is affected
Disease severity(S)=
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑒
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎
x100
3. Loss – diminution of the crop due to a disease.
 In actuality the harvested yield is measured and the loss will be computed.
 Loss refers to reduction in either quantity or quality (or both) of yield.
What do we actually measure? (The Parameters)
Crop Diseases assessment methods…..
 In some disease assessment procedures, two further parameters may be
encountered:
 Prevalence – an ambiguous term that often refers to disease incidence within a
geographical area.
 e.g. if, a survey of bacterial streak of sorghum in Alemaya Woreda showed
that the disease occurred in 15 out of 20 representative fields inspected, the
prevalence of the disease in Alemaya would be 75%.
 Intensity – occasionally considered synonymous to severity is usually used to
denote measures of the number of fungal colonies/pustules on leaves.
 In some publications, the term intensity is used to describe any measure of
disease, be it incidence or severity.
Crop Diseases assessment and yield loss…..
1. For making decision concerning disease management
2. For determining the efficacy of various control measures (pesticides, genotype
resistance, agronomic measures, etc.).
3. To know proper time of applying control measure
4. To know cost of control measure
if we are not in a position to estimate the losses from diseases, then how can we decide
rationally on how much to spend on control?
 The economic advantage of any control method has to be determined.
 It is not good implementing a control measure that costs the farmer more than it returns in
increased yield.
 The economic advantage of any control strategy can be estimated by applying the
following formula:
 Economic advantage of disease control ($) =Expected return if disease is controlled ($) –
[Expected return if the disease is left uncontrolled ($)+ Cost of control treatment ($)]
Why do we measure disease and loss?....
Crop Diseases assessment and yield loss…..
4. Identifying resource/research priorities (plant breeders, fungicide manufacturers,
economists, government agencies and academics rely on disease assessment
data)
5. Evaluation of experiments (e.g. while screening for resistant germplasm)
6. Evaluation of the performance of control like
• whether valued varieties are still doing well or losing effectiveness;
• whether a new fungicide, bactericide or nematicide is performing up to
expectations;
• whether development of resistant races/populations is underway, etc.)
7. Of paramount importance in disease assessment and yield loss appraisal is the
standardization of concepts and terms in order to improve communication
between plant pathologists and across scientific disciplines.
Why do we measure disease and loss?....
 The assessment of plant diseases and their effects on yield normally involves
five distinct processes:
I. Developing a descriptive growth stage key for the particular crop species in
question,
II. Developing methods to assess the incidence and severity of disease,
III. developing statistically sound methods of sampling crop populations for
assessment of the amount of disease,
IV. estimating the negative impact of particular levels of the disease on crop yield
and quality and
V. Evaluating the economic benefit from various methods available for reducing
the amount of disease.
Crop Diseases assessment and yield loss…..
4.1. Assessment of crop growth and development
 To understand the impact of a disease fully it is necessary to understand the
growth, development and physiology of the healthy plant.
 One of the first steps in quantitative disease assessment is to obtain or develop a
key that describes the growth and development of disease-free plants during the
growing season.
 In annual plants, the keys describe development from the time of sowing or
planting until harvest.
 In perennial species such as tree crops, variations in growth patterns between
seasons are described, often beginning with bud burst in spring.
 In tropical perennial crops the starting point is more difficult to determine since
growth often occurs throughout the year.
 It is therefore often necessary to nominate a more arbitrary starting point (e.g. a
particular growth flush at the beginning of the wet season).
Assessment of crop growth and development….
 Detailed drawings or photographs are needed to show such characteristics as the
 structure of the canopy at various stages of crop growth,
 the formation of new leaves and the senescence of older leaves,
 the development of reproductive structures and
 different stages in the formation of grain or other harvested products.
 Detailed information on the development of healthy plants is needed before the effects of
disease on crop growth and development can be assessed.
 For example, it is important to distinguish between normal senescence of leaves and
damage caused by parasites.
 Some parasitic fungi develop mainly on senescing leaves and so their impact on yield is
probably small.
 They may just be speeding up the process of decay of senescent leaves.
 Descriptive and pictorial growth stage keys have been developed for a number of crops
including wheat, oats, barley and rye maize, rice, tobacco, cotton, legumes, broad
beans (Vicia Jaba) …etc,
 The Feekes Scale illustrated by Large (1954) has been used for many years to depict
growth stages graphically.
 With the advent of computerization the Feekes scale has now been largely replaced by
the decimal key of Zadoks et al. (1974) which has been illustrated by Tottman and Broad
(1987).
 This scale differs from the Feekes scale in describing individual plants rather than
classifying crop growth stages.
 The growth stage keys are reproduced in Fig. 1 and 2 and Table 1 and 2.
Assessment of crop growth and development….
Figure 2O.1 The Feekes scale for describing growth stages of cereals.
Chapter 4.pptx
Chapter 4.pptx
Chapter 4.pptx
4.2. METHODS OF DISEASE ASSESSMENT
 In any disease assessment or phytopathometric method, two criteria must be satisfied;
these were described by James (1983) as consistency between observers and simplicity
for speed of operation.
 These criteria, therefore, dictate that all assessment methods should be well defined and
standardized at the earliest possible stage of their development.
 A successful system for the assessment of disease gives results that are accurate and
precise.
 The common analogy of the target used by an archer where the objective is to shoot all
arrows into the center circle of the target might be useful to clarify these concepts (see
illustration below).
Fig. 3 Accuracy and precision of an archer when the
objective is to place all arrows in the central circle
(a) accurate and precise: (b) not accurate but precise;
(c) not accurate and not precise.
 Disease can be measured using
 Direct methods (i.e. assessing disease in or on the plant material, which
could be qualitative or quantitative) or
 Indirect methods (e.g. monitoring spore population using spore traps).
 Obviously direct methods are likely to be more strongly correlated with yield
losses in the crop and are therefore to be preferred.
 However, recent methods involving remote sensing and detection of crop stress
due to disease are likely to increase the accuracy of indirect disease measurements.
 Direct methods are concerned with both the quantitative and qualitative
estimations of disease.
4.2. METHODS OF DISEASE ASSESSMENT…
4.2.1. Direct quantitative methods
 Direct quantitative methods are largely concerned with measurements of incidence or
severity, defined as follows.
Disease incidence (I)=
𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑑
x100
4.2.1.1.Disease incidence
 Disease incidence is the most readily determined parameter often by simply counting the
number of plants showing symptoms of the disease.
 It is normally used in order to determine the spread of disease over a given geographical
area.
 In diseases with systemic infections which may result in total plant loss (e.g. viruses, cereal
smuts, or vascular wilts), incidence may be equated with disease severity.
4.2.1.1.Disease incidence…
 Assessment of disease incidence is traditionally based on visual disease symptoms, the
definition can easily accommodate other more modern methods such as
 The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and
 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
 Disease incidence is a binary variable, that is, a plant unit is either (visibly) diseased or
not (Madden and Hughes, 1999).
 Disease incidence would be suitable for assessing systemic infections which may result in
total plant loss (e.g. viruses or cereal smuts) as well as many root diseases, or
 Where a single lesion causes leaf death (e.g. axil lesions in barley caused by
Rhynchosporium secalis)
 But may also be useful in the early stages of an epidemic caused by a cereal foliar
pathogen when both incidence (number of tillers affected) and severity (leaf area affected)
are related and increase simultaneously (James, 1983).
4.2.1.2. Disease severity (pictorial vs. descriptive keys)
 Most disease assessment keys are designed to measure disease severity using either
pictorial (picture) or descriptive keys.
 With either type of key, standardization is maintained, and the use of arbitrary categories
such as slight, moderate or severe can be avoided.
 The pictorial key uses standard area diagrams which illustrate the developmental stages of
a disease on small sample units (leaves, fruits) (Fig. 4, 5) or,
 Occasionally, on large composite units such as branches or whole plants (Fig 6).
 Such standard diagrams are derived from a series of disease symptom pictures which may
be in the form of line drawings, photographs or even preserved specimens.
Disease severity(S)=
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑒
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎
x100
Chapter 4.pptx
Chapter 4.pptx

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Chapter 4.pptx

  • 1. Chapter 4: Crop Diseases assessment and YIELD LOSS  Disease assessment is defined as the act (or process) of quantitatively measuring disease intensity (Campbell and Madden, 1990; Nutter et al., 1991; Nutter and Gaunt, 1996).  Assessment or measurement of disease is the basis of epidemiology which is the study of disease at the level of populations of pathogens and hosts  Plant disease assessment, also known as phytopathometery  It is also the basis of the study of the effects of disease on crop yield and of disease forecasting. Definition of plant disease assessment
  • 2. Crop Diseases assessment methods….. Disease offers three parameters for measurement. 1. Disease incidence The proportion of infected host units, out of the total units sampled Disease incidence (I)= 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑑 x100 2. Severity – the percentage area of diseased tissue/the proportion of the area of a plant or plant organ (e.g. leaf area, seed, root etc) that is affected Disease severity(S)= 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑒 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 x100 3. Loss – diminution of the crop due to a disease.  In actuality the harvested yield is measured and the loss will be computed.  Loss refers to reduction in either quantity or quality (or both) of yield. What do we actually measure? (The Parameters)
  • 3. Crop Diseases assessment methods…..  In some disease assessment procedures, two further parameters may be encountered:  Prevalence – an ambiguous term that often refers to disease incidence within a geographical area.  e.g. if, a survey of bacterial streak of sorghum in Alemaya Woreda showed that the disease occurred in 15 out of 20 representative fields inspected, the prevalence of the disease in Alemaya would be 75%.  Intensity – occasionally considered synonymous to severity is usually used to denote measures of the number of fungal colonies/pustules on leaves.  In some publications, the term intensity is used to describe any measure of disease, be it incidence or severity.
  • 4. Crop Diseases assessment and yield loss….. 1. For making decision concerning disease management 2. For determining the efficacy of various control measures (pesticides, genotype resistance, agronomic measures, etc.). 3. To know proper time of applying control measure 4. To know cost of control measure if we are not in a position to estimate the losses from diseases, then how can we decide rationally on how much to spend on control?  The economic advantage of any control method has to be determined.  It is not good implementing a control measure that costs the farmer more than it returns in increased yield.  The economic advantage of any control strategy can be estimated by applying the following formula:  Economic advantage of disease control ($) =Expected return if disease is controlled ($) – [Expected return if the disease is left uncontrolled ($)+ Cost of control treatment ($)] Why do we measure disease and loss?....
  • 5. Crop Diseases assessment and yield loss….. 4. Identifying resource/research priorities (plant breeders, fungicide manufacturers, economists, government agencies and academics rely on disease assessment data) 5. Evaluation of experiments (e.g. while screening for resistant germplasm) 6. Evaluation of the performance of control like • whether valued varieties are still doing well or losing effectiveness; • whether a new fungicide, bactericide or nematicide is performing up to expectations; • whether development of resistant races/populations is underway, etc.) 7. Of paramount importance in disease assessment and yield loss appraisal is the standardization of concepts and terms in order to improve communication between plant pathologists and across scientific disciplines. Why do we measure disease and loss?....
  • 6.  The assessment of plant diseases and their effects on yield normally involves five distinct processes: I. Developing a descriptive growth stage key for the particular crop species in question, II. Developing methods to assess the incidence and severity of disease, III. developing statistically sound methods of sampling crop populations for assessment of the amount of disease, IV. estimating the negative impact of particular levels of the disease on crop yield and quality and V. Evaluating the economic benefit from various methods available for reducing the amount of disease. Crop Diseases assessment and yield loss…..
  • 7. 4.1. Assessment of crop growth and development  To understand the impact of a disease fully it is necessary to understand the growth, development and physiology of the healthy plant.  One of the first steps in quantitative disease assessment is to obtain or develop a key that describes the growth and development of disease-free plants during the growing season.  In annual plants, the keys describe development from the time of sowing or planting until harvest.  In perennial species such as tree crops, variations in growth patterns between seasons are described, often beginning with bud burst in spring.  In tropical perennial crops the starting point is more difficult to determine since growth often occurs throughout the year.  It is therefore often necessary to nominate a more arbitrary starting point (e.g. a particular growth flush at the beginning of the wet season).
  • 8. Assessment of crop growth and development….  Detailed drawings or photographs are needed to show such characteristics as the  structure of the canopy at various stages of crop growth,  the formation of new leaves and the senescence of older leaves,  the development of reproductive structures and  different stages in the formation of grain or other harvested products.  Detailed information on the development of healthy plants is needed before the effects of disease on crop growth and development can be assessed.  For example, it is important to distinguish between normal senescence of leaves and damage caused by parasites.  Some parasitic fungi develop mainly on senescing leaves and so their impact on yield is probably small.  They may just be speeding up the process of decay of senescent leaves.  Descriptive and pictorial growth stage keys have been developed for a number of crops including wheat, oats, barley and rye maize, rice, tobacco, cotton, legumes, broad beans (Vicia Jaba) …etc,
  • 9.  The Feekes Scale illustrated by Large (1954) has been used for many years to depict growth stages graphically.  With the advent of computerization the Feekes scale has now been largely replaced by the decimal key of Zadoks et al. (1974) which has been illustrated by Tottman and Broad (1987).  This scale differs from the Feekes scale in describing individual plants rather than classifying crop growth stages.  The growth stage keys are reproduced in Fig. 1 and 2 and Table 1 and 2. Assessment of crop growth and development….
  • 10. Figure 2O.1 The Feekes scale for describing growth stages of cereals.
  • 14. 4.2. METHODS OF DISEASE ASSESSMENT  In any disease assessment or phytopathometric method, two criteria must be satisfied; these were described by James (1983) as consistency between observers and simplicity for speed of operation.  These criteria, therefore, dictate that all assessment methods should be well defined and standardized at the earliest possible stage of their development.  A successful system for the assessment of disease gives results that are accurate and precise.  The common analogy of the target used by an archer where the objective is to shoot all arrows into the center circle of the target might be useful to clarify these concepts (see illustration below). Fig. 3 Accuracy and precision of an archer when the objective is to place all arrows in the central circle (a) accurate and precise: (b) not accurate but precise; (c) not accurate and not precise.
  • 15.  Disease can be measured using  Direct methods (i.e. assessing disease in or on the plant material, which could be qualitative or quantitative) or  Indirect methods (e.g. monitoring spore population using spore traps).  Obviously direct methods are likely to be more strongly correlated with yield losses in the crop and are therefore to be preferred.  However, recent methods involving remote sensing and detection of crop stress due to disease are likely to increase the accuracy of indirect disease measurements.  Direct methods are concerned with both the quantitative and qualitative estimations of disease. 4.2. METHODS OF DISEASE ASSESSMENT…
  • 16. 4.2.1. Direct quantitative methods  Direct quantitative methods are largely concerned with measurements of incidence or severity, defined as follows. Disease incidence (I)= 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑑 x100 4.2.1.1.Disease incidence  Disease incidence is the most readily determined parameter often by simply counting the number of plants showing symptoms of the disease.  It is normally used in order to determine the spread of disease over a given geographical area.  In diseases with systemic infections which may result in total plant loss (e.g. viruses, cereal smuts, or vascular wilts), incidence may be equated with disease severity.
  • 17. 4.2.1.1.Disease incidence…  Assessment of disease incidence is traditionally based on visual disease symptoms, the definition can easily accommodate other more modern methods such as  The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)  Disease incidence is a binary variable, that is, a plant unit is either (visibly) diseased or not (Madden and Hughes, 1999).  Disease incidence would be suitable for assessing systemic infections which may result in total plant loss (e.g. viruses or cereal smuts) as well as many root diseases, or  Where a single lesion causes leaf death (e.g. axil lesions in barley caused by Rhynchosporium secalis)  But may also be useful in the early stages of an epidemic caused by a cereal foliar pathogen when both incidence (number of tillers affected) and severity (leaf area affected) are related and increase simultaneously (James, 1983).
  • 18. 4.2.1.2. Disease severity (pictorial vs. descriptive keys)  Most disease assessment keys are designed to measure disease severity using either pictorial (picture) or descriptive keys.  With either type of key, standardization is maintained, and the use of arbitrary categories such as slight, moderate or severe can be avoided.  The pictorial key uses standard area diagrams which illustrate the developmental stages of a disease on small sample units (leaves, fruits) (Fig. 4, 5) or,  Occasionally, on large composite units such as branches or whole plants (Fig 6).  Such standard diagrams are derived from a series of disease symptom pictures which may be in the form of line drawings, photographs or even preserved specimens. Disease severity(S)= 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑒 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 x100