SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Chapter 2: Cells Chapter 2- Cells
The discovery of cells ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The animal cell (3-D) Nucleus Vacuoles Plasma Membrane Mitochondrion Nucleolus Cytoplasm Golgi apparatus Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Label the parts of an animal cell.
The plant cell  (3-D) Cell wall Plasma Membrane Central vacuole Chloroplasts Mitochondrion Nucleus Cytoplasm Nucleolus Golgi apparatus Rough endoplasmic reticulum  Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Label the parts of a plant cell.
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Plant Cell – 22 500 X  (electron micrographs)
3-D structure of a chloroplast
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Nucleus Function Structure Organelle
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Plasma Membrane / Cell surface membrane  Function Structure Organelle
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Cytoplasm Function Structure Organelle
ATP = Adenosine triphosphate   ,[object Object],[object Object],Contains many folds to increase surface area for synthesis of  ATP molecules / energy molecules Mitochondria (plural) Mitochondrion   Function Structure Organelle
[object Object],[object Object],No ribosomes attached. Smooth  Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) ,[object Object],Ribosomes   attached on RER  Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) Function Structure Organelle
[object Object],[object Object],Free ribosomes  (a type of proteins made in the nucleolus) Function Structure Organelle
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Golgi Apparatus (GA) [Vesicle movement] http://biologica.concord.org/webtest1/Shout3d_cell_6_1_00/v2_frameset.htm  Function Structure Organelle
1. Vesicles transport substances within the cell. Small vesicles containing substances made by the ER are pinched off from the ER. How substances made by the endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus and are finally secreted out of the cell   rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle forming Processes in the Golgi Apparatus
1. Vesicles transport substances within the cell. Small vesicles containing substances made by the ER are pinched off from the ER. How substances made by the endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus and are finally secreted out of the cell   rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle forming vesicle pinched off Processes in the Golgi Apparatus
1. Vesicles transport substances within the cell. Small vesicles containing substances made by the ER are pinched off from the ER. 2. Vesicles then fuse with the Golgi apparatus and release their contents into the Golgi apparatus. The substances made by the ER may be modified inside the Golgi apparatus.  How substances made by the endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus and are finally secreted out of the cell   rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle forming vesicle fusing with  Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus vesicle pinched off Processes in the Golgi Apparatus
1. Vesicles transport substances within the cell. Small vesicles containing substances made by the ER are pinched off from the ER. 4. Secretory vesicles fuse with the cell surface membrane and their contents are released outside the cell.  How substances made by the endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus and are finally secreted out of the cell  3. Secretory vesicles containing these modified substances are pinched off from the Golgi apparatus. They then move to fuse with the cell surface membrane. rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle forming secretory vesicle pinched off substances released outside the cell secretory vesicle fuses with cell surface membrane Processes in the Golgi Apparatus vesicle pinched off 2. Vesicles then fuse with the Golgi apparatus and release their contents into the Golgi apparatus. The substances made by the ER may be modified inside the Golgi apparatus .  vesicle fusing with  Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus
In animal cells   organize the assembly of spindle microtubules during cell division.  Consists of two short cylinders, facing right angles at each other Centrioles Function Structure Organelle
In animal cells ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Vacuole Function Structure Organelle
In plant cells contains cell sap such as nutrients and mineral salts Fluid filled space surrounded by a partially membrane known as tonoplast Vacuole Function Structure Organelle
In plant cells ,[object Object],[object Object],Chloroplast Function Structure Organelle
In plant cells ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Cell wall Function Structure Organelle
Differences between animal  and plant cell Animal Plant Cell wall absent present Chloroplasts absent present Vacuoles small and many usually large and central Stores food as glycogen granules starch granules
Specialized cells ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Specialised / Differentiated cells Differentiation: A process in which the zygote undergoes a change from a simple to complex structure. (contains  DNA from both parents)
cell membrane Cytoplasm with a red pigment protein called haemoglobin.  It carries oxygen.
Red blood cells ,[object Object],[object Object],Adaptation: Circular,  biconcave  shape Function: Increases  surface area to volume ratio . Thus, oxygen diffuse in and out at a faster rate.
Red blood cells ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Root hair ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Cellulose cell wall nucleus Central vacuole Plasma membrane Cytoplasm
Structure of the root hair cell in relation to its function ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Root hair cell
The Xylem Vessel
Xylem cells ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],Xylem Vessel
Young Xylem vessels   Matured    xylem    vessels
The Xylem Vessel ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Division of labour ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Division of labour ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Specialised Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems A group of cells work together to form a  tissue . intestinal epithelium (tissue) made up of intestinal epithelial cells epithelium in the trachea (tissue) made up of epithelial cells and gland cells cartilage in the trachea (tissue) made up of connective tissue cells  epithelium in the lungs (tissue) made up of epithelial cells connective tissue in the lungs made up of connective tissue cells muscle cell neurones intestinal epithelial cell epithelial cell gland cell muscle tissue made up of muscle cells nervous tissue made up of neurones (nerve cells) connective tissue cell connective tissue cell epithelial cell
Specialised Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems Different tissues combine to form an  organ . trachea (organ) lungs (organs) stomach (organ) intestine (organ) muscle tissue cartilage (tissue) muscle tissue connective tissue nervous tissue intestinal epithelium (tissue) epithelium (tissue) epithelium (tissue)
Specialised Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems Several organs work together to make up an  organ system . lungs (organs) trachea (organ) intestine (organ) stomach (organ) digestive system (organ system) respiratory system (organ system)
Specialised Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems human (organism) digestive system (organ system) respiratory system (organ system) Various organ systems work together to make up an  organism .

More Related Content

What's hot

Plant Reproduction
Plant ReproductionPlant Reproduction
Plant Reproduction
charlietheteacher
 
Living things, the cell and the 5 kingdoms
Living things, the cell and the 5 kingdomsLiving things, the cell and the 5 kingdoms
Living things, the cell and the 5 kingdoms
isamadero79
 
Cambridge igcse biology ( 2016 2018) classification of living organisms
Cambridge igcse biology ( 2016 2018)  classification of living organismsCambridge igcse biology ( 2016 2018)  classification of living organisms
Cambridge igcse biology ( 2016 2018) classification of living organisms
Mr Tarek Saad Ibrahim
 
IGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
IGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual ReproductionIGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
IGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
mrexham
 
Vascular and Non Vascular Plants
Vascular and Non Vascular PlantsVascular and Non Vascular Plants
Vascular and Non Vascular Plants
pam_chastain
 
Sc..support system
Sc..support systemSc..support system
Sc..support system
Fatimah Bidin
 
Chapter 16 Reproduction in Plants Lesson 1 - Types of reproduction in plants
Chapter 16 Reproduction in Plants Lesson 1 - Types of reproduction in plantsChapter 16 Reproduction in Plants Lesson 1 - Types of reproduction in plants
Chapter 16 Reproduction in Plants Lesson 1 - Types of reproduction in plants
j3di79
 
Sexual reproduction
Sexual reproductionSexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
Jessi Dildy
 
Homeostasis
HomeostasisHomeostasis
Homeostasis
Ruba Salah
 
14 reproduction in plants edexcel 2020
14 reproduction in plants edexcel 202014 reproduction in plants edexcel 2020
14 reproduction in plants edexcel 2020
Ruba Salah
 
GCSE IGCSE Biology by Syllabus points
GCSE IGCSE Biology by Syllabus pointsGCSE IGCSE Biology by Syllabus points
GCSE IGCSE Biology by Syllabus points
Marc Rodriguez
 
Introduction to cell biology
Introduction to cell biologyIntroduction to cell biology
Introduction to cell biology
Ehtasham Ali Awan
 
Digestion IGCSE
Digestion IGCSEDigestion IGCSE
Ch 9 transport in plants 2019
Ch 9 transport in plants 2019Ch 9 transport in plants 2019
Ch 9 transport in plants 2019
Ruba Salah
 
Mr Exham IGCSE - Classification
Mr Exham IGCSE - ClassificationMr Exham IGCSE - Classification
Mr Exham IGCSE - Classification
mrexham
 
Animal Reproduction
Animal ReproductionAnimal Reproduction
Animal Reproduction
azuerseccion
 
Human Reproduction
Human ReproductionHuman Reproduction
Human Reproduction
SCIENCE PRODUCTIONS
 
Chap 1 transport in plant
Chap 1 transport in plantChap 1 transport in plant
Chap 1 transport in plant
Arnie Adnan
 
Tissues
TissuesTissues
Tissues
monikamehan
 
IGCSE Nutrition Revision
IGCSE Nutrition RevisionIGCSE Nutrition Revision
IGCSE Nutrition Revision
Mrs Parker
 

What's hot (20)

Plant Reproduction
Plant ReproductionPlant Reproduction
Plant Reproduction
 
Living things, the cell and the 5 kingdoms
Living things, the cell and the 5 kingdomsLiving things, the cell and the 5 kingdoms
Living things, the cell and the 5 kingdoms
 
Cambridge igcse biology ( 2016 2018) classification of living organisms
Cambridge igcse biology ( 2016 2018)  classification of living organismsCambridge igcse biology ( 2016 2018)  classification of living organisms
Cambridge igcse biology ( 2016 2018) classification of living organisms
 
IGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
IGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual ReproductionIGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
IGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
 
Vascular and Non Vascular Plants
Vascular and Non Vascular PlantsVascular and Non Vascular Plants
Vascular and Non Vascular Plants
 
Sc..support system
Sc..support systemSc..support system
Sc..support system
 
Chapter 16 Reproduction in Plants Lesson 1 - Types of reproduction in plants
Chapter 16 Reproduction in Plants Lesson 1 - Types of reproduction in plantsChapter 16 Reproduction in Plants Lesson 1 - Types of reproduction in plants
Chapter 16 Reproduction in Plants Lesson 1 - Types of reproduction in plants
 
Sexual reproduction
Sexual reproductionSexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
 
Homeostasis
HomeostasisHomeostasis
Homeostasis
 
14 reproduction in plants edexcel 2020
14 reproduction in plants edexcel 202014 reproduction in plants edexcel 2020
14 reproduction in plants edexcel 2020
 
GCSE IGCSE Biology by Syllabus points
GCSE IGCSE Biology by Syllabus pointsGCSE IGCSE Biology by Syllabus points
GCSE IGCSE Biology by Syllabus points
 
Introduction to cell biology
Introduction to cell biologyIntroduction to cell biology
Introduction to cell biology
 
Digestion IGCSE
Digestion IGCSEDigestion IGCSE
Digestion IGCSE
 
Ch 9 transport in plants 2019
Ch 9 transport in plants 2019Ch 9 transport in plants 2019
Ch 9 transport in plants 2019
 
Mr Exham IGCSE - Classification
Mr Exham IGCSE - ClassificationMr Exham IGCSE - Classification
Mr Exham IGCSE - Classification
 
Animal Reproduction
Animal ReproductionAnimal Reproduction
Animal Reproduction
 
Human Reproduction
Human ReproductionHuman Reproduction
Human Reproduction
 
Chap 1 transport in plant
Chap 1 transport in plantChap 1 transport in plant
Chap 1 transport in plant
 
Tissues
TissuesTissues
Tissues
 
IGCSE Nutrition Revision
IGCSE Nutrition RevisionIGCSE Nutrition Revision
IGCSE Nutrition Revision
 

Viewers also liked

Cells(1)
Cells(1)Cells(1)
Cells(1)
Steve Bishop
 
Cell Structure and Organisation
Cell Structure and Organisation Cell Structure and Organisation
Cell Structure and Organisation
preetipalkar86
 
Chapter 8 by Karp (part2)
Chapter 8 by Karp (part2)Chapter 8 by Karp (part2)
Chapter 8 by Karp (part2)
Geonyzl Alviola
 
Transport in flowering plants (self created)
Transport in flowering plants (self created)Transport in flowering plants (self created)
Transport in flowering plants (self created)
Alex Chiam
 
ocr biology b3
ocr biology b3ocr biology b3
ocr biology b3
JenBash
 
JYSS Cells 2013
JYSS Cells 2013JYSS Cells 2013
JYSS Cells 2013
Jacklyn Kong
 
Reproduct cell in human
Reproduct cell in humanReproduct cell in human
Reproduct cell in human
Nafly Hussain
 
Aic context (2)
Aic context (2)Aic context (2)
Aic context (2)
mrhoward12
 
Chapter 3 cells
Chapter 3  cellsChapter 3  cells
Chapter 3 cells
Nada G.Youssef
 
Transport In Flowering Plants 1
Transport In Flowering Plants 1Transport In Flowering Plants 1
Transport In Flowering Plants 1
scuffruff
 
1.1 Cell Theory, Cell Specialization, and Cell Replacement
1.1 Cell Theory, Cell Specialization, and Cell Replacement1.1 Cell Theory, Cell Specialization, and Cell Replacement
1.1 Cell Theory, Cell Specialization, and Cell Replacement
lucascw
 
All About Inheritance And Selection
All About Inheritance And SelectionAll About Inheritance And Selection
All About Inheritance And Selection
Sciencetutors E-learning Media
 
82 biology
82 biology82 biology
82 biology
tyler.sutherland
 
STPM Form 6 Biology Cell membrane
STPM Form 6 Biology Cell membraneSTPM Form 6 Biology Cell membrane
STPM Form 6 Biology Cell membrane
Sook Yen Wong
 
Exocytosis and Endocytosis {Best one}
Exocytosis and Endocytosis {Best one}Exocytosis and Endocytosis {Best one}
Exocytosis and Endocytosis {Best one}
abdelrahman_asar
 
163 ch 03_lecture_presentation
163 ch 03_lecture_presentation163 ch 03_lecture_presentation
163 ch 03_lecture_presentation
gwrandall
 
Specialised Cells
Specialised CellsSpecialised Cells
Specialised Cells
Carla Smedberg
 
Transport in plants
Transport in plants Transport in plants
Transport in plants
chenghong03
 
Protein trafficking in lysosomes
Protein trafficking in lysosomesProtein trafficking in lysosomes
Protein trafficking in lysosomes
Sheryl Bhatnagar
 
Cells and cell specialization
Cells and cell specializationCells and cell specialization
Cells and cell specialization
Sophia Butler
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Cells(1)
Cells(1)Cells(1)
Cells(1)
 
Cell Structure and Organisation
Cell Structure and Organisation Cell Structure and Organisation
Cell Structure and Organisation
 
Chapter 8 by Karp (part2)
Chapter 8 by Karp (part2)Chapter 8 by Karp (part2)
Chapter 8 by Karp (part2)
 
Transport in flowering plants (self created)
Transport in flowering plants (self created)Transport in flowering plants (self created)
Transport in flowering plants (self created)
 
ocr biology b3
ocr biology b3ocr biology b3
ocr biology b3
 
JYSS Cells 2013
JYSS Cells 2013JYSS Cells 2013
JYSS Cells 2013
 
Reproduct cell in human
Reproduct cell in humanReproduct cell in human
Reproduct cell in human
 
Aic context (2)
Aic context (2)Aic context (2)
Aic context (2)
 
Chapter 3 cells
Chapter 3  cellsChapter 3  cells
Chapter 3 cells
 
Transport In Flowering Plants 1
Transport In Flowering Plants 1Transport In Flowering Plants 1
Transport In Flowering Plants 1
 
1.1 Cell Theory, Cell Specialization, and Cell Replacement
1.1 Cell Theory, Cell Specialization, and Cell Replacement1.1 Cell Theory, Cell Specialization, and Cell Replacement
1.1 Cell Theory, Cell Specialization, and Cell Replacement
 
All About Inheritance And Selection
All About Inheritance And SelectionAll About Inheritance And Selection
All About Inheritance And Selection
 
82 biology
82 biology82 biology
82 biology
 
STPM Form 6 Biology Cell membrane
STPM Form 6 Biology Cell membraneSTPM Form 6 Biology Cell membrane
STPM Form 6 Biology Cell membrane
 
Exocytosis and Endocytosis {Best one}
Exocytosis and Endocytosis {Best one}Exocytosis and Endocytosis {Best one}
Exocytosis and Endocytosis {Best one}
 
163 ch 03_lecture_presentation
163 ch 03_lecture_presentation163 ch 03_lecture_presentation
163 ch 03_lecture_presentation
 
Specialised Cells
Specialised CellsSpecialised Cells
Specialised Cells
 
Transport in plants
Transport in plants Transport in plants
Transport in plants
 
Protein trafficking in lysosomes
Protein trafficking in lysosomesProtein trafficking in lysosomes
Protein trafficking in lysosomes
 
Cells and cell specialization
Cells and cell specializationCells and cell specialization
Cells and cell specialization
 

Similar to Chapter 2 cells 2011

Chapter2cells2011 110323085717-phpapp02
Chapter2cells2011 110323085717-phpapp02Chapter2cells2011 110323085717-phpapp02
Chapter2cells2011 110323085717-phpapp02
bajuar
 
Chapter 7
Chapter 7Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Valerie Evans
 
Chapter 7
Chapter 7Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Valerie Evans
 
Cell
CellCell
Cells
CellsCells
Biology cell structure function
Biology cell structure functionBiology cell structure function
Biology cell structure function
M, Michelle Jeannite
 
Cell structure and organisation
Cell structure and organisationCell structure and organisation
Cell structure and organisation
Trina Wong
 
Biology 189 the_cell_spring_2012.ppt
Biology 189 the_cell_spring_2012.pptBiology 189 the_cell_spring_2012.ppt
Biology 189 the_cell_spring_2012.ppt
Samantha Maria
 
Chapter 2 Cell
Chapter 2 CellChapter 2 Cell
Chapter 2 Cell
Sheryl De Villa
 
Cells
CellsCells
Cells (Eukaryote & Prokaryote, Parts & Functions)
Cells (Eukaryote & Prokaryote, Parts & Functions)Cells (Eukaryote & Prokaryote, Parts & Functions)
Cells (Eukaryote & Prokaryote, Parts & Functions)
Dorothy Claire
 
Biology holiday homework
Biology holiday homeworkBiology holiday homework
Biology holiday homework
Paridhi Patel
 
Cells ppt.presentation
Cells ppt.presentationCells ppt.presentation
Cells ppt.presentation
Jell de Veas
 
Chapter 5
Chapter 5Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Xavier Rey
 
Chapter 7 cells power point student version
Chapter 7 cells power point student versionChapter 7 cells power point student version
Chapter 7 cells power point student version
watsonma12
 
Cells and Organelles
Cells and OrganellesCells and Organelles
Cells and Organelles
Bradley Bright
 
Cell
CellCell
The cell factory ppt
The cell factory pptThe cell factory ppt
The cell factory ppt
shriverh
 
Plant Cell Structures
Plant Cell StructuresPlant Cell Structures
Cell structure
Cell structureCell structure
Cell structure
pugazhkurian
 

Similar to Chapter 2 cells 2011 (20)

Chapter2cells2011 110323085717-phpapp02
Chapter2cells2011 110323085717-phpapp02Chapter2cells2011 110323085717-phpapp02
Chapter2cells2011 110323085717-phpapp02
 
Chapter 7
Chapter 7Chapter 7
Chapter 7
 
Chapter 7
Chapter 7Chapter 7
Chapter 7
 
Cell
CellCell
Cell
 
Cells
CellsCells
Cells
 
Biology cell structure function
Biology cell structure functionBiology cell structure function
Biology cell structure function
 
Cell structure and organisation
Cell structure and organisationCell structure and organisation
Cell structure and organisation
 
Biology 189 the_cell_spring_2012.ppt
Biology 189 the_cell_spring_2012.pptBiology 189 the_cell_spring_2012.ppt
Biology 189 the_cell_spring_2012.ppt
 
Chapter 2 Cell
Chapter 2 CellChapter 2 Cell
Chapter 2 Cell
 
Cells
CellsCells
Cells
 
Cells (Eukaryote & Prokaryote, Parts & Functions)
Cells (Eukaryote & Prokaryote, Parts & Functions)Cells (Eukaryote & Prokaryote, Parts & Functions)
Cells (Eukaryote & Prokaryote, Parts & Functions)
 
Biology holiday homework
Biology holiday homeworkBiology holiday homework
Biology holiday homework
 
Cells ppt.presentation
Cells ppt.presentationCells ppt.presentation
Cells ppt.presentation
 
Chapter 5
Chapter 5Chapter 5
Chapter 5
 
Chapter 7 cells power point student version
Chapter 7 cells power point student versionChapter 7 cells power point student version
Chapter 7 cells power point student version
 
Cells and Organelles
Cells and OrganellesCells and Organelles
Cells and Organelles
 
Cell
CellCell
Cell
 
The cell factory ppt
The cell factory pptThe cell factory ppt
The cell factory ppt
 
Plant Cell Structures
Plant Cell StructuresPlant Cell Structures
Plant Cell Structures
 
Cell structure
Cell structureCell structure
Cell structure
 

Chapter 2 cells 2011

  • 1. Chapter 2: Cells Chapter 2- Cells
  • 2.
  • 3. The animal cell (3-D) Nucleus Vacuoles Plasma Membrane Mitochondrion Nucleolus Cytoplasm Golgi apparatus Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • 4. Label the parts of an animal cell.
  • 5. The plant cell (3-D) Cell wall Plasma Membrane Central vacuole Chloroplasts Mitochondrion Nucleus Cytoplasm Nucleolus Golgi apparatus Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • 6. Label the parts of a plant cell.
  • 7.
  • 8. 3-D structure of a chloroplast
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. 1. Vesicles transport substances within the cell. Small vesicles containing substances made by the ER are pinched off from the ER. How substances made by the endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus and are finally secreted out of the cell rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle forming Processes in the Golgi Apparatus
  • 17. 1. Vesicles transport substances within the cell. Small vesicles containing substances made by the ER are pinched off from the ER. How substances made by the endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus and are finally secreted out of the cell rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle forming vesicle pinched off Processes in the Golgi Apparatus
  • 18. 1. Vesicles transport substances within the cell. Small vesicles containing substances made by the ER are pinched off from the ER. 2. Vesicles then fuse with the Golgi apparatus and release their contents into the Golgi apparatus. The substances made by the ER may be modified inside the Golgi apparatus. How substances made by the endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus and are finally secreted out of the cell rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle forming vesicle fusing with Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus vesicle pinched off Processes in the Golgi Apparatus
  • 19. 1. Vesicles transport substances within the cell. Small vesicles containing substances made by the ER are pinched off from the ER. 4. Secretory vesicles fuse with the cell surface membrane and their contents are released outside the cell. How substances made by the endoplasmic reticulum enter the Golgi apparatus and are finally secreted out of the cell 3. Secretory vesicles containing these modified substances are pinched off from the Golgi apparatus. They then move to fuse with the cell surface membrane. rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle forming secretory vesicle pinched off substances released outside the cell secretory vesicle fuses with cell surface membrane Processes in the Golgi Apparatus vesicle pinched off 2. Vesicles then fuse with the Golgi apparatus and release their contents into the Golgi apparatus. The substances made by the ER may be modified inside the Golgi apparatus . vesicle fusing with Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus
  • 20. In animal cells organize the assembly of spindle microtubules during cell division. Consists of two short cylinders, facing right angles at each other Centrioles Function Structure Organelle
  • 21.
  • 22. In plant cells contains cell sap such as nutrients and mineral salts Fluid filled space surrounded by a partially membrane known as tonoplast Vacuole Function Structure Organelle
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. Differences between animal and plant cell Animal Plant Cell wall absent present Chloroplasts absent present Vacuoles small and many usually large and central Stores food as glycogen granules starch granules
  • 26.
  • 27. Specialised / Differentiated cells Differentiation: A process in which the zygote undergoes a change from a simple to complex structure. (contains DNA from both parents)
  • 28. cell membrane Cytoplasm with a red pigment protein called haemoglobin. It carries oxygen.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37. Young Xylem vessels Matured xylem vessels
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. Specialised Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems A group of cells work together to form a tissue . intestinal epithelium (tissue) made up of intestinal epithelial cells epithelium in the trachea (tissue) made up of epithelial cells and gland cells cartilage in the trachea (tissue) made up of connective tissue cells epithelium in the lungs (tissue) made up of epithelial cells connective tissue in the lungs made up of connective tissue cells muscle cell neurones intestinal epithelial cell epithelial cell gland cell muscle tissue made up of muscle cells nervous tissue made up of neurones (nerve cells) connective tissue cell connective tissue cell epithelial cell
  • 42. Specialised Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems Different tissues combine to form an organ . trachea (organ) lungs (organs) stomach (organ) intestine (organ) muscle tissue cartilage (tissue) muscle tissue connective tissue nervous tissue intestinal epithelium (tissue) epithelium (tissue) epithelium (tissue)
  • 43. Specialised Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems Several organs work together to make up an organ system . lungs (organs) trachea (organ) intestine (organ) stomach (organ) digestive system (organ system) respiratory system (organ system)
  • 44. Specialised Cells, Tissues, Organs & Systems human (organism) digestive system (organ system) respiratory system (organ system) Various organ systems work together to make up an organism .

Editor's Notes

  1. Figure 2.4 page 22
  2. Figure 2.20 page 27
  3. Figure 2.20 page 27
  4. Figure 2.20 page 27
  5. Figure 2.20 page 27