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Chapter 11:
Autonomic Nervous
System
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Autonomic Nervous System
 Comparison of somatic and autonomic
nervous systems
 Structure of the autonomic nervous system
 Functions of the autonomic nervous system
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparison of Somatic and
Autonomic Nervous Systems
 The part of the nervous system that regulates smooth muscle, cardiac
muscle, and certain glands is the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The
ANS usually operates without conscious control from the cerebral cortex,
but other brain regions, mainly the hypothalamus and brain stem, regulate it.
 The axons of somatic motor neurons extend from the CNS and synapse
directly with an effector (skeletal muscle). Autonomic motor pathways
consist of two motor neurons. The axon of the first motor neuron extends
from the CNS and synapses in an autonomic ganglion with the second
motor neuron; the second neuron synapses with an effector (smooth
muscle, cardiac muscle, or a gland).
Comparison of Somatic and
Autonomic Nervous Systems
 The output (motor) portion of the ANS has two divisions: the sympathetic
division and the parasympathetic division. Most body organs receive
dual innervation; usually one ANS division causes excitation and the other
causes inhibition.
 Somatic motor neurons release acetylcholine (ACh), and autonomic motor
neurons release either acetylcholine or norepinephrine (NE).
 Somatic nervous system effectors are skeletal muscles; ANS effectors
include cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparison
of Somatic
and
Autonomic
Nervous
Systems
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Anatomy Overview:
You must be connected to the internet to run this animation.
• Nervous System: Organization of the ANS
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparison of Somatic and
Autonomic Nervous Systems
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Structure of the Autonomic Nervous
System
 The sympathetic division of the ANS is also called the thoracolumbar
division because the outflow of sympathetic nerve impulses comes from the
thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord. Cell bodies of sympathetic
preganglionic neurons are in the 12 thoracic and the first two lumbar
segments of the spinal cord.
 Sympathetic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (lateral to
the vertebral column) or prevertebral ganglia (anterior to the vertebral
column).
 A single sympathetic preganglionic axon may synapse with 20 or more
postganglionic neurons. Sympathetic responses can affect organs
throughout the body almost simultaneously.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Structure of the Autonomic Nervous
System
 The parasympathetic division is also called the craniosacral division
because the outflow of parasympathetic nerve impulses comes from cranial
nerve nuclei and sacral segments of the spinal cord.
 Parasympathetic ganglia are called terminal ganglia and are located near
or within autonomic effectors. They are close to or in the walls of their
autonomic effectors, so most parasympathetic postganglionic axons are
very short
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Structure of the Autonomic Nervous
System
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Structure of
the Autonomic
Nervous
System
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Structure of
the Autonomic
Nervous
System
Functions of the Autonomic Nervous
System
 Some ANS neurons release acetylcholine, and others release
norepinephrine; the result is excitation in some cases and inhibition in others.
 ANS neurons that release acetylcholine include (1) all sympathetic and
parasympathetic preganglionic neurons, (2) all parasympathetic
postganglionic neurons, and (3) a few sympathetic postganglionic neurons.
 Most sympathetic postganglionic neurons release the neurotransmitter
norepinephrine (NE). The effects of NE are longer-lasting and more
widespread than those of acetylcholine.
 Activation of the sympathetic division causes widespread responses
collectively referred to as the fight-or-flight response. Activation of the
parasympathetic division produces more restricted responses that typically
are concerned with rest-and-digest activities.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Functions of the Autonomic Nervous
System
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Functions of the Autonomic Nervous
System
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Functions of the Autonomic Nervous
System
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparison of Somatic and
Autonomic Nervous Systems - Review
End of Chapter 11
Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights
reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976
United States Copyright Act without express
permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request
for further information should be addressed to the
Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The
purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own
use only and not for distribution or resale. The
Publishers assumes no responsibility for errors,
omissions, or damages caused by the use of these
programs or from the use of the information herein.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Chapter 11 autonomic nervous system

  • 1. Chapter 11: Autonomic Nervous System © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Autonomic Nervous System  Comparison of somatic and autonomic nervous systems  Structure of the autonomic nervous system  Functions of the autonomic nervous system
  • 3. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems  The part of the nervous system that regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and certain glands is the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS usually operates without conscious control from the cerebral cortex, but other brain regions, mainly the hypothalamus and brain stem, regulate it.  The axons of somatic motor neurons extend from the CNS and synapse directly with an effector (skeletal muscle). Autonomic motor pathways consist of two motor neurons. The axon of the first motor neuron extends from the CNS and synapses in an autonomic ganglion with the second motor neuron; the second neuron synapses with an effector (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or a gland).
  • 4. Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems  The output (motor) portion of the ANS has two divisions: the sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division. Most body organs receive dual innervation; usually one ANS division causes excitation and the other causes inhibition.  Somatic motor neurons release acetylcholine (ACh), and autonomic motor neurons release either acetylcholine or norepinephrine (NE).  Somatic nervous system effectors are skeletal muscles; ANS effectors include cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
  • 6. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Anatomy Overview: You must be connected to the internet to run this animation. • Nervous System: Organization of the ANS
  • 7. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
  • 8. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System  The sympathetic division of the ANS is also called the thoracolumbar division because the outflow of sympathetic nerve impulses comes from the thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord. Cell bodies of sympathetic preganglionic neurons are in the 12 thoracic and the first two lumbar segments of the spinal cord.  Sympathetic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (lateral to the vertebral column) or prevertebral ganglia (anterior to the vertebral column).  A single sympathetic preganglionic axon may synapse with 20 or more postganglionic neurons. Sympathetic responses can affect organs throughout the body almost simultaneously.
  • 9. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System  The parasympathetic division is also called the craniosacral division because the outflow of parasympathetic nerve impulses comes from cranial nerve nuclei and sacral segments of the spinal cord.  Parasympathetic ganglia are called terminal ganglia and are located near or within autonomic effectors. They are close to or in the walls of their autonomic effectors, so most parasympathetic postganglionic axons are very short
  • 10. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System
  • 11. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System
  • 12. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System
  • 13. Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System  Some ANS neurons release acetylcholine, and others release norepinephrine; the result is excitation in some cases and inhibition in others.  ANS neurons that release acetylcholine include (1) all sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons, (2) all parasympathetic postganglionic neurons, and (3) a few sympathetic postganglionic neurons.  Most sympathetic postganglionic neurons release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE). The effects of NE are longer-lasting and more widespread than those of acetylcholine.  Activation of the sympathetic division causes widespread responses collectively referred to as the fight-or-flight response. Activation of the parasympathetic division produces more restricted responses that typically are concerned with rest-and-digest activities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System
  • 15. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System
  • 16. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System
  • 17. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems - Review
  • 18. End of Chapter 11 Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publishers assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.