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Chapter 12 Marketing Channels  and Supply Chain Management
Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.
Case Study Caterpillar Dominates world’s markets for heavy construction and mining equipment. Independent dealers are key to success  Dealer network is linked via computers Caterpillar stresses dealer profitability, extraordinary dealer support, personal relationships, dealer performance and full, honest, and frequent communications  12 -
Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.
Definitions Value Delivery Network The network made up of the company, suppliers, distributors, and ultimately customers who “partner” with each other to improve the performance of the entire system. Marketing channel Set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user.
This ad from Home Depot communicates the company’s dedication to diversification in its value delivery network   Marketing in Action 12 -
Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels Channel choices affect other decisions in the marketing mix Pricing, marketing communications A strong distribution system can be a competitive advantage Channel decisions involve long-term commitments to other firms
Strong Distribution as a Competitive Threat FedEx improved its distribution by acquiring Kinko’s in 2004  Marketing in Action 12 -
Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels   How Channel Members Add Value Fewer contacts. Match product assortment demand with supply.  Bridge, time, place, and possession gaps that separate products from users. Figure 12.1 12 -
Key Functions Performed  by Channel Members Information Promotion Contact Matching Negotiation Physical Distribution Financing Risk taking
Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels Number of Channel Levels The number of intermediary levels indicates the length of a marketing channel. Direct Channels Indirect Channels Producers lose more control and face greater channel complexity as additional channel levels are added.
Customer and Business Marketing Channels Figure 12.2 12 -
Channel Members are Connected Via a  Variety of Flows Physical Flow Payment Flow Information Flow Promotion Flow Flow of Ownership
Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.
Channel Behavior and Organization Channel Conflict Occurs when channel members disagree on roles, activities, or rewards. Types of Conflict: Horizontal conflict: occurs among firms at the same channel level Vertical conflict:  occurs among firms at different channel levels
Channel Behavior and Organization Conventional Distribution Channels Consist of one or more independent channel members Lack leadership and power Often result in poor performance Vertical Marketing Systems Consist of members acting as a unified system Use contracts, ownership or power
Conventional vs. Vertical Marketing Channel  Figure 12.3 12 -
Channel Behavior and Organization Corporate VMS Contractual VMS Administered VMS Corporation owns production and distribution Coordination and conflict through regular organizational channels Vertical Marketing Systems
Channel Behavior and Organization Corporate VMS Contractual VMS Administered VMS Individual firms who join through contracts Franchise organizations  Manufacturer-sponsored retailer franchise system Manufacturer-sponsored wholesaler franchise system Service-firm-sponsored retailer franchise system Vertical Marketing Systems
Channel Behavior and Organization Corporate VMS Contractual VMS Administered VMS Leadership through the size and power of dominant channel members Leadership could be manufacturer or retailer Vertical Marketing Systems
Channel Behavior and Organization Horizontal Marketing Systems Companies at the same level work together with channel members Multichannel Distribution Systems Also called hybrid marketing channels Occurs when a firm uses two or more marketing channels  Changing Channel Organization Disintermediation
Multichannel  Distribution System Figure 12.4 12 -
Reebok uses a multi- channel distribution system which includes a direct channel. Multichannel  Distribution System Marketing in Action Click on screenshot for website 12 -
Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.
Channel Design  Decisions Step 1: Analyzing Consumer Needs Cost and feasibility of meeting needs must be considered  Step 2: Setting Channel Objectives Set channel objectives in terms of targeted level of customer service Many factors influence channel objectives Video Snippet Hasbro targets consumers through channels
Channel Design  Decisions Step 3: Identifying Major Alternatives Types of intermediaries Company sales force, manufacturer’s agency, industrial distributors Number of marketing intermediaries Intensive, selective, and exclusive distribution Responsibilities of channel members
Channel Design  Decisions Step 4: Evaluating Major Alternatives Economic criteria Control issues Adaptive criteria
Channel Design  Decisions Designing International Distribution Channels Global marketers usually adapt their channel strategies to structures that exist within foreign countries Key challenges: May be complex or hard to penetrate May be scattered, inefficient, or totally lacking
Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.
Channel Management Decisions Selecting channel members Managing and motivating channel members Evaluating channel members Which characteristics are important?  Years in business Lines carried Growth and profit record Cooperativeness and reputation Type of customer Location Decisions
Discussion Questions  Selecting Channels iRobot’s Roomba is a robotic vacuum which travels the floor and vacuums dirt.  Its price is about $150. What characteristics are import when choosing channel members? What retailers would you choose? Marketing in Action Click on picture for website 12 -
Channel Management Decisions Selecting channel members Managing and motivating channel members Evaluating channel members Partner relationship management (PRM) for long-term partnerships Software available to coordinate members Decisions
Channel Management Decisions Selecting channel members Managing and motivating channel members Evaluating channel members Check channel performance of: Sales Inventory Customer delivery Promotion and training Customer service Decisions
Exclusive distribution Only certain outlets are allowed to carry a firm’s products Exclusive dealing Exclusive territorial agreements Tying agreements Public Policy and Distribution Decisions
Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.
Marketing Logistics  Outbound distribution Inbound distribution Reverse distribution Involves the entire supply chain management system Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management
Supply Chain Management Figure 12.5 12 -
Why Greater Emphasis is Being Placed on Logistics: Offers firms a competitive advantage Can yield cost savings Greater product variety requires improved logistics Improvements in distribution efficiency are possible due to information technology Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management
Goals of the Logistics System No system can both maximize customer service and minimize costs. Firms must first weigh the benefits of higher service against the costs. State goals in terms of a targeted level of customer service at the least cost. Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management
Major Logistics Functions Warehousing Inventory Management Transportation Logistics Information Management Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management
Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management Truck Rail Water Pipeline Air Internet Transportation Carrier Options Intermodal transportation is becoming  more common
Integrated Logistics Management Cross-functional teamwork inside the company is critical Logistics partnerships are also built through shared projects Outsourcing of logistics firms to third-party firms is becoming more common Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management
Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.

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Chap 12 e161

  • 1. Chapter 12 Marketing Channels and Supply Chain Management
  • 2. Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.
  • 3. Case Study Caterpillar Dominates world’s markets for heavy construction and mining equipment. Independent dealers are key to success Dealer network is linked via computers Caterpillar stresses dealer profitability, extraordinary dealer support, personal relationships, dealer performance and full, honest, and frequent communications 12 -
  • 4. Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.
  • 5. Definitions Value Delivery Network The network made up of the company, suppliers, distributors, and ultimately customers who “partner” with each other to improve the performance of the entire system. Marketing channel Set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user.
  • 6. This ad from Home Depot communicates the company’s dedication to diversification in its value delivery network Marketing in Action 12 -
  • 7. Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels Channel choices affect other decisions in the marketing mix Pricing, marketing communications A strong distribution system can be a competitive advantage Channel decisions involve long-term commitments to other firms
  • 8. Strong Distribution as a Competitive Threat FedEx improved its distribution by acquiring Kinko’s in 2004 Marketing in Action 12 -
  • 9. Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels How Channel Members Add Value Fewer contacts. Match product assortment demand with supply. Bridge, time, place, and possession gaps that separate products from users. Figure 12.1 12 -
  • 10. Key Functions Performed by Channel Members Information Promotion Contact Matching Negotiation Physical Distribution Financing Risk taking
  • 11. Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels Number of Channel Levels The number of intermediary levels indicates the length of a marketing channel. Direct Channels Indirect Channels Producers lose more control and face greater channel complexity as additional channel levels are added.
  • 12. Customer and Business Marketing Channels Figure 12.2 12 -
  • 13. Channel Members are Connected Via a Variety of Flows Physical Flow Payment Flow Information Flow Promotion Flow Flow of Ownership
  • 14. Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.
  • 15. Channel Behavior and Organization Channel Conflict Occurs when channel members disagree on roles, activities, or rewards. Types of Conflict: Horizontal conflict: occurs among firms at the same channel level Vertical conflict: occurs among firms at different channel levels
  • 16. Channel Behavior and Organization Conventional Distribution Channels Consist of one or more independent channel members Lack leadership and power Often result in poor performance Vertical Marketing Systems Consist of members acting as a unified system Use contracts, ownership or power
  • 17. Conventional vs. Vertical Marketing Channel Figure 12.3 12 -
  • 18. Channel Behavior and Organization Corporate VMS Contractual VMS Administered VMS Corporation owns production and distribution Coordination and conflict through regular organizational channels Vertical Marketing Systems
  • 19. Channel Behavior and Organization Corporate VMS Contractual VMS Administered VMS Individual firms who join through contracts Franchise organizations Manufacturer-sponsored retailer franchise system Manufacturer-sponsored wholesaler franchise system Service-firm-sponsored retailer franchise system Vertical Marketing Systems
  • 20. Channel Behavior and Organization Corporate VMS Contractual VMS Administered VMS Leadership through the size and power of dominant channel members Leadership could be manufacturer or retailer Vertical Marketing Systems
  • 21. Channel Behavior and Organization Horizontal Marketing Systems Companies at the same level work together with channel members Multichannel Distribution Systems Also called hybrid marketing channels Occurs when a firm uses two or more marketing channels Changing Channel Organization Disintermediation
  • 22. Multichannel Distribution System Figure 12.4 12 -
  • 23. Reebok uses a multi- channel distribution system which includes a direct channel. Multichannel Distribution System Marketing in Action Click on screenshot for website 12 -
  • 24. Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.
  • 25. Channel Design Decisions Step 1: Analyzing Consumer Needs Cost and feasibility of meeting needs must be considered Step 2: Setting Channel Objectives Set channel objectives in terms of targeted level of customer service Many factors influence channel objectives Video Snippet Hasbro targets consumers through channels
  • 26. Channel Design Decisions Step 3: Identifying Major Alternatives Types of intermediaries Company sales force, manufacturer’s agency, industrial distributors Number of marketing intermediaries Intensive, selective, and exclusive distribution Responsibilities of channel members
  • 27. Channel Design Decisions Step 4: Evaluating Major Alternatives Economic criteria Control issues Adaptive criteria
  • 28. Channel Design Decisions Designing International Distribution Channels Global marketers usually adapt their channel strategies to structures that exist within foreign countries Key challenges: May be complex or hard to penetrate May be scattered, inefficient, or totally lacking
  • 29. Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.
  • 30. Channel Management Decisions Selecting channel members Managing and motivating channel members Evaluating channel members Which characteristics are important? Years in business Lines carried Growth and profit record Cooperativeness and reputation Type of customer Location Decisions
  • 31. Discussion Questions Selecting Channels iRobot’s Roomba is a robotic vacuum which travels the floor and vacuums dirt. Its price is about $150. What characteristics are import when choosing channel members? What retailers would you choose? Marketing in Action Click on picture for website 12 -
  • 32. Channel Management Decisions Selecting channel members Managing and motivating channel members Evaluating channel members Partner relationship management (PRM) for long-term partnerships Software available to coordinate members Decisions
  • 33. Channel Management Decisions Selecting channel members Managing and motivating channel members Evaluating channel members Check channel performance of: Sales Inventory Customer delivery Promotion and training Customer service Decisions
  • 34. Exclusive distribution Only certain outlets are allowed to carry a firm’s products Exclusive dealing Exclusive territorial agreements Tying agreements Public Policy and Distribution Decisions
  • 35. Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.
  • 36. Marketing Logistics Outbound distribution Inbound distribution Reverse distribution Involves the entire supply chain management system Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management
  • 37. Supply Chain Management Figure 12.5 12 -
  • 38. Why Greater Emphasis is Being Placed on Logistics: Offers firms a competitive advantage Can yield cost savings Greater product variety requires improved logistics Improvements in distribution efficiency are possible due to information technology Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management
  • 39. Goals of the Logistics System No system can both maximize customer service and minimize costs. Firms must first weigh the benefits of higher service against the costs. State goals in terms of a targeted level of customer service at the least cost. Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management
  • 40. Major Logistics Functions Warehousing Inventory Management Transportation Logistics Information Management Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management
  • 41. Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management Truck Rail Water Pipeline Air Internet Transportation Carrier Options Intermodal transportation is becoming more common
  • 42. Integrated Logistics Management Cross-functional teamwork inside the company is critical Logistics partnerships are also built through shared projects Outsourcing of logistics firms to third-party firms is becoming more common Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management
  • 43. Learning Goals Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.