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Chapter 10 and 11 notes
2
Chapter 10
Chemical Bonding II:
Molecular Geometry
VValencealence SShellhell EElectronlectron PPairair RRepulsion theory.epulsion theory.
Central atom without lone pair
Central atom with lone pair
Molecular geometry
• General shape of a molecule
• Three-dimensional arrangement of atoms around the central atom
Predict the geometry of the molecules and ions based on the
electrostatic repulsions between the electron (bonding and
nonbonding/lone) pairs.
VSEPR model
In Lewis structures there are two types of valence electron pairs:
•bonding pairs (shared by atoms in bonds)
•nonbonding pairs (also called lone pairs)
→ Molecule adopts the shape that minimizes the electron pair
repulsions.
Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model:
1. Molecule in which central atom has no lone pairs
2. Molecule in which central atom has one/more lone
pairs
1. Molecule in which central atom has no lone pairs:
ABx
A = central atom
B = surrounding atom
x = number of surrounding atoms
= 2,3,……
AB2 2 0
Class
# of atoms
bonded to
central atom
# lone
pairs on
central atom
Arrangement of
electron pairs
Molecular
Geometry
linear linear
B B
Cl ClBe
2 atoms bonded to central atom
0 lone pairs on central atomlinear
7
Class
# of atoms
bonded to
central atom
# lone
pairs on
central atom
Arrangement of
electron pairs
Molecular
Geometry
AB3 3 0
trigonal
planar
trigonal
planar
trigonal
planar
Class
# of atoms
bonded to
central atom
# lone
pairs on
central atom
Arrangement of
electron pairs
Molecular
Geometry
AB4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral
Class
# of atoms
bonded to
central atom
# lone
pairs on
central atom
Arrangement of
electron pairs
Molecular
Geometry
AB5 5 0 trigonal
bipyramidal
trigonal
bipyramid
al
10
Class
# of atoms
bonded to
central atom
# lone
pairs on
central atom
Arrangement of
electron pairs
Molecular
Geometry
AB6 6 0 octahedraloctahedral
11
AB3
AB2
AB6
AB4
AB5
12
2. Molecule in which central atom has one/more lone pairs:
ABxEy
A = central atom
B = surrounding atom
E= lone pairs on the central atom
x = number of surrounding atoms
= 2,3,……
y = number of lone pairs on the central atom
= 1,2,……..
Class
# of atoms
bonded to
central atom
# lone
pairs on
central atom
Arrangement of
electron pairs
Molecular
Geometry
AB3 3 0
trigonal
planar
trigonal
planar
AB2E 2 1
trigonal
planar
bent
15
Class
# of atoms
bonded to
central atom
# lone
pairs on
central atom
Arrangement of
electron pairs
Molecular
Geometry
AB3E 3 1
AB4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral
tetrahedral
trigonal
pyramidal
AB2E2 2 2 tetrahedral bent
16
tetrahedral trigonal
pyramidal
bent
Chapter 10 and 11 notes
18
Predicting Molecular Geometry
1. Count the number of e- pairs around the central atom
(bonding pairs and lone pairs).
2. Multiple bounds count as one bonding pair
3. Use VSEPR to predict the geometry of the molecule.
What are the molecular geometries of SO2 and CH4?
SO O
AB2E
bent
C
H
H
H H
AB4
tetrahedral
19
Intermolecular Forces & Liquids and Solids
Chapter 11
Chapter 10 and 11 notes
Dipole Moments and Polar Molecules
H F
electron
rich
region
electron
poor
region
δ+ δ−
Dipole moment (µ)
measure
the polarity
of a bond
Diatomic molecules containing atoms of different elements
have dipole moments → polar molecules (HCl, CO, NO)
Diatomic molecules containing atoms of the same elements do not
have dipole moments → nonpolar molecules (H2, O2, F2)
Intermolecular Forces
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules.
Intramolecular forces hold atoms together in a molecule.
Intermolecular vs Intramolecular
•41 kJ to vaporize 1 mole of water (inter)
•930 kJ to break all O-H bonds in 1 mole of water (intra)
Generally, intermolecular forces are much weaker than intramolecular forces.
“Measure” of intermolecular force
boiling point
melting point
Intermolecular Forces
1) Dipole-Dipole Forces
3) Hydrogen bonding
2) Dispersion (London) force Van der Waals forces
Relative strength
Hydrogen bonding > dipole-dipole forces > dispersion force
24
Intermolecular Forces
1) Dipole-Dipole Forces
Attractive forces between polar molecules with
dipole moments
Orientation of Polar Molecules in a Solid
25
Intermolecular Forces
2) Hydrogen Bond
The hydrogen bond is a special dipole-dipole interaction
between the hydrogen atom in a polar N-H, O-H, or F-H bond
and an electronegative O, N, or F atom.
A H…B A H…Aor
A & B are N, O, or F
Intermolecular Forces
3) Dispersion/London Forces
Attractive forces that arise as a result of temporary dipoles in
atoms/molecules
 The weakest intermolecular force. 
Every atom and molecule experience dispersion forces
27
Greatest
Order
Least
Order
Phase Changes
28
A phase diagram summarizes the conditions at which a
substance exists as a solid, liquid, or gas.
Typical phase diagram 
 triple point is the condition which
all three phases exist in
equilibrium
29
Phase Diagram of Water
Slope -
Effect of Increase in Pressure
on the Melting Point of Ice
and the Boiling Point of Water
31
At 1 atm,
CO2 (s) CO2 (g)
Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide
Slope +
Chapter 10 and 11 notes

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Chapter 10 and 11 notes

  • 2. 2 Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Geometry
  • 3. VValencealence SShellhell EElectronlectron PPairair RRepulsion theory.epulsion theory. Central atom without lone pair Central atom with lone pair Molecular geometry • General shape of a molecule • Three-dimensional arrangement of atoms around the central atom Predict the geometry of the molecules and ions based on the electrostatic repulsions between the electron (bonding and nonbonding/lone) pairs. VSEPR model In Lewis structures there are two types of valence electron pairs: •bonding pairs (shared by atoms in bonds) •nonbonding pairs (also called lone pairs) → Molecule adopts the shape that minimizes the electron pair repulsions.
  • 4. Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model: 1. Molecule in which central atom has no lone pairs 2. Molecule in which central atom has one/more lone pairs
  • 5. 1. Molecule in which central atom has no lone pairs: ABx A = central atom B = surrounding atom x = number of surrounding atoms = 2,3,……
  • 6. AB2 2 0 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry linear linear B B Cl ClBe 2 atoms bonded to central atom 0 lone pairs on central atomlinear
  • 7. 7 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB3 3 0 trigonal planar trigonal planar trigonal planar
  • 8. Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral
  • 9. Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB5 5 0 trigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramid al
  • 10. 10 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB6 6 0 octahedraloctahedral
  • 12. 12
  • 13. 2. Molecule in which central atom has one/more lone pairs: ABxEy A = central atom B = surrounding atom E= lone pairs on the central atom x = number of surrounding atoms = 2,3,…… y = number of lone pairs on the central atom = 1,2,……..
  • 14. Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB3 3 0 trigonal planar trigonal planar AB2E 2 1 trigonal planar bent
  • 15. 15 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB3E 3 1 AB4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral tetrahedral trigonal pyramidal AB2E2 2 2 tetrahedral bent
  • 18. 18 Predicting Molecular Geometry 1. Count the number of e- pairs around the central atom (bonding pairs and lone pairs). 2. Multiple bounds count as one bonding pair 3. Use VSEPR to predict the geometry of the molecule. What are the molecular geometries of SO2 and CH4? SO O AB2E bent C H H H H AB4 tetrahedral
  • 19. 19 Intermolecular Forces & Liquids and Solids Chapter 11
  • 21. Dipole Moments and Polar Molecules H F electron rich region electron poor region δ+ δ− Dipole moment (µ) measure the polarity of a bond Diatomic molecules containing atoms of different elements have dipole moments → polar molecules (HCl, CO, NO) Diatomic molecules containing atoms of the same elements do not have dipole moments → nonpolar molecules (H2, O2, F2)
  • 22. Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules. Intramolecular forces hold atoms together in a molecule. Intermolecular vs Intramolecular •41 kJ to vaporize 1 mole of water (inter) •930 kJ to break all O-H bonds in 1 mole of water (intra) Generally, intermolecular forces are much weaker than intramolecular forces. “Measure” of intermolecular force boiling point melting point
  • 23. Intermolecular Forces 1) Dipole-Dipole Forces 3) Hydrogen bonding 2) Dispersion (London) force Van der Waals forces Relative strength Hydrogen bonding > dipole-dipole forces > dispersion force
  • 24. 24 Intermolecular Forces 1) Dipole-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between polar molecules with dipole moments Orientation of Polar Molecules in a Solid
  • 25. 25 Intermolecular Forces 2) Hydrogen Bond The hydrogen bond is a special dipole-dipole interaction between the hydrogen atom in a polar N-H, O-H, or F-H bond and an electronegative O, N, or F atom. A H…B A H…Aor A & B are N, O, or F
  • 26. Intermolecular Forces 3) Dispersion/London Forces Attractive forces that arise as a result of temporary dipoles in atoms/molecules  The weakest intermolecular force.  Every atom and molecule experience dispersion forces
  • 28. 28 A phase diagram summarizes the conditions at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or gas. Typical phase diagram   triple point is the condition which all three phases exist in equilibrium
  • 29. 29
  • 30. Phase Diagram of Water Slope - Effect of Increase in Pressure on the Melting Point of Ice and the Boiling Point of Water
  • 31. 31 At 1 atm, CO2 (s) CO2 (g) Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide Slope +