SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 24
Chapter 1
Introducing Social Psychology
1
 Introducing Social Psychology
 What’s the point about Cinder Ella?
 Does her self-perception matter?
 A sub-discipline of psychology
 What is psychology?
 What are some other sub-disciplines?

2
 The classic definition given by Gordon Allport for social psychology is that it is
 “the attempt to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of
individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied situations/ presence of
other human beings”.
 The scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one
another.
 Social thinking
 Social influence
 Social relations
4
 “Social thinking” or thinking socially refers to a process we all go through in
our mind as we try to make sense of our own and others’ thoughts, feelings,
and intentions in context, whether we are co-existing, actively interacting, or
figuring out what is happening from a distance.
 Social influence comprises the ways in which individuals change their behavior to meet the
demands of a social environment. It takes many forms and can be seen in conformity,
socialization, peer pressure, obedience, leadership, persuasion, sales, and marketing.
 Social behavior is defined as interactions among individuals, normally within
the same species, that are usually beneficial to one or more of the individuals.
It is believed that social behavior evolved because it was beneficial to those
who engaged in it, which means that these individuals were more likely to
survive and reproduce.
 Social psychology studies our thinking, influence, and relationships by asking
questions that have intrigued us all.
 Here are some examples
 How Much of Our Social World Is Just in Our Heads?
 Would People Be Cruel If Ordered?
 To Help? Or to Help Oneself?
A common thread runs through these questions: They all
deal with how people view and affect one another. And
that is what social psychology is all about. Social
psychologists study attitudes and beliefs, conformity and
independence, love and hate.
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IS . . .
9
 What are social psychology’s big lessons—its overarching themes? In many
academic fields, the results of tens of thousands of studies, the conclusions of
thousands of investigators, and the insights of hundreds of theorists can be boiled
down to a few central ideas.
11
 We Construct Our Social Reality
 We react differently because we think differently
 1951 Princeton-Dartmouth football game demonstration
 Objective reality
 Beliefs about others
 Beliefs about ourselves
 Our Social Intuitions Are Often Powerful but Sometimes Perilous
 Dual processing (Kahneman “Thinking fast & slow”)
 Conscious and deliberate – system II
 Unconscious and automatic – system I
12
 Social Influences Shape Our Behavior
 Locality – give an example
 Educational level -give an example
 Subscribed media give an example
 Culture –
 Ethnicity
 Personal Attitudes and Dispositions
 Internal forces
 Inner attitudes about specific situations
 Personality dispositions (individual differences)
 Different people may react differently while facing the same situation B = f (p*e)
13
 Social Behavior Is Biologically Rooted
 Evolutionary psychology
 Natural selection predisposes our actions and reactions
 Prejudice happens early at the brain level
 We prefer the familiar things – why?
 Hint: evolution
 Social neuroscience
 We are bio-psycho-social organisms
14
 Social Psychology’s Principles Are Applicable in Everyday Life
 How to know ourselves better
 Implications for human health
 Implications for judicial procedures
 Influencing behaviors
15
 principles or standards of behaviour; one's judgement of what is important in life
 Social psychologists’ values penetrate their work in ways both obvious and subtle.
What are such ways?
 Social psychology is less a collection of findings than a set of strategies for
answering questions. In science, as in courts of law, personal opinions are
inadmissible. When ideas are put on trial, evidence determines the verdict. But
are social psychologists really that objective? Because they are human beings,
don’t their values —their personal convictions about what is desirable and how
people ought to behave—seep into their work? If so, can social psychology really be
scientific?
 Its not about Good or bad value but how that values enters the psychology or
human mind.
 In psychology Value refers to the relative importance that an individual places on
an item, idea, person, etc. that is part of their life. These feelings are unique to the
individual.
 Values are mental processes that are both cognitive and emotional. They combine
cognitive representations such as concepts, goals, and beliefs with emotional
attitudes that have positive or negative valence.
 Obvious value effects the society similarly and Not-so-Obvious Values are
different for different people.
Obvious Values
 Real
 Direct
 Clear
 Easily Understood
 Certain
 Accurate
 Same for everyone
 genuine
Not so Obvious Values
 Not clear
 Un certain
 Unreal
 Non accurate
 Indirect
 Difficult to understand
 Ambiguous
 Different for everyone
 Obvious Ways Values Enter Psychology
 “personal convictions” give an example of one for a social psychologist…and how it can
influence her work.
 Research topics
 Types of people
 Do business students differ from Arts students?
 Object of social-psychological analysis
 How values form
 Why they change
 How they influence attitudes and actions
 Scientists and philosophers now agree: Science is not purely objective. Scientists do not
simply read the book of nature. Rather, they interpret nature, using their own mental
categories. In our daily lives, too, we view the world through the lens of our
preconceptions.
 Subjective aspects of Science
 Culture –which is better, competition or cooperation?
 The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and
transmitted from one generation to the next.
 Social representations – shared beliefs taken for granted
 widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies. Our social
representations help us make sense of our world.
 Are there any real group differences for race/gender?
 Can you see a Dalmatian sniffing the ground at the picture’s center? Without that
preconception, most people are blind to the Dalmatian. Once your mind grasps the
concept, it informs your interpretation of the picture—so much so that it becomes
difficult not to see the dog.
 Psychological concepts contain hidden values
 Defining the good life
22
 Professional advice
 Forming concepts
 How could high self-esteem be the same as “defensive”?
 Labeling – some examples
 “terrorist” or a “freedom fighter”
 “welfare” or “aid to the needy”
 nationalism v. patriotism.
 open marriage” or “adultery”
 Brainwashing”
 “Perversions”
 Can you think of others?
 Social psychologists’ values penetrate their work in obvious ways, such as their
choice of research topics and the types of people who are attracted to various fields
of study.
 They also do this in subtler ways, such as their hidden assumptions when forming
concepts, choosing labels, and giving advice.
 This penetration of values into science is not a reason to fault social psychology or
any other science. That human thinking is seldom dispassionate is precisely why
we need systematic observation and experimentation if we are to check our
cherished ideas against reality.

More Related Content

What's hot

Impression formation
Impression formation Impression formation
Impression formation Aparna Bakre
 
Prosocial Behaviour
Prosocial BehaviourProsocial Behaviour
Prosocial BehaviourJames Neill
 
Prejudice and discrimination
Prejudice and discriminationPrejudice and discrimination
Prejudice and discriminationAimi Najat Anza
 
Social perception-Social Psychology
Social perception-Social PsychologySocial perception-Social Psychology
Social perception-Social PsychologyQuratulaintahir1
 
Nature and scope of social psychology lecture 2
Nature and scope of social psychology lecture 2Nature and scope of social psychology lecture 2
Nature and scope of social psychology lecture 2MuhammadAbdullah838
 
Aggression in Social Psychology
Aggression in Social PsychologyAggression in Social Psychology
Aggression in Social PsychologyQuratulaintahir1
 
Social Psychology:Schemas
Social Psychology:SchemasSocial Psychology:Schemas
Social Psychology:SchemasRinna Sari
 
Social Influence Summary
Social Influence SummarySocial Influence Summary
Social Influence SummaryGerryC
 
Social cognition
Social cognitionSocial cognition
Social cognitionlinfind
 
Interpersonal attraction (social psychology)
Interpersonal attraction (social psychology)Interpersonal attraction (social psychology)
Interpersonal attraction (social psychology)aayushikarna
 
Prosocial behavior ppt final
Prosocial behavior ppt finalProsocial behavior ppt final
Prosocial behavior ppt finalDisha Chaudhry
 
Chapter 13 Introduction to Applied Social Psychology
Chapter 13 Introduction to Applied Social PsychologyChapter 13 Introduction to Applied Social Psychology
Chapter 13 Introduction to Applied Social Psychologyqulbabbas4
 
Causes of aggression copy
Causes of aggression   copyCauses of aggression   copy
Causes of aggression copyRenju Chandran
 

What's hot (20)

Social Perception
Social PerceptionSocial Perception
Social Perception
 
Social influence
Social influenceSocial influence
Social influence
 
Impression formation
Impression formation Impression formation
Impression formation
 
Prosocial Behaviour
Prosocial BehaviourProsocial Behaviour
Prosocial Behaviour
 
Social cognition
Social cognitionSocial cognition
Social cognition
 
Prejudice and discrimination
Prejudice and discriminationPrejudice and discrimination
Prejudice and discrimination
 
Social perception-Social Psychology
Social perception-Social PsychologySocial perception-Social Psychology
Social perception-Social Psychology
 
Nature and scope of social psychology lecture 2
Nature and scope of social psychology lecture 2Nature and scope of social psychology lecture 2
Nature and scope of social psychology lecture 2
 
Aggression in Social Psychology
Aggression in Social PsychologyAggression in Social Psychology
Aggression in Social Psychology
 
Social Psychology:Schemas
Social Psychology:SchemasSocial Psychology:Schemas
Social Psychology:Schemas
 
Social Influence Summary
Social Influence SummarySocial Influence Summary
Social Influence Summary
 
Social cognition
Social cognition Social cognition
Social cognition
 
Attribution
AttributionAttribution
Attribution
 
Social cognition
Social cognitionSocial cognition
Social cognition
 
Interpersonal attraction (social psychology)
Interpersonal attraction (social psychology)Interpersonal attraction (social psychology)
Interpersonal attraction (social psychology)
 
1 Introduction To Social Psychology
1 Introduction To Social Psychology1 Introduction To Social Psychology
1 Introduction To Social Psychology
 
Prosocial behavior ppt final
Prosocial behavior ppt finalProsocial behavior ppt final
Prosocial behavior ppt final
 
Chapter 13 Introduction to Applied Social Psychology
Chapter 13 Introduction to Applied Social PsychologyChapter 13 Introduction to Applied Social Psychology
Chapter 13 Introduction to Applied Social Psychology
 
Social Psychology Report
Social Psychology ReportSocial Psychology Report
Social Psychology Report
 
Causes of aggression copy
Causes of aggression   copyCauses of aggression   copy
Causes of aggression copy
 

Similar to Chapter 1 introducing social psychology

Presentation 2
Presentation 2Presentation 2
Presentation 2cocolatto
 
into to SP revised.ppt
into to SP revised.pptinto to SP revised.ppt
into to SP revised.pptYamnaAli3
 
C:\fakepath\2 intro student_fa10
C:\fakepath\2 intro student_fa10C:\fakepath\2 intro student_fa10
C:\fakepath\2 intro student_fa10HeCallsMeBeau
 
Personality & Individual Behaviour
Personality & Individual BehaviourPersonality & Individual Behaviour
Personality & Individual BehaviourNikhil Saboo
 
Introduction, Aim, Objectives and Scope of Cross Cultural Psychology
Introduction, Aim, Objectives and Scope of Cross Cultural PsychologyIntroduction, Aim, Objectives and Scope of Cross Cultural Psychology
Introduction, Aim, Objectives and Scope of Cross Cultural PsychologyBilal Anwaar
 
An Introduction to Social Psychology.pptx
An Introduction to Social Psychology.pptxAn Introduction to Social Psychology.pptx
An Introduction to Social Psychology.pptxAQSA SHAHID
 
VALUE EDUCATION_Unit_IV.pptx
VALUE EDUCATION_Unit_IV.pptxVALUE EDUCATION_Unit_IV.pptx
VALUE EDUCATION_Unit_IV.pptxSasi Kumar
 
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, And Traditional Psychodynamic...
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, And Traditional Psychodynamic...Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, And Traditional Psychodynamic...
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, And Traditional Psychodynamic...Diana Turner
 
Social Psychology Final
Social Psychology FinalSocial Psychology Final
Social Psychology FinalRandall Noggle
 
Module 1 (SY.2021-2022).pptx
Module 1 (SY.2021-2022).pptxModule 1 (SY.2021-2022).pptx
Module 1 (SY.2021-2022).pptxZedric Lorzano
 
What is Psychology?
What is Psychology?What is Psychology?
What is Psychology?xibopa9124
 
Module1-intro_000.ppt
Module1-intro_000.pptModule1-intro_000.ppt
Module1-intro_000.pptjohnryanpiol2
 
3.social psychology
3.social psychology3.social psychology
3.social psychologyVivie Chabie
 
1Psychology’s Roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools.docx
1Psychology’s Roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools.docx1Psychology’s Roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools.docx
1Psychology’s Roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools.docxRAJU852744
 
Famous Experiments in Social Psychology
Famous Experiments in Social PsychologyFamous Experiments in Social Psychology
Famous Experiments in Social PsychologyOrlando Pistan, MAEd
 
The City Explores Its BehaviorPsychologyPsychology i.docx
The City Explores Its BehaviorPsychologyPsychology i.docxThe City Explores Its BehaviorPsychologyPsychology i.docx
The City Explores Its BehaviorPsychologyPsychology i.docxmehek4
 

Similar to Chapter 1 introducing social psychology (19)

Presentation 2
Presentation 2Presentation 2
Presentation 2
 
Social psychology.pptx
Social psychology.pptxSocial psychology.pptx
Social psychology.pptx
 
into to SP revised.ppt
into to SP revised.pptinto to SP revised.ppt
into to SP revised.ppt
 
C:\fakepath\2 intro student_fa10
C:\fakepath\2 intro student_fa10C:\fakepath\2 intro student_fa10
C:\fakepath\2 intro student_fa10
 
Personality & Individual Behaviour
Personality & Individual BehaviourPersonality & Individual Behaviour
Personality & Individual Behaviour
 
Introduction, Aim, Objectives and Scope of Cross Cultural Psychology
Introduction, Aim, Objectives and Scope of Cross Cultural PsychologyIntroduction, Aim, Objectives and Scope of Cross Cultural Psychology
Introduction, Aim, Objectives and Scope of Cross Cultural Psychology
 
An Introduction to Social Psychology.pptx
An Introduction to Social Psychology.pptxAn Introduction to Social Psychology.pptx
An Introduction to Social Psychology.pptx
 
VALUE EDUCATION_Unit_IV.pptx
VALUE EDUCATION_Unit_IV.pptxVALUE EDUCATION_Unit_IV.pptx
VALUE EDUCATION_Unit_IV.pptx
 
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, And Traditional Psychodynamic...
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, And Traditional Psychodynamic...Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, And Traditional Psychodynamic...
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, And Traditional Psychodynamic...
 
Social Psychology Final
Social Psychology FinalSocial Psychology Final
Social Psychology Final
 
Module 1 (SY.2021-2022).pptx
Module 1 (SY.2021-2022).pptxModule 1 (SY.2021-2022).pptx
Module 1 (SY.2021-2022).pptx
 
What is Psychology?
What is Psychology?What is Psychology?
What is Psychology?
 
Module1-intro_000.ppt
Module1-intro_000.pptModule1-intro_000.ppt
Module1-intro_000.ppt
 
3.social psychology
3.social psychology3.social psychology
3.social psychology
 
1Psychology’s Roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools.docx
1Psychology’s Roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools.docx1Psychology’s Roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools.docx
1Psychology’s Roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools.docx
 
Industrial Psychology Unit 1
Industrial Psychology Unit 1Industrial Psychology Unit 1
Industrial Psychology Unit 1
 
Famous Experiments in Social Psychology
Famous Experiments in Social PsychologyFamous Experiments in Social Psychology
Famous Experiments in Social Psychology
 
The City Explores Its BehaviorPsychologyPsychology i.docx
The City Explores Its BehaviorPsychologyPsychology i.docxThe City Explores Its BehaviorPsychologyPsychology i.docx
The City Explores Its BehaviorPsychologyPsychology i.docx
 
Psychology Essay Topics
Psychology Essay TopicsPsychology Essay Topics
Psychology Essay Topics
 

Recently uploaded

ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxVanesaIglesias10
 
ISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITY
ISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITYISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITY
ISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITYKayeClaireEstoconing
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemChristalin Nelson
 
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Mark Reed
 
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfErwinPantujan2
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONHumphrey A Beña
 
Food processing presentation for bsc agriculture hons
Food processing presentation for bsc agriculture honsFood processing presentation for bsc agriculture hons
Food processing presentation for bsc agriculture honsManeerUddin
 
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemConcurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemChristalin Nelson
 
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERPHow to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...Postal Advocate Inc.
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Celine George
 
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptxmary850239
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfTechSoup
 
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4MiaBumagat1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
 
ISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITY
ISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITYISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITY
ISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITY
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management System
 
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
 
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
 
Food processing presentation for bsc agriculture hons
Food processing presentation for bsc agriculture honsFood processing presentation for bsc agriculture hons
Food processing presentation for bsc agriculture hons
 
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemConcurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
 
Raw materials used in Herbal Cosmetics.pptx
Raw materials used in Herbal Cosmetics.pptxRaw materials used in Herbal Cosmetics.pptx
Raw materials used in Herbal Cosmetics.pptx
 
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERPHow to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
 
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
 
YOUVE GOT EMAIL_FINALS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE GOT EMAIL_FINALS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxYOUVE GOT EMAIL_FINALS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE GOT EMAIL_FINALS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
 
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
ANG SEKTOR NG agrikultura.pptx QUARTER 4
 

Chapter 1 introducing social psychology

  • 2.  Introducing Social Psychology  What’s the point about Cinder Ella?  Does her self-perception matter?  A sub-discipline of psychology  What is psychology?  What are some other sub-disciplines?  2
  • 3.  The classic definition given by Gordon Allport for social psychology is that it is  “the attempt to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied situations/ presence of other human beings”.
  • 4.  The scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.  Social thinking  Social influence  Social relations 4
  • 5.  “Social thinking” or thinking socially refers to a process we all go through in our mind as we try to make sense of our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and intentions in context, whether we are co-existing, actively interacting, or figuring out what is happening from a distance.
  • 6.  Social influence comprises the ways in which individuals change their behavior to meet the demands of a social environment. It takes many forms and can be seen in conformity, socialization, peer pressure, obedience, leadership, persuasion, sales, and marketing.
  • 7.  Social behavior is defined as interactions among individuals, normally within the same species, that are usually beneficial to one or more of the individuals. It is believed that social behavior evolved because it was beneficial to those who engaged in it, which means that these individuals were more likely to survive and reproduce.
  • 8.  Social psychology studies our thinking, influence, and relationships by asking questions that have intrigued us all.  Here are some examples  How Much of Our Social World Is Just in Our Heads?  Would People Be Cruel If Ordered?  To Help? Or to Help Oneself? A common thread runs through these questions: They all deal with how people view and affect one another. And that is what social psychology is all about. Social psychologists study attitudes and beliefs, conformity and independence, love and hate.
  • 10.  What are social psychology’s big lessons—its overarching themes? In many academic fields, the results of tens of thousands of studies, the conclusions of thousands of investigators, and the insights of hundreds of theorists can be boiled down to a few central ideas.
  • 11. 11
  • 12.  We Construct Our Social Reality  We react differently because we think differently  1951 Princeton-Dartmouth football game demonstration  Objective reality  Beliefs about others  Beliefs about ourselves  Our Social Intuitions Are Often Powerful but Sometimes Perilous  Dual processing (Kahneman “Thinking fast & slow”)  Conscious and deliberate – system II  Unconscious and automatic – system I 12
  • 13.  Social Influences Shape Our Behavior  Locality – give an example  Educational level -give an example  Subscribed media give an example  Culture –  Ethnicity  Personal Attitudes and Dispositions  Internal forces  Inner attitudes about specific situations  Personality dispositions (individual differences)  Different people may react differently while facing the same situation B = f (p*e) 13
  • 14.  Social Behavior Is Biologically Rooted  Evolutionary psychology  Natural selection predisposes our actions and reactions  Prejudice happens early at the brain level  We prefer the familiar things – why?  Hint: evolution  Social neuroscience  We are bio-psycho-social organisms 14
  • 15.  Social Psychology’s Principles Are Applicable in Everyday Life  How to know ourselves better  Implications for human health  Implications for judicial procedures  Influencing behaviors 15
  • 16.  principles or standards of behaviour; one's judgement of what is important in life  Social psychologists’ values penetrate their work in ways both obvious and subtle. What are such ways?  Social psychology is less a collection of findings than a set of strategies for answering questions. In science, as in courts of law, personal opinions are inadmissible. When ideas are put on trial, evidence determines the verdict. But are social psychologists really that objective? Because they are human beings, don’t their values —their personal convictions about what is desirable and how people ought to behave—seep into their work? If so, can social psychology really be scientific?  Its not about Good or bad value but how that values enters the psychology or human mind.
  • 17.  In psychology Value refers to the relative importance that an individual places on an item, idea, person, etc. that is part of their life. These feelings are unique to the individual.  Values are mental processes that are both cognitive and emotional. They combine cognitive representations such as concepts, goals, and beliefs with emotional attitudes that have positive or negative valence.  Obvious value effects the society similarly and Not-so-Obvious Values are different for different people.
  • 18. Obvious Values  Real  Direct  Clear  Easily Understood  Certain  Accurate  Same for everyone  genuine Not so Obvious Values  Not clear  Un certain  Unreal  Non accurate  Indirect  Difficult to understand  Ambiguous  Different for everyone
  • 19.  Obvious Ways Values Enter Psychology  “personal convictions” give an example of one for a social psychologist…and how it can influence her work.  Research topics  Types of people  Do business students differ from Arts students?  Object of social-psychological analysis  How values form  Why they change  How they influence attitudes and actions
  • 20.  Scientists and philosophers now agree: Science is not purely objective. Scientists do not simply read the book of nature. Rather, they interpret nature, using their own mental categories. In our daily lives, too, we view the world through the lens of our preconceptions.  Subjective aspects of Science  Culture –which is better, competition or cooperation?  The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.  Social representations – shared beliefs taken for granted  widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies. Our social representations help us make sense of our world.  Are there any real group differences for race/gender?
  • 21.  Can you see a Dalmatian sniffing the ground at the picture’s center? Without that preconception, most people are blind to the Dalmatian. Once your mind grasps the concept, it informs your interpretation of the picture—so much so that it becomes difficult not to see the dog.
  • 22.  Psychological concepts contain hidden values  Defining the good life 22
  • 23.  Professional advice  Forming concepts  How could high self-esteem be the same as “defensive”?  Labeling – some examples  “terrorist” or a “freedom fighter”  “welfare” or “aid to the needy”  nationalism v. patriotism.  open marriage” or “adultery”  Brainwashing”  “Perversions”  Can you think of others?
  • 24.  Social psychologists’ values penetrate their work in obvious ways, such as their choice of research topics and the types of people who are attracted to various fields of study.  They also do this in subtler ways, such as their hidden assumptions when forming concepts, choosing labels, and giving advice.  This penetration of values into science is not a reason to fault social psychology or any other science. That human thinking is seldom dispassionate is precisely why we need systematic observation and experimentation if we are to check our cherished ideas against reality.