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Chapter 3- Movement of substances Chapter 3- Movement of substances
Kinetic Particle Theory ,[object Object]
                                   Diagram Move about at great speeds Slide over each other Vibrate and rotate about a fixed position Movement of particles Far apart Random  Close together  Random  Close together Regular pattern  Arrangement of p artic les Gas Liquid Solid State
very weak strong very strong Attractive forces between particles high low very low Kinetic energy of particles Gas Liquid Solid State
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Some websites to explore… …
Diffusion-Examples ,[object Object],[object Object]
What will happen to the  Lemon fragrance  molecules after a few seconds?   What region has a higher concentration of lemon molecules? Lemon fragrance molecules Starting point Spraying lemon air freshner in a room
Describing what you have seen… ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Describing the process of DIFFUSION Difference in concentration between two regions is called  Region A Region B Molecules (possess kinetic/movement energy) moving down a concentration gradient
Describing the process of DIFFUSION… ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Describing the process of DIFFUSION…
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Diffusion of red dye particles
Define the process of DIFFUSION ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Demonstrating Diffusion Across a Permeable Membrane  20 potassium iodide ions 20 copper sulphate ions permeable membrane water ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Key Potassium iodide ion Copper sulphate ion March 23, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.  A permeable membrane allows solvent & solutes to pass through it.
Demonstrating Diffusion Across a Permeable Membrane A permeable membrane allows both the solvent (water) and the solutes (the dissolved substances i.e. potassium iodide and copper sulphate ions) to pass through. Key Movement of substances March 23, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
Demonstrating Diffusion Across a Permeable Membrane 10 potassium iodide ions 10 copper sulphate ions 10 potassium iodide ions 10 copper sulphate ions March 23, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
Demonstrating Diffusion Across a Permeable Membrane 10 potassium iodide ions 10 copper sulphate ions 10 potassium iodide ions 10 copper sulphate ions ,[object Object],[object Object],March 23, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
Recall concept on “Cell surface membrane” which is found in all living cells ,[object Object],[object Object]
Diffusion in lungs ,[object Object]
Diffusion in root hair cells ,[object Object]
How can the rate of diffusion be affected? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Define osmosis ,[object Object]
Demonstrating Osmosis Across a Partially Permeable Membrane 8 sucrose molecules 4 sucrose molecules 9 water molecules 18 water molecules Key Sucrose molecule Water molecule 10% sucrose solution 5% sucrose solution ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],A B partially permeable membrane March 23, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.  A partially permeable membrane allows small molecules to pass through it.
Water Potential ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Demonstrating Osmosis Across a Partially Permeable Membrane A partially permeable membrane allows selected substances to pass through. Key Net movement of water molecules A B A B March 23, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
Demonstrating Osmosis Across a Partially Permeable Membrane 8 sucrose molecules 4 sucrose molecules 18 water molecules 9 water molecules A B A B A B drop in level rise in level March 23, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
Demonstrating Osmosis Across a Partially Permeable Membrane 8 sucrose molecules 4 sucrose molecules 18 water molecules 9 water molecules ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],A B A B A B drop in level rise in level March 23, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
[object Object],What is Hypotonic, Isotonic & Hypertonic? A (low   ) is  hypertonic  compared to B (high   ). C (high   ) is  hypotonic  compared to B (low   ). low   high      (symbol to represent water potential)
Plant cell Equal water potential  inside and outside cell.  No net movement of water molecules Higher water potential  inside cell. Water  molecules move out of cell.  Cytoplasm shrinks.  Cell becomes  plasmolysed Higher water potential  outside cell. Water  molecules enter cell  and exerts pressure on  the cell wall.  Cell becomes  turgid.
Animal cell Isotonic  soln: Equal water potential  inside and outside cell.  No net movement of water molecules Hypertonic  soln: Higher water potential  inside cell. Water  molecules move out of cell.  Cell becomes  crenated. Hypotonic  soln: Higher water potential  outside cell. Water  molecules enter cell. Cell  bursts ! *Hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic soln apply to animal systems only
Buzz Activity ,[object Object]
Active Transport ,[object Object],[object Object]
Active transport in small intestine
Active transport in root hair cells
Calculating Surface Area: Volume Ratio 2:1 6:1 SA:VR 27 cm3 1 cm3 Volume 54 cm2 6 cm2 SA C:  Sides - 3 cm A:  Sides - 1 cm Cube
What does SA:VR mean to a cell?

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Chapter 3 movement of substances 2011

  • 1. Chapter 3- Movement of substances Chapter 3- Movement of substances
  • 2.
  • 3.                                    Diagram Move about at great speeds Slide over each other Vibrate and rotate about a fixed position Movement of particles Far apart Random Close together Random Close together Regular pattern Arrangement of p artic les Gas Liquid Solid State
  • 4. very weak strong very strong Attractive forces between particles high low very low Kinetic energy of particles Gas Liquid Solid State
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. What will happen to the Lemon fragrance molecules after a few seconds? What region has a higher concentration of lemon molecules? Lemon fragrance molecules Starting point Spraying lemon air freshner in a room
  • 8.
  • 9. Describing the process of DIFFUSION Difference in concentration between two regions is called Region A Region B Molecules (possess kinetic/movement energy) moving down a concentration gradient
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Diffusion of red dye particles
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Demonstrating Diffusion Across a Permeable Membrane A permeable membrane allows both the solvent (water) and the solutes (the dissolved substances i.e. potassium iodide and copper sulphate ions) to pass through. Key Movement of substances March 23, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
  • 17. Demonstrating Diffusion Across a Permeable Membrane 10 potassium iodide ions 10 copper sulphate ions 10 potassium iodide ions 10 copper sulphate ions March 23, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. Demonstrating Osmosis Across a Partially Permeable Membrane A partially permeable membrane allows selected substances to pass through. Key Net movement of water molecules A B A B March 23, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
  • 27. Demonstrating Osmosis Across a Partially Permeable Membrane 8 sucrose molecules 4 sucrose molecules 18 water molecules 9 water molecules A B A B A B drop in level rise in level March 23, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30. Plant cell Equal water potential inside and outside cell. No net movement of water molecules Higher water potential inside cell. Water molecules move out of cell. Cytoplasm shrinks. Cell becomes plasmolysed Higher water potential outside cell. Water molecules enter cell and exerts pressure on the cell wall. Cell becomes turgid.
  • 31. Animal cell Isotonic soln: Equal water potential inside and outside cell. No net movement of water molecules Hypertonic soln: Higher water potential inside cell. Water molecules move out of cell. Cell becomes crenated. Hypotonic soln: Higher water potential outside cell. Water molecules enter cell. Cell bursts ! *Hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic soln apply to animal systems only
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. Active transport in small intestine
  • 35. Active transport in root hair cells
  • 36. Calculating Surface Area: Volume Ratio 2:1 6:1 SA:VR 27 cm3 1 cm3 Volume 54 cm2 6 cm2 SA C: Sides - 3 cm A: Sides - 1 cm Cube
  • 37. What does SA:VR mean to a cell?

Editor's Notes

  1. Figure 3.4 page 33
  2. Figure 3.4 page 33
  3. Figure 3.4 page 33
  4. Figure 3.4 page 33
  5. Figure 3.7 page 34
  6. Figure 3.7 page 34
  7. Figure 3.7 page 34
  8. Figure 3.7 page 34